A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Cairo, West Virginia
Cairo is a town in Ritchie County, West Virginia, United States, along West Virginia Route 31, the North Fork of the Hughes River, the North Bend Rail Trail. The population was 281 at the 2010 census; the town was named by its earliest settlers, who were Scots Presbyterians, for the city of Cairo, owing to the presence of water and fertile land at the site. Cairo was incorporated in 1895; the North Bend Rail Trail passes through the town. The former Bank of Cairo building, now Cairo Town Hall, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996. Cairo is located at 39°12′30″N 81°9′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.48 square miles, of which, 0.47 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 281 people, 118 households, 71 families residing in the town; the population density was 597.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 151 housing units at an average density of 321.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 100.0% White.
There were 118 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.8% were non-families. 36.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.13. The median age in the town was 40.6 years. 23.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 52.0% male and 48.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 263 people, 112 households, 73 families residing in the town; the population density was 536.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 140 housing units at an average density of 285.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 100.00% White. There were 112 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families.
30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.00. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 27.0% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $24,688, the median income for a family was $29,792. Males had a median income of $20,833 versus $21,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,958. About 9.5% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.7% of those under the age of eighteen and 4.3% of those sixty five or over. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Cairo has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Ellenboro, West Virginia
Ellenboro is a town in Ritchie County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 363 at the 2010 census; the town is located at the junction of U. S. Route 50 and West Virginia Route 16; the town was named for Ellen Mariah Williamson, the eldest daughter of the family that granted a right of way for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to build their line through the town. Ellenboro was incorporated in 1903. Ellenboro is located at 39°16′4″N 81°3′5″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.13 square miles, all of it land. Ellenboro once had a glass factory and at a much earlier time a well known resort. However, both have ceased operation; the town was named after the postmaster's daughter. As of the census of 2010, there were 363 people, 160 households, 109 families residing in the town; the population density was 321.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 179 housing units at an average density of 158.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 100.0% White.
There were 160 households of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.9% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.69. The median age in the town was 48.4 years. 19.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 54.5% male and 45.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 373 people, 158 households, 103 families residing in the town; the population density was 477.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 181 housing units at an average density of 231.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.66% White, 0.27% African American, 1.07% from two or more races. There were 158 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families.
27.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.89. In the town, the population was spread out with 19.3% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $22,500, the median income for a family was $26,563. Males had a median income of $21,111 versus $20,417 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,418. About 26.7% of families and 30.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 49.3% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over
Harrisville, West Virginia
Harrisville is a town in Ritchie County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 1,876 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Ritchie County. The town is home to historic Berdine's Dime; some say the town was named for Gen. Thomas Harris, while others believe it was named after John Maley Harris, an early settler; the Harrisville Historic District, Harrisville Grade School, the Ritchie County Courthouse are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Frank Deem, West Virginia state legislator and engineer, was born in Harrisville. Harrisville is located at 39°12′36″N 81°3′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.59 square miles, of which 1.58 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. According to the 2010 census, there were 1,876 people, 787 households, 496 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,187.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 917 housing units at an average density of 580.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 98.6% White, 0.3% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.7% of the population. There were 787 households of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.0% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.81. The median age in the town was 44.8 years. 21.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 46.2% male and 53.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,842 people, 780 households, 516 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,120.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 889 housing units at an average density of 540.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 98.59% White, 0.05% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.33% from other races, 0.76% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.76% of the population. There were 780 households out of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.80. In the town, the population was spread out with 20.3% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,750, the median income for a family was $38,083.
Males had a median income of $27,200 versus $20,040 for females. The per capita income for the town was $15,158. About 17.5% of families and 22.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.6% of those under age 18 and 15.2% of those age 65 or over