Vegan organic gardening
Vegan organic gardening and farming is the organic cultivation and production of food crops and other crops with a minimal amount of exploitation or harm to any animal. Vegan gardening and stock-free farming methods use no animal products or by-products, such as bloodmeal, fish products, bone meal, feces, or other animal-origin matter, because the production of these materials is viewed as either harming animals directly, or being associated with the exploitation and consequent suffering of animals; some of these materials are by-products of animal husbandry, created during the process of cultivating animals for the production of meat, skins, entertainment, labor, or companionship. Forest gardening is a plant-based organic food production system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, herbs and perennial vegetables. Making use of companion planting, these can be intermixed to grow in a succession of layers, to replicate a woodland habitat. Forest gardening can be viewed as a way to recreate the Garden of Eden.
The three main products from a forest garden are fruit and green leafy vegetables. Robert Hart adapted forest gardening for temperate zones during the early 1960s. Robert Hart began with a conventional smallholding at Wenlock Edge in Shropshire. However, following his adoption of a raw vegan diet for health and personal reasons, Hart replaced his farm animals with plants, he created a model forest garden from a small orchard on his farm and intended naming his gardening method ecological horticulture or ecocultivation. Hart dropped these terms once he became aware that agroforestry and forest gardens were being used to describe similar systems in other parts of the world. Vegan permaculture avoids the use of domesticated animals, it is the same as permaculture except for the addition of a fourth core value. Zalan Glen, a raw vegan, proposes that vegaculture should emerge from permaculture in the same way veganism split from vegetarianism in the 1940s. Vegan permaculture recognizes the importance of free-living animals, not domesticated animals, to create a balanced ecosystem.
The veganic gardening method is a distinct system developed by Rosa Dalziell O'Brien, Kenneth Dalziel O'Brien and May E. Bruce, although the term was coined by Geoffrey Rudd as a contraction of vegetable organic in order to "denote a clear distinction between conventional chemical based systems and organic ones based on animal manures"; the O'Brien system's principal argument is that animal manures are harmful to soil health rather than that their use involves exploitation of and cruelty to animals. The system employs specific techniques including the addition of straw and other vegetable wastes to the soil in order to maintain soil fertility. Gardeners following the system use soil-covering mulches, employ non-compacting surface cultivation techniques using any short-handled, wide-bladed, hand hoe, they kneel when surface cultivating, placing a board under their knees to spread out the pressure, prevent soil compaction. Kenneth Dalziel O'Brien published a description of his system in Veganic Gardening, the Alternative System for Healthier Crops: The veganic method of clearing infested land is to take advantage of a plant's tendencies to move its roots nearer to the soil's surface when it is deprived of light.
To make use of this principle, aided by a decaying process of the top growth of weeds, etc. it is necessary to subject such growth to heat and moisture in order to speed up the decay, this is done by applying lime a heavy straw cover, the herbal compost activator…The following are required: Sufficient new straw to cover an area to be cleared to a depth of 3 to 4 inches. The O'Brien method advocates minimal disturbance of the soil by tilling, the use of cover crops and green manures, the creation of permanent raised beds and permanent hard-packed paths between them, the alignment of beds along a north-south axis, planting in double rows or more so that not every row has a path on both sides. Use of animal manure is prohibited; the German agricultural researcher Maria Thun developed vegan equivalents to the traditional, animal based biodynamic preparations. As a reaction to the BSE scandal in Europe, she started researching plant based preparations, using tree barks as replacement for animal organs as sheath for the preparations.
In particular in Italy, there is a movement of vegan biodynamic farming, represented by farmers such as Sebastiano Cossia Castiglioni and Cristina Menicocci. There are many other methods used and under development. However, to be certified DEMETER BIODYNAMIC the regular BD preparations must be used; because the BD preparations require the slaughtering of deer and cows and BD preps must be used in the compost for soil amendments, sprayed on the fields, the DEMETER certified products cannot claim to be vegan or vegetarian. Soil fertility is maintained by the use of green manures, cover crops, green wastes, composted vegetable matter, minerals; some vegan gardeners may supplement this with human urine from vegans and'humanure' from vegans, produced from compost toilets. Only waste from vegans is used because of the expert recommendation that the risks associated with using composted waste are acceptable only if the waste is from animals or humans having a herbivorous diet. Veganic gardeners may prepare soil for cultivation using the same method used by conventional and organic gardener
An ovo-lacto vegetarian or lacto-ovo vegetarian is a vegetarian who consumes some animal products, such as eggs and dairy. Unlike pescatarians, they do not consume other seafood. A typical ovo-lacto vegetarian diet may include fruits, grains, seeds, roots, milk, yogurt and eggs; the terminology stems from the Latin lac meaning "milk", ovum meaning "egg", the English term vegetarian, so as giving the definition of a vegetarian diet containing milk and eggs. In the Western world, ovo-lacto vegetarians are the most common type of vegetarian. Speaking, when one uses the term vegetarian, an ovo-lacto vegetarian is assumed. Ovo-lacto vegetarians are well-catered to in restaurants and shops in some parts of Europe and metropolitan cities in North America. Jainism prohibits causing harm to anything with potential life. Traditionally this includes eggs and certain kinds of vegetables, as well as animals, but dairy products are permitted. Jains are therefore lacto vegetarians, not ovo-lacto vegetarians. In Hinduism, many individuals are either raised as ovo-lacto vegetarians or lacto vegetarians.
The Bible Christian Church was a Christian vegetarian sect founded by William Cowherd in 1809. Cowherd was one of the philosophical forerunners of the Vegetarian Society founded in 1847; the Bible Christian Church promoted the use of eggs and honey as God's given food per "the promised land flowing with milk and honey". Many Seventh-day Adventist followers are lacto-ovo vegetarians. For over 130 years, Seventh-day Adventists have recommended a vegetarian diet which may include milk products and eggs. In India, eggs are not universally considered vegetarian. To accommodate this, products containing eggs are specially marked to differentiate them from otherwise vegetarian food products; some manufacturers advise that their products contain eggs but not meat or animal products to avoid diminishing interest among those who practice ovo-vegetarianism
A lacto-vegetarian diet is a diet that includes vegetables as well as dairy products such as milk, yogurt, ghee and kefir. In India, lacto vegetarian is considered synonymous to vegetarian, while eating eggs is considered a form of non-vegetarian diet; the concept and practice of lacto-vegetarianism among a significant number of people comes from ancient India. In other parts of the world, vegetarianism refers to ovo lacto vegetarianism instead, allowing eggs into the diet. Lacto-vegetarian diets are popular with certain followers of the Eastern religious traditions such as Jainism, Buddhism; the cores of their beliefs behind a lacto-vegetarian diet is the law of ahimsa, or non-violence. According to the Vedas, all living beings are valued. Hindus believe that one's personality is affected by the kind of food one consumes, eating flesh is considered bad for one's spiritual/mental well-being, it takes many more vegetables or plants to produce an equal amount of meat, many more lives are destroyed, in this way more suffering is caused when meat is consumed.
Although some suffering and pain is caused to other living beings to satisfy the human need for food, according to ahimsa, every effort should be made to minimize suffering. This is to avoid karmic consequences and show respect for living things, because all living beings are valued in these traditions, a vegetarian diet rooted in ahimsa is only one aspect of environmentally conscious living, relating to those beings affected by our need for food. However, this does not apply to all Hindus, as majority of modern day Hindus do in fact, consume meat. In the case of Jainism, the vegetarian standards are strict, it allows the consumption of only fruit and leaves that can be taken from plants without causing their death. This further excludes from the diet vegetables like carrots, potatoes and garlic; the primary difference between a vegan and a lacto-vegetarian diet is the avoidance of dairy products. Vegans do not consume dairy because of their belief that their production causes the animal suffering or a premature death, or otherwise abridges animal rights.
Nutrition Information The Vegetarian Resource Group Vegetarian Pages 20 Questions About Vegetarianism International Vegetarian Union Online community for Vegetarians Lacto-vegetarian menu items and products
Diet in Hinduism
Diet in Hinduism varies with its diverse traditions. The ancient and medieval Hindu texts do not explicitly prohibit eating meat, but they do recommend ahimsa—non-violence against all life forms including animals. Many Hindus prefer a vegetarian or lacto-vegetarian lifestyle, methods of food production that are in sync with nature and respectful of other life forms as well as nature; the diet of Hindus does not include eggs, fish or meat. However, if included, Hindus favor jhatka style preparation of meat since Hindus believe that this method minimizes trauma and suffering to the animal. Ancient Hindu texts describe the whole of creation as a vast food chain, the cosmos as a giant food cycle. Hindu mendicants avoid preparing their own food, relying either on begging for leftovers or harvesting seeds and fruits from forests, as this minimizes the harm to other life forms and nature; the Vedic texts have conflicting verses, which scholars have interpreted to mean support or opposition to meat-based food.
A group states that some Vedic hymns mention animal sacrifice and therefore support non-vegetarianism. According to Marvin Harris, the Vedic literature is contradictory, with some suggesting ritual slaughter and meat consumption, while others suggesting a taboo on meat eating; the hymn 10.87.16 of the Hindu scripture Rigveda, states Nanditha Krishna, condemns all killings of men and horses, prays to god Agni to punish those who kill. According to Harris, from ancient times, vegetarianism became a well accepted mainstream Hindu tradition; the Upanishads and Sutra texts of Hinduism discuss moderate diet and proper nutrition, as well as Aharatattva. The Upanishads and Sutra texts invoke the concept of virtuous self-restraint in matters of food, while the Samhitas discuss what and when certain foods are suitable. A few Hindu texts such as Hathayoga Pradipika combine both. Moderation in diet is called Mitahara, this is discussed in Shandilya Upanishad, as well as by Svātmārāma as a virtue, it is one of the yamas discussed in ancient Indian texts.
Some of the earliest ideas behind Mitahara trace to ancient era Taittiriya Upanishad, which in various hymns discusses the importance of food to healthy living, to the cycle of life, as well as to its role in one's body and its effect on Self. The Upanishad, states Stiles, notes “from food life springs forth, by food it is sustained, in food it merges when life departs”. Many ancient and medieval Hindu texts debate the rationale for a voluntary stop to cow slaughter and the pursuit of vegetarianism as a part of a general abstention from violence against others and all killing of animals; some significant debates between pro-non-vegetarianism and pro-vegetarianism, with mention of cattle meat as food, is found in several books of the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata its Book III, XII, XIII and XIV. It is found in the Ramayana; these two epics are not only literary classics, but they have been popular religious classics. The Bhagavad Gita includes verses on diet and moderation in food in Chapter 6.
It states in verse 6.16 that a Yogi must neither eat too much nor too little, neither sleep too much nor too little. Understanding and regulating one’s established habits about eating and recreation is suggested as essential to the practice of yoga in verse 6.17. Another ancient Indian text, Tirukkuṛaḷ written in the South Indian language of Tamil, states moderate diet as a virtuous life style and criticizes "non-vegetarianism" in its Pulaan Maruthal chapter, through verses 251 through 260. Verse 251, for instance, questions "how can one be possessed of kindness, who, to increase his own flesh, eats the flesh of other creatures." It says that "the wise, who are devoid of mental delusions, do not eat the severed body of other creatures", suggesting that "flesh is nothing but the despicable wound of a mangled body". It continues to say that not eating meat is a practice more sacred than the most sacred religious practices known and that only those who refrain from killing and eating the kill are worthy of veneration.
This text, written before 400 CE, sometimes called the Tamil Veda, discusses eating habits and its role in a healthy life, dedicating Chapter 95 of Book 7 to it. Tirukkuṛaḷ states in verses 943 through 945, "eat in moderation, when you feel hungry, foods that are agreeable to your body, refraining from foods that your body finds disagreeable". Tiruvalluvar emphasizes overeating has ill effects on health, in verse 946, as “the pleasures of health abide in the man who eats moderately; the pains of disease dwell with him who eats excessively.”Verses 1.57 through 1.63 of the Hathayoga Pradipika suggests that taste cravings should not drive one's eating habits, rather the best diet is one, tasty and likable as well as sufficient to meet the needs of one's body and for one’s inner self. It recommends that one must "eat only when one feels hungry" and "neither overeat nor eat to fill the capacity of one's stomach. Verses 1.59 to 1.61 of Hathayoga Pradipika suggest a mitahara regimen of a yogi avoids foods with excessive amounts of sour, bitterness, spice burn, unripe vegetables, fermented foods or alcohol.
The practice of Mitahara, in Hathayoga Pradipika, includes avoiding stale and tamasic foods, consuming moderate amounts of fresh and sattvic foods. Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita – two major ancient Hindu texts on health related subjects, include many chapters on the role of diet and
Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan, it borders Guinea and Liberia to the west, Burkina Faso and Mali to the north, Ghana to the east, the Gulf of Guinea to the south. Before its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, Baoulé; the area became a protectorate of France in 1843 and was consolidated as a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. Stable by regional standards, Ivory Coast established close political and economic ties with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close relations to the West France. Ivory Coast experienced a coup d'état in 1999 and two religiously-grounded civil wars, first between 2002 and 2007 and again during 2010–2011.
In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution. Ivory Coast is a republic with strong executive power vested in its president. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s, though it went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Only around 2014 has GDP per capita in the country again reached the level of its peak in the 1970s. In the 21st century, the Ivorian economy is market-based and still relies on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant; the official language is French, with local indigenous languages widely used, including Baoulé, Dan and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. There are large populations of Muslims and various indigenous religions. Portuguese and French merchant-explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries divided the west coast of Africa roughly, into four "coasts" reflecting local economies.
The coast that the French named the Côte d'Ivoire and the Portuguese named the Costa Do Marfim—both mean "Coast of Ivory"—lay between what was known as the Guiné de Cabo Verde, so-called "Upper Guinea" at Cap-Vert, Lower Guinea. There was a Pepper Coast known as the "Grain Coast", a "Gold Coast", a "Slave Coast". Like those, the name "Ivory Coast" reflected the major trade that occurred on that particular stretch of the coast: the export of ivory. Other names included the Côte de Dents "Coast of Teeth", again reflecting the trade in ivory. One can find the name Cote de Dents used in older works, it was used in Duckett's Dictionnaire and by Nicolas Villault de Bellefond, for example, although Antoine François Prévost used Côte d'Ivoire. In the 19th century, usage switched to Côte d'Ivoire; the coastline of the modern state is not quite coterminous with what the 15th- and 16th-century merchants knew as the "Teeth" or "Ivory" coast, considered to stretch from Cape Palmas to Cape Three Points and, thus now divided between the modern states of Ghana and Ivory Coast.
It retained the name through French rule and independence in 1960. The name had long since been translated into other languages, which the post-independence government considered troublesome whenever its international dealings extended beyond the Francophone sphere. Therefore, in April 1986, the government declared that Côte d'Ivoire would be its formal name for the purposes of diplomatic protocol, since officially refuses to recognize or accept any translation from French to another language in its international dealings. Despite the Ivorian government's request, the English translation "Ivory Coast" is still used in English by various media outlets and publications; the first human presence in Ivory Coast has been difficult to determine because human remains have not been well preserved in the country's humid climate. However, newly found weapon and tool fragments have been interpreted as a possible indication of a large human presence during the Upper Paleolithic period, or at the minimum, the Neolithic period.
The earliest known inhabitants of Ivory Coast have left traces scattered throughout the territory. Historians believe that they were all either displaced or absorbed by the ancestors of the present indigenous inhabitants, who migrated south into the area before the 16th century; such groups included the Kotrowou, Zéhiri, Ega and Diès. The first recorded history appears in the chronicles of North African traders, from early Roman times, conducted a caravan trade across the Sahara in salt, slaves and other goods; the southern terminals of the trans-Saharan trade routes were located on the edge of the desert, from there supplemental trade extended as far south as the edge of the rain forest. The more important terminals—Djenné, Timbuctu—grew into major commercial centres around which the great Sudanic empires developed. By controlling the trade routes with their powerful military forces, these empires were able
Ethics of eating meat
The question of whether it is right to eat animal flesh is among the most prominent topics in food ethics. The most given moral objection to meat-eating is that, for most people living in the developed world, it is not necessary for survival or health. Ethical vegetarians and ethical vegans may object to the practices underlying the production of meat, or cite their concerns about animal welfare, animal rights, environmental ethics, religious reasons. In response, some proponents of meat-eating have adduced various scientific, nutritional and religious arguments in support of the practice; some meat-eaters only object to rearing animals in certain ways, such as in factory farms, or killing them with cruelty. Peter Singer—Princeton University and University of Melbourne professor and pioneer of the animal liberation movement—has long argued that, if it is possible to survive and be healthy without eating meat, dairy, or eggs, one ought to choose that option instead of causing unnecessary harm to animals.
In Animal Liberation, Singer argued that, because non-human animals feel, they should be treated according to utilitarian ethics. Singer's work has since been built upon by philosophers, both those who agree and those who do not, it has been applied by animal rights advocates as well as by ethical vegetarians and vegans. Ethical vegetarians say that the reasons for not hurting or killing animals are similar to the reasons for not hurting or killing humans, they argue that killing an animal, like killing a human, can only be justified in extreme circumstances. Some ethicists have added that humans, unlike other animals, are morally conscious of their behavior and have a choice. Ethical vegetarian concerns have become more widespread in developed countries because of the spread of factory farming, more open and graphic documentation of what human meat-eating entails for the animal, environmental consciousness; some proponents of meat-eating argue that the current mass demand for meat has to be satisfied with a mass-production system, regardless of the welfare of animals.
Less radical proponents argue that practices like well-managed free-range rearing and the consumption of hunted animals from species whose natural predators have been eliminated, could satisfy the demand for mass-produced meat. Reducing the worldwide massive food waste would contribute to reduce meat waste and therefore save animals. Indeed, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, about a third of the food for human consumption is wasted globally; some have described unequal treatment of humans and animals as a form of speciesism such as anthropocentrism or human-centeredness. Val Plumwood has argued that anthropocentrism plays a role in green theory, analogous to androcentrism in feminist theory and ethnocentrism in anti-racist theory. Plumwood calls human-centredness "anthropocentrism" to emphasize this parallel. By analogy with racism and sexism, Melanie Joy has dubbed meat-eating "carnism"; the animal rights movement seeks an end to the rigid moral and legal distinction drawn between human and non-human animals, an end to the status of animals as property, an end to their use in the research, food and entertainment industries.
Peter Singer, in his ethical philosophy of what it is to be a "person", argues that livestock animals feel enough to deserve better treatment than they receive. Many thinkers have questioned the morality not only of the double standard underlying speciesism but the double standard underlying the fact that people support treatment of cows and chickens that they would never allow with pet dogs, cats, or birds. Jay Bost and winner of The New York Times' essay contest on the ethics of eating meat, summarized his argument in the following way: "eating meat raised in specific circumstances is ethical, he proposes that if "ethical is defined as living in the most ecologically benign way in specific circumstances, of which each eater must educate himself, eating meat is ethical." The specific circumstances he mentions include using animals to cycle nutrients and convert sun to food. Ethicists like Tom Regan and Peter Singer define "ethical" in terms of suffering rather than ecology. Mark Rowlands argues that the real determinant of whether it is ethical to cause suffering is whether there is any vital need to cause it.
Ethologist Jane Goodall stated in the 2009 book The Inner World of Farm Animals that "farm animals feel pleasure and sadness and resentment, depression and pain. They are much more sensitive and intelligent than we imagined." In 2012, a group of well known neuroscientists stated in the "Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness in Non-Human Animals" that all mammals and birds, other animals, possess the neurological substrates that generate consciousness and are able to experience affective states. Eugene Linden, author of The Parrot's Lament, suggests that many examples of animal behavior and intelligence seem to indicate both emotion and a level of consciousness that we would ascribe only to our own species. Philosopher Daniel Dennett counters: Consciousness requires a certain kind of informational organizat
Vegetarianism and religion
Vegetarianism is linked with a number of religions that originated in ancient India. In Jainism, vegetarianism is mandatory for everyone. Comparatively, in the Abrahamic religions, the Bahá'í Faith and Dharmic religions such as Sikhism, vegetarianism is less viewed as a religious obligation, although in all these faiths there are groups promoting vegetarianism on religious grounds. Most Indian religions have philosophical schools that forbid consumption of meat and Jainism institutes an outright ban on the same. India is home to more vegetarians than any other country. About 30% of India's 1.2 billion population practices lacto vegetarianism, with overall meat consumption increasing. The per capita meat consumption in India in 2002 was 5.2 kg, while it was 24 times more in the United States at 124.8 kg. Meat consumption in the United States and India grew at about 40% over the last 50 years. In 1961 Indian per capita meat consumption was 3.7 kg. Vegetarianism in Jainism is based on the principle of nonviolence.
Vegetarianism is considered mandatory for everyone. Jains vegans. No use or consumption of products obtained from dead animals is allowed. Moreover, Jains try to avoid unnecessary injury to plants and suksma jiva; the goal is to cause as little violence to living things as possible, hence they avoid eating roots, tubers such as potatoes and anything that involves uprooting a plant to obtain food. Every act by which a person directly or indirectly supports killing or injury is seen as violence, which creates harmful karma; the aim of ahimsa is to prevent the accumulation of such karma. Jains consider nonviolence to be the most essential religious duty for everyone, their scrupulous and thorough way of applying nonviolence to everyday activities, to food, shapes their entire lives and is the most significant hallmark of Jain identity. A side effect of this strict discipline is the exercise of asceticism, encouraged in Jainism for lay people as well as for monks and nuns. Jains do not practice animal sacrifice.
Vegetarianism is an integral part of most schools of Hinduism although there are a wide variety of practices and beliefs that have changed over time. An estimated 30% of all Hindus are vegetarians; some sects of Hindus do not observe vegetarianism. The principle of nonviolence applied to animals is connected with the intention to avoid negative karmic influences which result from violence; the suffering of all beings is believed to arise from craving and desire, conditioned by the karmic effects of both animal and human action. The violence of slaughtering animals for food, its source in craving, reveal flesh eating as one mode in which humans enslave themselves to suffering. Hinduism holds that such influences affect the person who permits the slaughter of an animal, the person who kills it, the person who cuts it up, the person who buys or sells meat, the person who cooks it, the person who serves it up, the person who eats it, they must all be considered the slayers of the animal. The question of religious duties towards the animals and of negative Karma incurred from violence against them is discussed in detail in Hindu scriptures and religious law books.
Hindu scriptures belong or refer to the Vedic period which lasted till about 500 BCE according to the chronological division by modern historians. In the historical Vedic religion, the predecessor of Hinduism, meat eating was not banned in principle, but was restricted by specific rules. Several authoritative scriptures bar violence against domestic animals except in the case of ritual sacrifice; this view is expressed in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana, the Chandogya Upanishad. For instance, many Hindus point to the Mahabharata's maxim that "Nonviolence is the highest duty and the highest teaching," as advocating a vegetarian diet; the Mahabharata states that adharma was born when creatures started to devour one another from want of food and that adharma always destroys every creature " It is reflected in the Manu Smriti, a renowned traditional Hindu law book. These texts condemn the slaughter of animals and meat eating; the Mahabharata and the Manu Smriti contain lengthy discussions about the legitimacy of ritual slaughter and subsequent consumption of the meat.
In the Mahabharata both meat eaters and vegetarians present various arguments to substantiate their viewpoints. Apart from the debates about domestic animals, there is a long discourse by a hunter in defence of hunting and meat eating; these texts show that both ritual slaughter and hunting were challenged by advocates of universal non-violence and their acceptability was doubtful and a matter of dispute. In modern India the food habits of Hindus vary according to their community or caste and according to regional traditions. Hindu vegetarians eschew eggs but consume milk and dairy products, so they are lacto-vegetarians. According to a survey of 2006, vegetarianism is weak in coastal states and strong in landlocked northern and western states and among Brahmins in general, 55 percent of whom are vegetarians. In 2018, a study from Economic and Political Weekly shows that i