Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon
The Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Lyon. It is housed near place des Terreaux in a former Benedictine convent of the 17th and 18th centuries and it was restored between 1988 and 1998, and despite these important restoration works it remained open to visitors. Its collections range from ancient Egypt antiquities to the Modern art period and it hosts important exhibitions of art, recently there have been exhibitions of works by Georges Braque and Henri Laurens, one on the work of Théodore Géricault. It is one of the largest art museums in France, until 1792, the buildings belonged to the royal abbaye des Dames de Saint-Pierre, built in the 17th century. The abbess always came from the high French nobility and here received the personalities of the kingdom, the institution had a particularly aristocratic slant, as is shown by its renovation by Louis XIV of France in the 17th and 18th centuries. The rest of its current scheme was designed by Nicolas Bidaut, the expulsion of the nuns and the destruction of the église Saint-Saturnin date to the French Revolution, though the abbeys other church still exists and now houses 19th and 20th century sculptures.
After the Revolution the remaining buildings housed the Palais du Commerce et des Arts, at first made up of works confiscated from the clergy and nobility, for example, it gained archaeology and natural history collections and those of the Académie des Sciences et des Lettres. The imperial drawing school was created in 1805 in the Palais du Commerce et des Arts to provide Lyons silk factories with designers and it gave birth to the famous Lyon School. In 1860, the Chambre de Commerce left the Palais Saint-Pierre, from 1875, the museums collections underwent a major expansion and had to be expanded - the staircase by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes dates to this era. The start of the 20th century was marked by a considerable opening-up of the collections, after several restoration projects, it was in the mid-1990s that the building acquired its present scheme. The paintings department has European paintings of 14th- to mid-20th-century paintings and they are arranged chronologically and by major schools in 35 rooms.
The collection features, Ancient French painting, at the heart of the abbey, the former cloister is now a municipal garden, right in the centre of the town, on the peninsula. The highlights of the collection are its display of sarcophaguses and the gates of Ptolemy III, the rest of the objects throw light on everyday life in ancient Egypt. Room 2, The divine and its rites Along this rooms length a temples decoration is recreated, culminating with the gates of Ptolemy III, the other bas-reliefs in this room come from Koptos - eight are dated to the Middle Kingdom and come from a temple to Min. They were discovered by Adolphe Reinach in 1909 in the foundations of a late building,11 other fragments come from the end of the Ptolemaic era, and more precisely the reign of Cleopatra VII. Room 3, The cult of the divine Entered through the gate of Ptolemy IV, on the walls are shown 3 fragments of bas-reliefs from the 28th Dynasty, found in Koptos. One whole case is devoted to representations of Osiris and another to those of the pharaoh, here can be seen a head of a pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty, attributed to Nectanebo II, a Middle Kingdom bust and a scarab with the name of Amenhotep II.
Room 5, Pharaoh and his servants In one case are 18 wooden models of the 23rd Dynasty from Assiout from tombs, representing scenes from everyday life, in the opposite case are two with displays on writing and on the pharaohs servants respectively
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Rue du Sergent Blandan
The Rue du Sergent Blandan is one of the oldest streets of Lyon. It connects Saint Vincent and the slopes of the Croix-Rousse quarters, the street belongs to the zone classified World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It is named in honour of Sergent Blandan, who participated in the conquest of Algeria, the street is narrow and winding and ends with a short climb and a paved ground. For example, the doorstep at No.8 shows a fight between a lion and a bull. The No.12 and 22 have respectively ancient inscriptions that say en toy te fie and non domo dominus, sed domino domus, there was probably a Roman bridge, and a street name sign indicates that it is the ancient route of the Rhine. The current form of the dates back at least to the end of the seventeenth century. Until 1887, it was called rue Saint-Marcel, while the part near the Saône was called rue Musique des Anges, the name Saint-Marcel was chosen after a former anchorite and a former gate of the city. At the time, the street provided access to two major climbs to leave Lyon to the north, the de la Grande Côte.
There were two monasteries located in the street, the Benedictines of the Desert since 1296, and the Grands Augustins between 1319 and 1509, but these monasteries have moved. The street was named with its current name after the deliberation of the municipal council on 26 April 1887. In 1804, the first Jacquard loom was installed in the street, circa 1981, Radio Canut was housed at No.24. On 8 February 2005, the city of Lyon installed a plaque as tribute to Jewish children of the school who were deported and killed during the Second World War. Among the famous inhabitants of the street, there are the painters Jacques Collet and Jean Montet, the father of artist Paul Chenavard was dyer in the rue Saint-Marcel
Tunnel de la Croix-Rousse
It follows the line of the Route nationale 6 and is a link between the Rhône to the Saône rivers. It crosses the hill of la Croix-Rousse, the roadway was composed of 2 x 2 routes with no real separation of roadways until the construction of a central wall in 1999. Its use is only for vehicles with less than 3.5 tonnes. The tunnel length is 1,782 meters, the speed is limited to 50 km/h and an automatic radar used to be located at its exit in the direction Lyon-Vaise. A separate route for busses and cyclists was opened in 2013 and this route is a safety access to the car tunnel and is illuminated with colored lights, and video displays and music are played as entertainment for the pedestrians and cyclists. List of tunnels by location La Croix-Rousse
The Rue Burdeau is a street located in the 1st arrondissement of Lyon, at the bottom of the slopes of La Croix-Rousse, just above the Église Saint-Polycarpe, between the Saône and the Rhône. It leads at one side to the Montée Saint-Sébastien and at the other to the Jardin des Plantes and crosses the montée de la Grande Côte which renovation is completed, the street belongs to the zone classified as World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The site was used as gardens or vineyards from the 13th century belonging to the family Chivrier, in 1566, a wealthy Italian, Laurent Capponi bought the land and established a house bought in 1616 by the Oratorians. The street was drawn in the eighteenth century, pierced in 1810, extended in 1926. The street ended at the level of the de la Grande Côte. In 1858, the street was extended to the Jardin des Plantes, created at the time. The Cour du Soleil, named after the Grolier, the Lords of the Sun and its current name was assigned by the municipal council of 8 January 1895 in honor of politician and professor of philosophy Auguste Burdeau who was born in the street in 1851.
In 1848, the Club de lÉmancipation was installed at No.12, in 2006, the building at No.17 was demolished for safety reasons. There used to be a squat in this building with a lot of interesting activity. It was a plot of 285m ² acquired by the city of Lyon in April 2004 for 315,000 €, on which were built garages and it became an abandoned green space. The corresponding surface has been transformed into a urban park. The archaeological survey conducted in November 2007 had not given results leading to further excavations, the place is supposed to be the location of the federal Sanctuary of the Three Gauls, a Roman temple dedicated to Augustus. The street hosts several art galleries whose number is increasing, a theater, due to this cultural wealth, the rue Burdeau is often regarded as one of artistic and cultural centers of Lyon in which there are many art exhibitions and private viewings. There is an artistic association gathering several workshops, mainly located in the street, the street is bordered by seven-floor canuts buildings of the early 1900s. 3, there are small heads on the balconies, at 11 a courtyard with a house of golden stone, and at 40 a courtyard with a statue of the snake.
A statue of Burdeau, created by architect Gaston Trelat, is erected at the bottom of the Jardin des Plantes, just next to the street, the monument was inaugurated on 28 June 1903. There are several traboules in the street, No,4,6,10, These curved traboules are closed. 4, a facade of the late 19th century and a bourgeois home can be seen
The Garonne is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of 602 kilometres. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean at Bordeaux, the name derives from Garumna, a Latinized version of the old Aquitanian name meaning stony river. The Uelh deth Garona at 1,862 metres above sea level has been considered as the source of the Garonne. From this point a brook runs for 2.5 kilometres until the bed of the main upper Garonne valley, the river runs for another 38 kilometres until the French border at Pont de Rei,40.5 kilometres in total. At the confluence, the Ruda-Garona carries 2.6 cubic metres per second of water, the Ratera-Saboredo cirque has been pointed by many researchers as the origin of the Garonne. The Garonne follows the Aran Valley northwards into France, flowing via Toulouse and Agen towards Bordeaux, the Gironde flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Along its course, the Garonne is joined by three major rivers, the Ariège, the Tarn, and the Lot. Just after Bordeaux, the Garonne meets the Dordogne at the Bec dAmbès, forming the Gironde estuary, other tributaries include the Save and the Gers.
The Garonne is one of the few rivers in the world exhibit a tidal bore. In 2010 and 2012, some detailed studies were conducted in the Garonnes Arcins channel between Arcins Island and the right bank close to Lastrene township. A striking feature of the data sets was the large and rapid fluctuations in turbulent velocities and turbulent stresses during the tidal bore. From the ocean, ships pass through the Gironde estuary until the mouth of the Garonne, the Garonne remains navigable for larger vessels up to the Pont de Pierre in Bordeaux. River vessels can sail upstream to Castets-en-Dorthe, where the Garonne Lateral Canal joins the river, prior to the building of the Garonne Lateral Canal, constructed between 1838 and 1856, river shipping used the Garonne itself as far as Toulouse. However the navigation of the river was very uncertain. Instead the lateral canal takes the ships through 53 locks to the town of Toulouse, where the canal meets the Canal du Midi, the next stage of the Canal des Deux Mers.
The Garonne Lateral Canal was subject to one of the largest infrastructure works in Europe during the 19th century, French minister Freycinet ordered that all major canals used for long distance transport be suitable for vessels of those standard dimensions. The extension of all of the former 30-metre locks to the new length was carried out throughout the lateral canal. The works were stopped, leading to the heritage status of the United Nations that has made the Canal du Midi famous
Exposition Universelle (1889)
The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a worlds fair held in Paris, from 6 May to 31 October 1889. It was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, an event considered symbolic of the beginning of the French Revolution. The 1889 Exposition covered an area of 0.96 km2, including the Champ de Mars, the Trocadéro, the quai dOrsay, a part of the Seine. Transport around the Exposition was partly provided by a 3 kilometre 600 millimetre gauge railway by Decauville and it was claimed that the railway carried 6,342,446 visitors in just six months of operation. Some of the used on this line saw service on the Chemins de Fer du Calvados. The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower, which served as the arch to the Fair. The 1889 fair was held on the Champ de Mars in Paris, which had been the site of the earlier Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867, since the lifts had not been completed when the Exposition opened, the first visitors had to walk up to the second floor platform.
Workers had worked through the night the day before the exhibition opened to complete the construction needed to safely allow patrons to set foot upon the structure. No one other than construction personnel were allowed higher than the second floor platform, an equally significant building constructed for the fair was the Galerie des machines, designed by architect Ferdinand Dutert and engineer Victor Contamin. It was reused at the exposition of 1900 and destroyed in 1910, at 111 meters, the Galerie spanned the longest interior space in the world at the time, using a system of hinged arches made of steel or iron. Although often described as being constructed of steel, it was made of iron. There is a description, with illustrations, of the Expositions two famous buildings in the British journal Engineering. A follow-up report appears a late issue with this summation, the exhibition will be famous for four distinctive features, the 28 June issue of Engineering mentions a remarkable Great Model of the Earth created by Theodore Villard and Charles Cotard.
There were unseasonal thunderstorms in Paris during that summer of 1889, causing distress to the canopies and decoration of the exposition. The Exhibition included a building by the Paris architect Pierre-Henri Picq and this was an elaborate iron and glass structure decorated with ceramic tiles in a Byzantine-Egyptian-Romanesque style. After the Exposition the building was shipped to Fort de France and reassembled there, known as the Schoelcher Library, initially it contained the 10,000 books that Victor Schoelcher had donated to the island. Today it houses over 250,000 books and an ethnographic museum, a Negro village where 400 people were displayed constituted the major attraction. At the Exposition, the French composer Claude Debussy first heard Javanese gamelan music and this influenced some of his compositions