Paris metropolitan area
The Paris metropolitan area is a statistical area that describes the reach of commuter movement to and from Paris and its surrounding suburbs. Created and used from 1996 by France's national INSEE statistical bureau to match international demographic standards, the aire urbaine is a statistical unit that describes the suburban development around centres of urban growth: it is composed of a couronne périurbaine ) surrounding a more densely built and densely populated pôle urbain, a single or group of densely-built unité urbaine communes. From 2011, the INSEE classified its largest aires urbaines into aires métropolitaines and grandes aires urbaines. From Paris became France's largest metropolitan area. In France, the'Paris metropolitan area' term's use is limited to demographic and statistical studies, and, to date, it is unused in economical statistics, but in recent years the media has begun using it to describe the electoral tendencies of France's largest cities. In 2010 the government passed a law that invited France's largest city'metropoles' to work together as an intercommunitary entities, but the lack of response by the following year moved the government to make the cooperation for many of France's largest cities obligatory, Paris became a case study all on its own.
This latter initiative created the "Métropole du Grand Paris", a Paris-centred intercommunal cooperation effort enacted from January 1, 2016. The territory it covers is much smaller than the INSEE'Paris metropolitan area' statistical area: it includes Paris, its neighbouring three départements, a few bordering communes in the departments beyond; as of 2010, the INSEE statistical Paris metropolitan area, with its 17,174 km², extends beyond Paris' administrative Île-de-France region, a region commonly referred to as the région parisienne. The area had a population of 12,405,426 as of the January 2013 census, making it the largest urban region in the European Union. Nearly 19% of France's population resides in the region; the Paris metropolitan area expands at each population census due to the rapid population growth in the Paris area. New communes surrounding. At the 1968 census, the earliest date for which population figures were retrospectively computed for French aire urbaines, the Paris metropolitan area had 8,368,459 inhabitants in an area that only encompassed central Île-de-France.
By the 1999 census the Paris metropolitan area was larger than Île-de-France and had 11,174,743 inhabitants in 14,518 km². By the 2012 census it had reached 12,341,418 inhabitants in 17,174 km², an area larger than Île-de-France; the table below shows the population growth of the Paris metropolitan area, i.e. the urban area and the commuter belt surrounding it.: Grand Paris Metropolitan Areas of France Île-de-France Document about the functioning of Paris Metropolitan Area Document about the extension of Paris Metropolitan Area
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Pied-Noir, plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term referring to people of European ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962. More broadly, it can refer to other foreign-origin persons, both Christian and Jewish, from all parts of the Mediterranean whose families had migrated under French occupation in the 19th and 20th centuries to French Algeria, the French protectorate in Morocco, or the French protectorate of Tunisia, where many carried on living for several generations but fled or were expelled at the end of French rule in North Africa between 1956 and 1962; the term sometimes includes the pre-existing North African Jews, living there prior to French colonization, whether Ladino-speaking Sephardi Jews who had arrived after the expulsion from Sepharad several centuries earlier in 1492 or earlier Berber-speaking and/or Arabic-speaking Maghrebi Jews, residing there for over a thousand years, all of which were nonetheless awarded French citizenship by the 1870 Crémieux Decree whilst the rest of the native Muslim population was maintained in a second class status with the "Code de l'Indigénat".
More the term Pied-Noir is used for those of European ancestry who "returned" to mainland France as soon as Algeria gained independence, or in the months following. From the French invasion on 18 June 1830 until its independence, Algeria was administratively part of France, its European population was called Algerians or colons, whereas the Muslim people of Algeria were called Arabs, Muslims or Indigenous; the term "pied-noir" began to be used shortly before the end of the Algerian War in 1962. As of the last census in French-ruled Algeria, taken on 1 June 1960, there were 1,050,000 non-Muslim civilians in Algeria, 10 percent of the total population. During the Algerian War the Pieds-Noirs overwhelmingly supported colonial French rule in Algeria and were opposed to Algerian nationalist groups such as the Front de libération nationale and Mouvement national algérien; the roots of the conflict reside in political and economic inequalities perceived as an "alienation" from the French rule as well as a demand for a leading position for the Berber and Islamic cultures and rules existing before the French conquest.
The conflict contributed to the fall of the French Fourth Republic and the mass exodus of Algerian Europeans and Jews to France. After Algeria became independent in 1962, about 800,000 Pieds-Noirs of French nationality were evacuated to mainland France while about 200,000 chose to remain in Algeria. Of the latter, there were still about 50,000 by the end of the 1960s; those who moved to France suffered ostracism from the Left for their perceived exploitation of native Muslims and some blamed them for the war, thus the political turmoil surrounding the collapse of the French Fourth Republic. In popular culture, the community is represented as feeling removed from French culture while longing for Algeria. Thus, the recent history of the Pieds-Noirs has been imprinted with a theme of double alienation from both their native homeland and their adopted land. Though the term rapatriés d'Algérie implies that they once lived in France, most Pieds-Noirs were born in Algeria. Many families had lived there for generations, the Algerian Jews, who were considered Pieds-Noirs, were as indigenous to Algeria as its Muslim population.
There are competing theories about the origin of the term "pied-noir". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it refers to "a person of European origin living in Algeria during the period of French rule a French person expatriated after Algeria was granted independence in 1962." The Le Robert dictionary states that in 1901 the word indicated a sailor working barefoot in the coal room of a ship, who would find his feet dirtied by the soot and dust. Since, in the Mediterranean, this was an Algerian native, the term was used pejoratively for Algerians until 1955 when it first began referring to "French born in Algeria" according to some sources; the Oxford English Dictionary claims this usage originated from mainland French as a negative nickname. There is a theory that the term comes from the black boots of French soldiers compared to the barefoot Algerians. Other theories focus on new settlers dirtying their clothing by working in swampy areas, wearing black boots when on horseback, or trampling grapes to make wine.
European settlement of Algeria began during the 1830s, after France had commenced the process of conquest with the military seizure of the city of Algiers in 1830. The invasion was instigated when the Dey of Algiers struck the French consul with a fly-swatter in 1827, although economic reasons are cited. In 1830 the government of King Charles X blockaded Algeria and an armada sailed to Algiers, followed by a land expedition. A troop of 34,000 soldiers landed on 18 June 1830, 27 kilometres west of Algiers. Following a three-week campaign, the Hussein Dey capitulated on 5 July 1830, was exiled. In the 1830s the French controlled only the northern part of the country. Entering the Oran region, they faced resistance from Emir Abd al-Kader, a leader of a Sufi Brotherhood. In 1839 Abd al-Kader began a seven-year war by declaring jihad against the French; the French signed two peace treaties with al-Kader, but they were broken because of a miscommunication between the military and the Parisian government.
In response to the breaking of the second treaty, Abd al-Kader drove the French to the coast. In reply, a force of nearl
Val-de-Marne is a French department, named after the Marne River, located in the Île-de-France region. The department is situated to the southeast of the city of Paris. Val-de-Marne is, together with Seine-Saint-Denis and Hauts-de-Seine, one of three small departments in Île-de-France that form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne. Since January 1, 2016 Val de Marne is included in Métropole du Grand Paris Val-de-Marne is made up of 3 departmental arrondissements and 47 communes: Val-de-Marne was created in January 1968, through the implementation of a law passed in July 1964. Positioned to the south-east of the Paris ring road, it was formed from the southern-eastern part of the Seine department, together with a small portion taken from the broken-up department of Seine-et-Oise. Communes of the Val-de-Marne department Prefecture General Council Citizen Blog
French Communist Party
The French Communist Party is a communist party in France. Although its electoral support has declined in recent decades, the PCF retains a strong influence in French politics at the local level. In 2012, the PCF claimed 138,000 members including 70,000; this would make it the third largest party in France in terms of membership after the Republicans and the Socialist Party. Founded in 1920 by the majority faction of the socialist French Section of the Workers' International, it participated in three governments: in the provisional government of the Liberation, it was the largest party on the left in France in a number of national elections, from 1945 to 1960, before falling behind the Socialist Party in the 1970s. The PCF has lost further ground to the Socialists since that time. Since 2009 the PCF has been a leading member of the Left Front, alongside Jean-Luc Mélenchon's Left Party. During the 2017 presidential election, the PCF supported Mélenchon's candidature; the PCF is a member of the Party of the European Left, its MEPs sit in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group.
The French Communist Party originated in 1920, when a majority of members resigned from the socialist French Section of the Workers' International party to set up the French Section of the Communist International, with Ludovic-Oscar Frossard as its first secretary-general. The new SFIC defined itself as democratic centralist; the 1920s saw a number of splits within the party over relations with other left-wing parties and over adherence to Comintern's dictates. The party entered the French parliament, but promoted strike action and opposed colonialism. Pierre Sémard, leader from 1924 to 1928, sought alliances with other parties. With the rise of Fascism after 1934 the PCF supported the Popular Front, which came to power under Léon Blum in 1936; the party supported the Spanish Republicans, opposed the 1938 Munich agreement with Hitler. The party was banned by the government of Édouard Daladier as a result of the German–Soviet Non-aggression Pact, due to its membership in the Comintern, which opposed the War.
The leadership, threatened with execution, fled abroad. After the German invasion of 1940 the party began to organise opposition to the occupation. Shortly before Germany invaded the Soviet Union the next year, the PCF formed, in May 1941, the National Front movement within the broader Resistance, together with the armed Francs-Tireurs et Partisans group. At the same time the PCF began to work with de Gaulle's "Free France" government in exile, took part in the National Council of the Resistance. By the time the German occupation ended in 1944, the party had become a powerful force in many parts of France, it was among the leading parties in elections in 1945 and 1946, entered into the governing Tripartite alliance, which pursued social reforms and statism. However, amid concerns within France and abroad over the extent of communist influence, the PCF was excluded from government in May 1947. Under pressure from Moscow, the PCF thereafter distanced itself from other parties and focused on agitation within its trade union base.
For the rest of the Fourth Republic period the PCF, led by Thorez and Jacques Duclos, remained politically isolated, still taking a Stalinist line, though retaining substantial electoral support. Although the PCF opposed de Gaulle's formation of the Fifth Republic in 1958, the following years saw a rapprochement with other left-wing forces and an increased strength in parliament. With Waldeck Rochet as its new secretary-general, the party supported François Mitterrand's unsuccessful presidential bid in 1965. During the student riots and strikes of May 1968, the party supported the strikes while denouncing the revolutionary student movements. After heavy losses in the ensuing parliamentary elections, the party adopted Georges Marchais as leader and in 1973 entered into a "Common Programme" alliance with Mitterrand's reconstituted Socialist Party. Under the Common Programme, the PCF lost ground to the PS, a process that continued after Mitterrand's victory in 1981. Allotted a minor share in Mitterrand's government, the PCF resigned in 1984 as the government turned towards fiscal orthodoxy.
Under Marchais the party maintained its traditional communist doctrines and structure. Extensive reform was undertaken after 1994; this did little to stem the party's declining popularity, although it entered government again in 1997 as part of the Plural Left coalition. Elections in 2002 gave worse results than for the PCF. Under Marie-George Buffet, the PCF turned away from parliamentary strategy and sought broader social alliances. To maintain a presence in parliament after 2007 the party's few remaining deputies had to join others in the Democratic and Republican Left group. Subsequently a broader electoral coalition, the Left Front, was formed including the PCF, the Left Party, United Left, others; the FG has brought the French communists somewh
Brovary is a city in Kiev Oblast in northern Ukraine, an eastern suburb of the country's capital, Kiev. Administratively, it is incorporated as a town of oblast significance, it serves as the administrative centre of Brovary Raion, though it does not belong to the raion. Its population is 100,866 . Brovary is a historic town, first mentioned in 1630, its name, translated from Ukrainian, means "brewers". The city houses a railway station. International ill-fame came to the city in 2000 after one of its apartment blocks was hit by a stray surface-to-surface missile launched from a neighbouring army shooting range in Honcharivs'ke. Three people were killed. Today, Brovary is Ukraine's shoe-making capital with dozens of such companies located here. At Brovary, there is a broadcasting centre for long and shortwaves; the longwave transmitter, which works on 207 kHz, uses as its antenna two 259.6 m tall guyed mast radiators each equipped with a cage antenna at their lower part. Brovary is an important sport centre of Ukraine.
Several world and Olympic champions began their career here. Ukraine's national mint facility is located in Brovary. Brovary is a district centre in Kyiv region, it is situated 20 kilometers from the capital of Kyiv. Brovary district lies in the areas of mixed forests; the climate here is moderately continental with the middle temperature -6 C in January and +19 C in July. The territory of the region was populated ages ago by the ancestors of the current inhabitants – trypillians, who were the first in Europe to sow seeds of the well-known Ukrainian bread. Brovary was firstly mentioned in 1630. In that time there were only 60 or 70 houses in Brovary, but in 1649 a Cossack sotnya is known to have been formed there. Cossacks took; the town got its name after breweries. Travellers who went to Kiev stopped in Brovary, rested and drank the local tasty beer. Many famous people visited Brovary while travelling to Kiev. A Ukrainian poet, Taras Shevchenko, was among them, he visited this town many times in the period from 1829 to 1847.
Nowadays there is a monument to Shevchenko in the place from which Brovary began its history as a town, in its old centre. The modern centre of Brovary is the most beautiful part of the town. There, one will find a park with its peaceful alleys. In the central park you can see monuments to the past. There is a tank; some shops and cafes are situated there, so the streets are never empty in the evening. Traditionally the town is divided into 3 parts: the old town, the new town, the industrial part. There are a lot of plants and factories in the town, producing knitting, machine tools, plastic materials and other goods. There are 10 secondary schools, 2 music schools, a school of Arts, 3 libraries in Brovary. In the city center lies “Prometey”, the historical museum in Gagarin street, which attracts many visitors. If you are fond of sports, you may go to the swimming pools or to the “Spartak” stadium, or enter the sport college. In September the citizens of Brovary celebrate the Holiday of the Town’s Day.
It’s the time when everyone can watch and listen to concerts of musicians and singers, see performances by dancers who live in the district. On that day, all the competitions are for show, but Brovary itself is known to be a famous sports town, where a lot of well-known sportsmen have started their career. Oleksandra Kononova won three medals at the 2010 Paralympic games in Vancouver and became the 2010 Ukrainian sports personality of the year. Brovary is twinned with: Missile blasts Ukraine flats. History of broadcasting in Brovary Paspolini Studio