Province of Valencia
Valencia or València is a province of Spain, in the central part of the Valencian Community. Of the province's 2,547,986 people, one-third live in the capital, the capital of the autonomous community and the 3rd biggest city in Spain, with a metropolitan area of 2,522,383 it's one of the most populated cities of Southern Europe. There are 265 municipalities in the province. Although the Spanish Constitution of 1812 loosely created the province of València, a stable administrative entity does not arise until the territorial division of Spain in 1833, remaining today without major changes; the Provincial Council of Valencia dates from that period. After the Valencian Statute of Autonomy of 1982, the province became part of the Valencian Community. Together with Spanish, Valencian is the co-official language, it is bordered by the provinces of Alicante, Cuenca, Castellón, the Mediterranean Sea. The northwestern side of the province is in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area. Part of its territory, the Rincón de Ademuz, is an exclave sandwiched between the provinces of Cuenca and Teruel.
The province is subdivided into the comarques of Camp de Túria, Camp de Morvedre, Canal de Navarrés, Hoya de Buñol, Horta de València, Horta Nord, Horta Oest, Horta Sud, Requena-Utiel, Rincón de Ademuz, Ribera Alta, Ribera Baixa, Los Serranos, Vall d'Albaida and Valle de Cofrentes. The province of Valencia, like the rest of the region, is mountainous in the interior in the north and west, with the Sistema Central running from north to south and the foothills of Andalusia from west to east; this mountainous interior features deep and steep valleys formed by the major rivers running through it. The plain of Valencia, is the second largest coastal plain of the country, located in the low region between the Júcar and Turia river valleys, it is twenty wide. In 1843 it was cited as "one of the most fertile and best cultivated spots in Europe"; the other main rivers include the Serpis. The Altiplano de Requena-Utiel range, in the interior of the Valencia region, has an average height of about 750 m.
The principal mountains in the province are Cerro Calderón, Sierra del Caroche, Sierra del Benicadell, Serra Calderona, Sierra Martés, Sierra de Utiel, Sierra de Enguera, the Sierra de Mondúver. The València plains are known for their olive, ilex, algaroba and palm trees, with the appearance of an "immense garden"; such is the fertility of the soil, that two and three crops in the year are obtained, the greater part of the land returns eight per cent. The rice crops are the most valuable, are chiefly produced in the tract, irrigated by the Albufera, a large lake in the neighbourhood of València. Rice being the principal food of the lower classes, the crop is consumed in the province, with the exception of a small quantity which finds its way into Castile and Andalusia; the other chief product is the white mulberry, once the source of great wealth: it was worked in the silk-factories of València. In 1828, the produce of silk from the vega of València amounted to one million of pounds yearly, the greater part of, exported in its raw state, but the produce has increased since, owing to demands from the manufacturers of Lyon and other towns in the south of France.
The province of València is a notable producer of satins, silk ribbons, velvets. The export of fruit from Valencia is considerable of raisins; the raisins are of two kinds, the muscatel, an inferior and smaller raisin, called pasa de legia. The export of figs and wine from the province and ports of València is considerable, with a wine known as Beni Carlo, which as of 1843 was shipped to Cette. Mercury, sulphur, argentiferous lead, coal, etc. are among the mineral products, but they are procured only in small quantities. Today, tourism is a major source of income, with the city of Valencia and the resort towns along the coast being the primary earners during the summer months; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, by C. Knight
The Alhorines Valley is a valley and a major grain producing area of the provinces of Albacete and Valencia in Spain. It was long disputed between the towns of Caudete and Villena. A large solar thermal power plant has been built in the valley; the lesser kestrel was re-introduced in 1997. Conservation measures have been taken to minimize impact of the power plant on the birds; the Alhorines is one of the best cereal-growing areas in the province of Alicante. The level of insolation in the area is among the highest in the Valencia region, at 1,900 kWh/m2 annually, it is a dry agricultural valley, but is of interest due to its unique layout. This includes small plots alternating between grain crops and orchards, separated by fences and natural banks, with some sandy area colonized by pines; this makes it an appropriate habitat for numerous species of wildlife small predators. The Bodegas Los Pinos winery in Fontanars dels Alforins, 635 metres above sea level, was founded at the end of the 19th century and in 1990 became the first organic winery in the Valencian Community and the second in Spain.
The valley was inhabited in Roman times, was populated by the Arabs of Villena. At the time of the Christian conquest by the troops of James I of Aragon its ownership was disputed between the towns of Caudete and Villena; the valley was given to Caudete and the kingdom of Aragon in 1240, but under the 1244 Treaty of Almizra between James I and the future Alfonso X of Castile the castle and town of Villena were transferred to Castile. In 1304 Villena became the property of the Marquis of Villena. In 1355 the Viceroy of Valencia try to buy the western part of the valley, leaving the Ontinyent portion the property of Caudete, but Villena never allowed the sale of its part. During the War of the Spanish Succession Caudate supported the Archduke Charles of Austria while Villena supported Philip of Bourbon. After the Bourbon victory, Villena claimed the valley of Alhorines. Philip V of Spain made Caudete part of Villena. In 1736 Caudete became part of Murcia; the dispute over the valley continued to simmer.
