Joseph William Frazier, nicknamed "Smokin' Joe", was an American professional boxer who competed from 1965 to 1981. He reigned as the undisputed heavyweight champion from 1970 to 1973, as an amateur won a gold medal at the 1964 Summer Olympics. Frazier was known for his sheer strength, formidable punching power, relentless pressure fighting style. Frazier emerged as the top contender in the late 1960s, defeating opponents that included Jerry Quarry, Oscar Bonavena, Buster Mathis, Eddie Machen, Doug Jones, George Chuvalo, Jimmy Ellis en route to becoming undisputed heavyweight champion in 1970, followed up by defeating Muhammad Ali by unanimous decision in the anticipated Fight of the Century in 1971. Two years Frazier lost his title when he was defeated by George Foreman, he fought on, losing a rematch to Ali and beating Quarry and Ellis again. Frazier's last world title challenge came in 1975, but he was beaten by Ali in their brutal rubber match, the Thrilla in Manila, he retired in 1976 following a second loss to Foreman.
He made a comeback in 1981. The International Boxing Research Organization rates Frazier among the ten greatest heavyweights of all time; the Ring magazine named him Fighter of the Year in 1967, 1970 and 1971, while the Boxing Writers Association of America named him Fighter of the Year in 1969, 1971 and 1975. In 1999, The Ring magazine ranked him the eighth greatest heavyweight. BoxRec ranks him as the 18th greatest heavyweight of all time, he is the World Boxing Hall of Fame. Frazier's style was compared to that of Henry Armstrong and Rocky Marciano, dependent on bobbing and relentless pressure to wear down his opponents, his best known punch was a powerful left hook. In his career he lost to only two fighters, both former Olympic and world heavyweight champions: twice to Muhammad Ali, twice to George Foreman. After retiring, Frazier made cameo appearances in several Hollywood movies, two episodes of The Simpsons, his son Marvis became a boxer—trained by Frazier himself—but was unable to match his father's success.
His daughter Jackie Frazier-Lyde boxed professionally. Frazier continued to train fighters in his gym in Philadelphia, his attitude towards Ali in life was characterized by bitterness and contempt, interspersed with brief reconciliations. Frazier was admitted to hospice care, he died of complications from the disease on November 7, 2011. Joe Frazier was the 12th child born to Dolly Rubin in Beaufort, South Carolina, he was raised in a rural community of Beaufort called Laurel Bay. Frazier said he was always close to his father, who carried him when he was a toddler "over the 10 acres of farmland" the Fraziers worked as sharecroppers "to the still where he made his bootleg corn liquor, into town on Saturdays to buy the necessities that a family of 10 needed." Young Frazier was affectionately called "Billie Boy."Rubin Frazier had his left hand burned and part of his forearm amputated in a tractor accident the year his son was born. Rubin Frazier and his wife Dolly had been in their car when Arthur Smith, drunk, passed by and made a move for Dolly but was rebuffed.
Stefan Gallucci, a local barkeep, recounted the experience. When the Fraziers drove away Smith fired at them several times, hitting Dolly in the foot and Rubin several times in his arm. Smith did not stay long. Dolly Frazier said, "If you were a good workman, the white man took you out of jail and kept you busy on the farm."Frazier's parents worked their farm with two mules, named Buck and Jenny. The farmland was what country people called "white dirt, another way of saying it isn't worth a damn." They could not grow peas or corn on only cotton and watermelons. In the early 1950s, Frazier's father bought a white television; the family and others nearby came to watch. Frazier's mother sold drinks for a quarter as they watched boxers like Sugar Ray Robinson, Rocky Marciano, Willie Pep and Rocky Graziano. One night Frazier's Uncle Israel noticed. "That boy there...that boy is gonna be another Joe Louis" he remarked. The words made an impression on Joe, his classmates at school would give him a sandwich or a quarter to walk with them at final bell so that bullies would not bother them.
Frazier said, "Any ` scamboogah' would soon regret it. The day after his Uncle's comment, Frazier filled old burlap sack with rags, corncobs, a brick, Spanish moss, he hung the makeshift heavybag from an oak tree in the backyard. "For the next 6, 7 years, damn near every day I'd hit that heavybag for an hour at a time. I'd wrap my hands with a necktie of my Daddy's, or a stocking of my Momma's or sister's, get to it" Joe remarked. Not long after Frazier started working, his left arm was injured while he was running from the family's 300 pound hog. One day Frazier ran away; the gate to the pigpen was open and the hog chased him. Frazier hit his left arm on a brick, his arm was torn badly. Joe was never able to keep it straight again. By the time Frazier was 15 years old, he was working on a farm for a family named Bellamy, they were both white men: Mac, the younger of the two and more easy going, Jim, a little rougher and somewhat backward. One day a little black boy of about 1
Phoebe Snow was an American singer and guitarist, best known for her 1975 song "Poetry Man". She was described by The New York Times as a "contralto grounded in a bluesy growl and capable of sweeping over four octaves." Snow was born in New York City in 1950, raised in a musical household in which Delta blues, Broadway show tunes, Dixieland jazz, classical music, folk music recordings were played around the clock. Her father, Merrill Laub, an exterminator by trade, had an encyclopedic knowledge of American film and theater and was an avid collector and restorer of antiques, her mother, Lili Laub, was a dance teacher. Snow grew up in Teaneck, New Jersey, graduated from Teaneck High School in 1968, she subsequently attended Shimer College in Mount Carroll, but did not graduate. As a student, she carried her prized Martin 000-18 acoustic guitar from club to club in Greenwich Village and singing on amateur nights, her stage name came from an early 1900s fictional advertising character used by Delaware and Western Railroad.
In the railroad's print ads, a young woman dressed all in white emphasized the cleanliness of Lackawanna passenger trains. Between 1975 and 1978 Snow was married to Phil Kearns, on December 10, 1975, her daughter, Valerie Rose, was born with severe brain damage. Snow resolved not to institutionalize Valerie, cared for her at home until Valerie died on March 19, 2007, at the age of 31. Snow's efforts to care for Valerie nearly ended her career, she continued to take voice lessons, she studied opera informally. In her years she embraced Buddhism, it was at The Bitter End club in 1972 that Denny Cordell, co-owner of Shelter Records, was so taken by the singer that he signed her to the label and produced her first recording. She released an eponymous album, Phoebe Snow, in 1974. Featuring guest performances by The Persuasions, Zoot Sims, Teddy Wilson, David Bromberg, Dave Mason, Snow's album went on to sell over a million copies in the United States and became one of the most acclaimed recordings that year.
The album spawned a Top Five 1975 single on the Billboard Hot 100 with "Poetry Man" and was itself a Top Five album in Billboard, for which she received a nomination for the Grammy Award for Best New Artist. The cover of Rolling Stone magazine followed, while she performed as the opening act for tours by Jackson Browne and Paul Simon. 1975 brought the first of several appearances as a musical guest on Saturday Night Live, on which Snow performed both solo and in duets with Paul Simon and Linda Ronstadt. During the 1975 appearance, she was seven months pregnant with Valerie, her backup vocal is heard on Paul Simon's hit song "50 Ways to Leave Your Lover" along with Valerie Simpson and Patti Austin, from 1975. She duets with him on the gospel-tinged hit "Gone At Last". Both songs appear on Simon's Grammy-winning 1975 album Still Crazy After All These Years. Legal battles took place between Shelter Records. Snow ended up signed to Columbia Records, her second album, Second Childhood, appeared in 1976, produced by Phil Ramone.
It was jazzier and more introspective, was an RIAA Certified Gold Album for Phoebe, with the Gold Album awarded on July 9, 1976. She moved to a more rock-oriented sound for It Looks Like Snow, released in 1976 with David Rubinson producing. 1977 saw Never Letting Go, again with Ramone, while 1978's Against the Grain was helmed by Barry Beckett. After that Snow parted ways with Columbia. In 1979, she toured extensively throughout the U. S. and Canada with noted guitarist Arlen Roth as musical director. Her January 1979 cover of the Paul McCartney song "Every Night" reached #37 in the UK. In 1981, now signed with Mirage Records, released Rock Away, recorded with members of Billy Joel's band; the 1983 Rolling Stone Record Guide summed up Snow's career so far by saying: "One of the most gifted voices of her generation, Phoebe Snow can do just about anything stylistically as well as technically … The question that's still unanswered is how best to channel such talent." Snow spent long periods away from recording singing commercial jingles for AT&T and others in order to support herself and her daughter.
In the 1990s, Snow's voice was featured on commercials for Cotton Incorporated and their The Fabric of Our Lives campaign. During the 1980s she battled her own life-threatening illness. Snow sang the theme song for NBC's A Different World during the show's first season. In 1988, a duet with Dave Mason, called "Dreams I Dream" reached #11 on the US adult contemporary charts. Snow returned to recording with Something Real in 1989 and gathered a few more hits on the Adult Contemporary charts. Snow composed the Detroit's WDIV-TV "Go 4 It!" Campaign in 1980. She sang Ancient Places, Sacred Lands composed by Steve Horelick on Reading Rainbow's tenth episode The Gift of the Sacred Dog, based on the book by Paul Goble and narrated by actor Michael Ansara, it was shot in Crow Agency, Montana in 1983. Snow performed in 1989 on stage at Avery Fisher Hall in New York City as part of Our Common Future, a five-hour live television broadcast originating from several countries. In 1990, she contributed a cover version of the Delaney & Bonnie song "Get Ourselves Together" to the Elektra compilation Rubáiyát which included Eart
Steely Dan is an American rock band founded in 1972 by core members Walter Becker and Donald Fagen. Blending jazz, traditional pop, R&B, sophisticated studio production with cryptic and ironic lyrics, the band enjoyed critical and commercial success starting from the early 1970s until breaking up in 1981. Throughout their career, the duo recorded with a revolving cast of session musicians, in 1974 retired from live performances to become a studio-only band. Rolling Stone has called them "the perfect musical antiheroes for the Seventies". After the group disbanded in 1981, Becker and Fagen were less active throughout most of the next decade, though a cult following remained devoted to the group. Since reuniting in 1993, Steely Dan has toured and released two albums of new material, the first of which, Two Against Nature, earned a Grammy Award for Album of the Year, they have sold more than 40 million albums worldwide and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in March 2001. VH1 ranked Steely Dan at #82 on their list of the 100 greatest musical artists of all time.
Founding member Walter Becker died on September 3, 2017. Becker and Fagen met in 1967 in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York; as Fagen passed by a café, The Red Balloon, he heard Becker practicing the electric guitar. In an interview, Fagen recounted the experience: "I hear this guy practicing, it sounded professional and contemporary, it sounded like, you know, like a black person, really." He introduced himself to Becker and asked, "Do you want to be in a band?" Discovering that they enjoyed similar music, the two began writing songs together. Becker and Fagen began playing in local groups. One such group, known as the Don Fagen Jazz Trio, the Bad Rock Group and the Leather Canary, included future comedy star Chevy Chase on drums, they played covers of songs by The Rolling Stones, Moby Grape, Willie Dixon, as well as some original compositions. Terence Boylan, another Bard musician, remembered that Fagen took to the beatnik life while attending college: "They never came out of their room, they stayed up all night.
They looked like ghosts -- black turtlenecks and skin so white. No activity, chain-smoking Lucky Strikes and dope." Fagen himself would remember it as "probably the only time in my life that I had friends."After Fagen graduated in 1969, the two moved to Brooklyn and tried to peddle their tunes in the Brill Building in midtown Manhattan. Kenny Vance, who had a production office in the building, took an interest in their music, which led to work on the soundtrack of the low-budget Richard Pryor film You've Got to Walk It Like You Talk It or You'll Lose That Beat. Becker said bluntly, "We did it for the money." A series of demos from 1968 to 1971 are available in bootleg form. This collection features 25 tracks and is notable for its sparse arrangements and lo-fi production, a contrast with Steely Dan's work. Although some of these songs were re-recorded for Steely Dan albums, most were never released. Becker and Fagen joined the touring band of Jay and the Americans for a half, they were at first paid $100 per show, but partway through their tenure the band's tour manager cut their salaries in half.
The group's lead singer, Jay Black, dubbed Becker and Fagen "the Manson and Starkweather of rock'n' roll", referring to cult leader Charles Manson and spree killer Charles Starkweather. They had little success after moving to Brooklyn, although Barbra Streisand recorded their song "I Mean To Shine" on her 1971 Barbra Joan Streisand album, their fortunes changed when one of Vance's associates, Gary Katz, moved to Los Angeles to become a staff producer for ABC Records. He hired Fagen as staff songwriters. Katz would produce all their 1970s albums in collaboration with engineer Roger Nichols. Nichols would win six Grammy Awards for his work with the band from the 1970s to 2001. After realizing that their songs were too complex for other ABC artists, at Katz's suggestion Becker and Fagen formed their own band with guitarists Denny Dias and Jeff "Skunk" Baxter, drummer Jim Hodder and singer David Palmer, Katz signed them to ABC as recording artists. Fans of Beat Generation literature and Becker named the band after a "revolutionary" steam-powered dildo mentioned in the William S. Burroughs novel Naked Lunch.
Palmer joined as a second lead vocalist because of Fagen's occasional stage fright, his reluctance to sing in front of an audience, because the label believed that his voice was not "commercial" enough. In 1972, ABC issued Steely Dan's first single, "Dallas", backed with "Sail the Waterway". Distribution of "stock" copies available to the general public was extremely limited; as of 2015, "Dallas" and "Sail the Waterway" are the only released Steely Dan tracks that have not been reissued on cassette or compact disc. In an interview and Fagen called the songs "stinko." "Dallas" was covered by Poco on their Head Over Heels album. Can't Buy a Thrill, Steely Dan's debut album, was released in 1972, its hit singles "Do It Again" and "Reelin' In the Years" reached No. 6 and No. 11 on the Billboard singles chart. Along with "Dirty Work", the songs became staples on classic rock radio; because of Fagen's reluctance to sing live, Palmer handled most of the vocal duties on stage. During the first tour
Roxy Music were an English rock band formed in 1970 by Bryan Ferry, who became the band's lead vocalist and chief songwriter, bassist Graham Simpson. Alongside Ferry, the other longtime members were Andy Mackay and Paul Thompson. Other members included Brian Eno, Eddie Jobson, John Gustafson. Although the band took a break from group activities in 1976 and again in 1983, they reunited for a concert tour in 2001, toured together intermittently between that time and their break-up in 2011. Ferry enlisted members of Roxy Music as session musicians for his solo releases. Roxy Music became a successful act in Australia during the 1970s; this success began with Roxy Music. The band pioneered more musically sophisticated elements of glam rock while influencing early English punk music, provided a model for many new wave acts while innovating elements of electronic composition; the group distinguished their visual and musical sophistication through a preoccupation with glamorous fashions. Ferry and co-founding member Eno have had influential solo careers.
The latter became one of Britain's most significant record producers of the late 20th century. Rolling Stone ranked Roxy Music No. 98 on its "The Immortals – 100 The Greatest Artists of All Time" list, though it dropped the group from its updated list in 2011. The band's final studio album was Avalon. In 2005 the band began recording a new studio album, which would have been their ninth, would have been their first record since 1973 with Brian Eno, who wrote two songs for it and played keyboards. However, Bryan Ferry confirmed that material from these sessions would be released as a Ferry solo album, with Eno playing on "a couple of tracks", that he does not think they will record as Roxy Music again; the album became Ferry's 2010 solo album Olympia, which featured contributions from Eno and Mackay Roxy Music played a series of 40th anniversary shows in 2011, but has since become inactive as a performing entity. In 2019, Roxy Music were inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame. In November 1970, Bryan Ferry, who had just lost his job teaching ceramics at a girls' school for holding impromptu record listening sessions, advertised for a keyboard player to collaborate with him and Graham Simpson including Alan Lewis, a bass player he knew from his Newcastle art college band, the Gas Board, with whom he collaborated on his first songs.
In early 1970 Ferry had auditioned as lead singer for King Crimson, who were seeking a replacement for Greg Lake. Although Robert Fripp and Pete Sinfield decided that Ferry's voice was unsuitable for King Crimson's material, they were impressed with his talent and helped the fledgling Roxy Music to obtain a contract with E. G. Records. Andy Mackay replied to Ferry's advertisement, not as a keyboard player but a saxophonist and oboist, though he did have a VCS3 synthesizer. Mackay had met Brian Eno during university days, as both were interested in avant-garde and electronic music. Although Eno was a non-musician, he could operate a synthesizer and owned a Revox reel-to-reel tape machine, so Mackay convinced him to join the band as a technical adviser. Before long Eno was an official member of the group. Rounding out the original sextet were guitarist Roger Bunn and drummer Dexter Lloyd, a classically trained timpanist; the group's name was an homage to the titles of old cinemas and dance halls, a pun on the word rock.
Ferry had named the band Roxy but after learning of an American band with the same name he changed the name to Roxy Music. Roxy played live through 1971, recorded a demo tape of some early compositions. In the spring of'71, Lloyd left the band, an advertisement was placed in Melody Maker saying "wonder drummer wanted for an avant rock group". Paul Thompson responded to the advertisement and joined the band in June 1971. Bunn left the group at the end of the summer of 1971, in October, Roxy advertised in Melody Maker seeking the "Perfect Guitarist"; the successful applicant was former guitarist with The Nice. Phil Manzanera -- soon to become a group member -- was one of about twenty other players who auditioned. Although he did not make the band as a guitarist, the group were impressed enough with Manzanera that he was invited to become Roxy Music's roadie, an offer which he accepted; the band's fortunes were increased by the support of broadcaster John Peel and Melody Maker journalist Richard Williams.
Williams became an enthusiastic fan after meeting Ferry and being given a demonstration tape during mid-1971, wrote the first major article on the band, featured on Melody Maker's "Horizons" page in the edition of 7 August 1971. This line-up of Roxy Music recorded a BBC session shortly thereafter. In early February 1972, guitarist O'List quit the group abruptly after an altercation with Paul Thompson, which took place at their audition for David Enthoven of EG Management; when O'List didn't show up for the next rehearsal, Manzanera was asked to come along, on the pretext of becoming the band's sound mixer. When he arrived he was invited to play guitar and realised that it was an informal audition. Unbeknownst to the rest of the group, Manzanera had learned their entire repertoire and as a result, he was hired as O'List's permanent replacement, joining on 14 February 1972. Manzanera, the son of an English f
Songwriters Hall of Fame
The Songwriters Hall of Fame was founded in 1969 by songwriter Johnny Mercer and music publisher/songwriter Abe Olman and publisher/executive Howie Richmond to honor those whose work represents and maintains the heritage and legacy of a spectrum of the most beloved songs from the world's popular music songbook. It not only celebrates these established songwriters, but is involved on the development of new songwriting talent through workshops and scholarships. There are many programs designed to discover new songwriters. Nile Rodgers serves as the organization's chairman; the Hall of Fame only existed as an online virtual collection until 2010, when it was first put on display as a physical gallery inside The Grammy Museum in Los Angeles. With an under-construction basement installation at the Brill Building in New York, the Hall does not have a permanent place and the awards are not televised. Through 2019, 461 individuals had been inducted into the SHOF. There are numerous examples of collaborating songwriters being inducted in unison, with each person being considered a separate entrant.
The inaugural year featured 120 inductees, many of whom had a professional partnership, such as Rodgers and Hammerstein. Burt Bacharach and Hal David followed in 1972. Betty Comden and Adolph Green were selected in 1980, Lieber and Stoller were inducted in 1985. John Lennon and Paul McCartney were inducted in 1989 along with Gerry Goffin and Carole King as well as Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil. Motown's Holland-Dozier-Holland team were honored the following year. Elton John and Bernie Taupin were among those chosen in 1992, the pop music group the Bee Gees had all three brothers inducted in 1994. 1995 saw Gamble and Huff. The Eagles' Glenn Frey and Don Henley were co-inductees in 2000. Queen was the first rock band to have all their band members inducted in 2003. Five members of Earth Wind & Fire were in the class of 2010, four members of Kool and the Gang were honored in 2018; the Abe Olman Publisher Award is given to publishers who have had a substantial number of songs that have become world-renowned and who have helped to further the careers and success of many songwriters.
1983 – Howard S. Richmond 1986 – Leonard Feist 1987 – Lou Levy 1988 – Buddy Killen 1990 – Charles Koppelman & Martin Bandier 1991 – Frank Military & Jay Morgenstern 1992 – Bonnie Bourne 1993 – Berry Gordy 1994 – Buddy Morris 1995 – Al Gallico 1996 – Freddy Bienstock 1997 – Gene Goodman 1998 – Irwin Z. Robinson 1999 – Bill Lowery 2000 – Julian Aberbach 2001 – Ralph Peer 2002 – Edward P. Murphy 2003 – Nicholas Firth 2004 – Les Bider 2005 – Beebe Bourne 2006 – Allen Klein 2007 – Don Kirshner 2008 – Milt Okun 2009 – Maxyne Lang 2010 – Keith Mardak 2012 – lance Freed The Board of Directors Award is presented to an individual selected by the SHOF Board in recognition of his or her service to the songwriting community and the advancement of popular music. 1986 – Jule Styne 1988 – Stanley Adams 1992 – Edward P. Murphy 1996 – Anna Sosenko & Oscar Brand 1997 – Thomas A. Dorsey The Contemporary Icon Award was established in 2015 to recognize songwriter-artists who attained an iconic status in pop culture.
The American singer Lady Gaga was the first artist to win the award. 2015 – Lady Gaga The Hal David Starlight Award, created in 2004, was renamed in honor of the SHOF Chairman for his longtime support of young songwriters. Award recipients are gifted songwriters who are at an apex in their careers and are making a significant impact in the music industry via their original songs. 2004 – Rob Thomas 2005 – Alicia Keys 2006 – John Mayer 2007 – John Legend 2008 – John Rzeznik 2009 – Jason Mraz 2010 – Taylor Swift 2011 – Drake 2012 – Ne-Yo 2013 – Benny Blanco 2014 – Dan Reynolds 2015 – Nate Ruess 2016 – Nick Jonas 2017 - Ed Sheeran 2018 - Sara Bareilles 2019 - Halsey The Howie Richmond Hitmaker Award is tailored for artists or "star makers" in the music industry who have been responsible for a substantial number of hit songs for an extended period of time, who recognize the importance of songs and their writers. 1981 – Chuck Berry 1983 – Rosemary Clooney & Margaret Whiting 1990 – Whitney Houston 1991 – Barry Manilow 1995 – Michael Bolton 1996 – Gloria Estefan 1998 – Diana Ross 1999 – Natalie Cole 2000 – Johnny Mathis 2001 – Dionne Warwick 2002 – Garth Brooks 2003 – Clive Davis 2008 – Anne Murray 2009 – Tom Jones 2010 – Phil Ramone 2011 – Chaka Khan 2014 – Doug Morris 2016 – Seymour Stein 2018 - Lucian Grainge The Johnny Mercer Award is the highest honor bestowed by the event.
It goes to writers inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame for having established a history of outstanding creative works. 1980 – Frank Sinatra 1981 – Yip Harburg 1982 – Harold Arlen 1983 – Sammy Cahn 1985 – Alan Jay Lerner 1986 – Mitchell Parish 1987 – Jerry Herman 1990 – Jerry Bock & Sheldon Harnick 1991 – Betty Comden & Adolph Green 1992 – Burton Lane 1993 – Jule Styne 1994 – Irving Caesar 1995 – Cy Coleman 1996 – Burt Bacharach & Hal David 1997 – Alan Bergman & Marilyn Bergman 1998 – Paul Simon 1999 – Stephen Sondheim 2000 – Jerry Leiber & Mike Stoller 2001 – Billy Joel 2002 – Michael Jackson 2003 – Jimmy Webb 2004 – Stevie Wonder 2005 – Smokey Robinson 2006 – Kris Kristofferson 2007 – Dolly Parton 2008 – Paul Anka 2009 – Holland–Dozier–Holland 2010 – Phil Collins 2011 – Barry Mann & Cynthia Weil 2013 – Elton John & Bernie Taupin 2014 – Kenneth Gamble & Leon Huff 2015 – Van Morrison 2016 – Lionel Richie 2018 – Neil Diamond 2019 – Carole Bayer Sager The Patron of the Arts is presented to influential industry executives who are not in the music business but are great supporters of the performing arts.
1988 – Martin Segal 1989 – Roger Enrico 1990 – Edgar Bronfman Jr. 1991 – Edwin M. Cooperman 1992 – Jon
Live Aid was a dual-venue benefit concert held on Saturday 13 July 1985, an ongoing music-based fundraising initiative. The original event was organised by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise funds for relief of the ongoing Ethiopian famine. Billed as the "global jukebox", the event was held at Wembley Stadium in London, United Kingdom and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia, United States. On the same day, concerts inspired by the initiative happened in other countries, such as the Soviet Union, Japan, Austria and West Germany, it was one of the largest-scale satellite link-ups and television broadcasts of all time. The impact of Live Aid on famine relief has been debated for years. One aid relief worker stated that following the publicity generated by the concert, “humanitarian concern is now at the centre of foreign policy” for western governments. Geldof said Live Aid "created something permanent and self-sustaining", but asked why Africa is getting poorer; the organisers of Live Aid tried, without much success, to run aid efforts directly, so channelled millions to the NGOs in Ethiopia, much of which went to the Ethiopian government of Mengistu Haile Mariam – a brutal regime the UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher wanted to “destabilise” – and was spent on guns.
The 1985 Live Aid concert was conceived as a follow-on to the successful charity single "Do They Know It's Christmas?", the brainchild of Geldof and Ure. In October 1984, images of hundreds of thousands of people starving to death in Ethiopia were shown in the UK in Michael Buerk's BBC News reports on the 1984 famine; the BBC News crew were the first to document the famine, with Buerk's report on 23 October describing it as "a biblical famine in the 20th century" and "the closest thing to hell on Earth". The report shocked Britain, motivating its citizens to inundate relief agencies, such as Save the Children, with donations, to bring the world's attention to the crisis in Ethiopia. Bob Geldof saw the report, called Midge Ure from Ultravox, together they co-wrote the song, "Do They Know It's Christmas?" in the hope of raising money for famine relief. Geldof contacted colleagues in the music industry and persuaded them to record the single under the title'Band Aid' for free. On 25 November 1984, the song was recorded at Sarm West Studios in Notting Hill and was released four days later.
It stayed at number one for five weeks in the UK, was Christmas number one, became the fastest-selling single in Britain and raised £8 million, rather than the £70,000 Geldof and Ure had expected. Geldof set his sights on staging a huge concert to raise further funds; the idea to stage a charity concert to raise more funds for Ethiopia came from Boy George, the lead singer of Culture Club. George and Culture Club drummer Jon Moss had taken part in the recording of "Do They Know It's Christmas?" and in December 1984 Culture Club were undertaking a tour of the UK, which culminated in six nights at Wembley Arena. On the final night at Wembley, Saturday 22 December 1984, an impromptu gathering of some of the other artists from Band Aid joined Culture Club on stage at the end of the concert for an encore of "Do They Know It's Christmas?". George was so overcome by the occasion he told Geldof that they should consider organising a benefit concert. Speaking to the UK music magazine Melody Maker at the beginning of January 1985, Geldof revealed his enthusiasm for George's idea, saying, "If George is organising it, you can tell him he can call me at any time and I'll do it.
It's a logical progression from the record, but the point is you don't just talk about it, you go ahead and do it!"It was clear from the interview that Geldof had had the idea to hold a dual venue concert and how the concerts should be structured: The show should be as big as is humanly possible. There's no point just 5,000 fans turning up at Wembley, it would be great for Duran to play three or four numbers at Wembley and flick to Madison Square where Springsteen would be playing. While he's on, the Wembley stage could be made ready for the next British act like the Thompsons or whoever. In that way lots of acts could be featured and the television rights, tickets and so on could raise a phenomenal amount of money. It's not an impossible idea, one worth exploiting. Among those involved in organising Live Aid were Harvey Goldsmith, responsible for the Wembley Stadium concert, Bill Graham, who put together the American leg; the concert grew in scope. Tony Verna, inventor of instant replay, was able to secure John F. Kennedy Stadium through his friendship with Philadelphia Mayor Goode and was able to procure, through his connections with ABC's prime time chief, John Hamlin, a three-hour prime time slot on the ABC Network and, in addition, was able to supplement the lengthy program through meetings that resulted in the addition of an ad-hoc network within the US, which covered 85 percent of TVs there.
Verna designed the needed satellite schematic and became the Executive Director as well as the Co-Executive Producer along with Hal Uplinger. Uplinger came up with the idea to produce a four-hour video edit of Live Aid to distribute to those countries without the necessary satellite equipment to rebroadcast the live feed; the concert began at 12:00 British Summer Time at Wembley Stadium in the United Kingdom