In 1836 Villena was attached to the province of Caudete to Albacete. North-East part Alhorines remained under the control of Ontinyent until 5 August 1927, when it was separated to form a new municipality; this was called Fontanars dels Alforins since 1992. A solar thermal power plant project was formally launched in November 2006 in the valley, it was due to come into operation in September 2013 beside the Villena prison at the southern end of the valley in the Villena municipality. The plant is located between the A-31, N-344 and CV-656 roads. Heat is focused by parabolic mirrors onto a central tower, used to drive steam turbines; the plant's installed capacity is 50 MW with an annual output of 110,000 MWh. This provides power to 40,000–50,000 people, replaces emission into the atmosphere of about 40,000 tons of CO2 each year; the project involved an investment of 240 million euros, was expected to generate 750 new jobs, 300 directly and 450 indirectly. The environmental impact assessment for the power plant was approved before all the official objections had been addressed.
The question of water use does not seem to have been raised. The plant would consume about 375,000 cubic metres annually. There were conflicts between the company building the power plant and the Salvatierra collective of Villena, but they seemed to have ended with the draft environmental plan developed by Enestar; this included rehabilitating the old Ermita-Casa Conejo and providing an educational facility to provide information on renewable energy and the environment. Four nature routes would be established. Construction began in May 2012. In 1997 the Department of Environment began a project to reintroduce the lesser kestrel, a small raptor, made locally extinct due to human action. In February 2014 the Department of the Environment stated it was adding 6.69 hectares to an existing 12.75 hectares wildlife reserve in the valley. Both were established in response to construction of the solar-thermal power plant; the aim was to ensure the survival of the unusual grassland ecosystem of Valencia, home to the lesser kestrel, Montagu's harrier and little bustard.
Changes to land use are prohibited within the reservation, as is the use of pesticides or other harmful chemicals. Citations Sources
Vall d'Albaida is a comarca in the province of Valencia, Valencian Community, Spain. Reconquered by the Aragonese king James I of Aragon in the first half of the 13th Century it was populated by Muslims until the Expulsion of the Moriscos from the Kingdom of Valencia in 1609; the name of the comarca is derived from the Hispano-Arabic word albáyḍa, which in turn is derived from the classical Arabic البيضاء, in reference to the flowering plant Anthyllis cystoides. Lying 70 km south of the city of Valencia and covering an area of some 722 square kilometers, Vall d'Albaida borders on the north with the comarca of Costera, to the east with Safor, to the south with Comtat and Alcoià, to the west with Alto Vinalopó, the latter three of which belong to the province of Alicante; the River Albaida runs through the comarca from south to north. The area enjoys a Mediterranean climate, characterised by hot summers and cold winters, with an average of two snowfalls per year. Vall d'Albaida has a population of around 90,000 inhabitants.
The Vall d'Albaida comarca is composed of 34 municipalities. The Route of the Monasteries of Valencia is a monumental and cultural route that connects five monasteries located in the south of the Province of Valencia. Of the four different itineraries available, three cross various comarques within Vall d'Albaida, following signposted riding trails, mountain trails, old roads and railroad tracks, include the Monastery of the Corpus Christi and Xio Castle, both in the municipality of Luchente. By foot, the route takes 3-4 days; the Route was inaugurated in 2008. Comarques of the Valencian Community Commonwealth of Municipalities of the Vall d'Albaida Comparsa Saudites d'Ontinyent La Vall d’Albaida Mancomunitat de Municipis de la Vall d'Albaida http://palomatorrijos.blogspot.com/2009/12/los-marqueses-de-albaida-pleito-por-el.html http://palomatorrijos.blogspot.com/2009/12/los-marqueses-de-albaida-valencia.html Amelias GOMEZ MARTINEZ: "Propiedad señorial en el marquesado de Albaida perspectivas socieconómicas del señorío en la segunda mitad del s.
XVIII". Published 1988 by Excmo. Ayuntamiento de Albaida in. 1988. 288 pages. Library of Congress HD779. A375 G66. ISBN 84-505-8276-8
Benigànim is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain
Atzeneta d'Albaida is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida, in the province of Valencia, in the Valencian Community, Spain. Church of San Juan Bautista Hermitage of Cristo del Calvario Nevera de Dalt Nevera de Baix
Albaida, Province of Valencia
Albaida is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain. Palace of Milà i Aragó Segrelles Museum Route of the Borgias Route of the Valencian classics Daniel Olcina, footballer
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia