A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing of animal milk – from cows or goats, but from buffaloes, horses, or camels – for human consumption. A dairy is located on a dedicated dairy farm or in a section of a multi-purpose farm, concerned with the harvesting of milk. Terminology differs between countries. For example, in the United States, an entire dairy farm is called a "dairy"; the building or farm area where milk is harvested from the cow is called a "milking parlor" or "parlor". Except in the case of smaller dairies, where cows are put on pasture, milked in "stanchion barns"; the farm area where milk is stored in bulk tanks is known as the farm's "milk house". Milk is hauled to a "dairy plant" = referred to as a "dairy" - where raw milk is further processed and prepared for commercial sale of dairy products. In New Zealand, farm areas for milk harvesting are called "milking parlours", are known as "milking sheds"; as in the United States, sometimes milking sheds are referred to by their type, such as "herring bone shed" or "pit parlour".
Parlour design has evolved from simple barns or sheds to large rotary structures in which the workflow is efficiently handled. In some countries those with small numbers of animals being milked, the farm may perform the functions of a dairy plant, processing their own milk into salable dairy products, such as butter, cheese, or yogurt; this on-site processing is a traditional method of producing specialist milk products, common in Europe. In the United States a dairy can be a place that processes and sells dairy products, or a room, building or establishment where milk is stored and processed into milk products, such as butter or cheese. In New Zealand English the singular use of the word dairy exclusively refers to a corner shop, or superette; this usage is historical. As an attributive, the word dairy refers to milk-based products and processes, the animals and workers involved in their production: for example dairy cattle, dairy goat. A dairy farm produces a dairy factory processes it into a variety of dairy products.
These establishments constitute a component of the food industry. Milk producing animals have been domesticated for thousands of years, they were part of the subsistence farming that nomads engaged in. As the community moved about the country, their animals accompanied them. Protecting and feeding the animals were a big part of the symbiotic relationship between the animals and the herders. In the more recent past, people in agricultural societies owned dairy animals that they milked for domestic and local consumption, a typical example of a cottage industry; the animals might serve multiple purposes. In this case the animals were milked by hand and the herd size was quite small, so that all of the animals could be milked in less than an hour—about 10 per milker; these tasks were performed by a dairyman. The word dairy harkens back to Middle English dayerie, from deye and further back to Old English dæge. With industrialisation and urbanisation, the supply of milk became a commercial industry, with specialised breeds of cattle being developed for dairy, as distinct from beef or draught animals.
More people were employed as milkers, but it soon turned to mechanisation with machines designed to do the milking. The milking and the processing took place close together in space and time: on a dairy farm. People milked the animals by hand. Hand-milking is accomplished by grasping the teats in the hand and expressing milk either by squeezing the fingers progressively, from the udder end to the tip, or by squeezing the teat between thumb and index finger moving the hand downward from udder towards the end of the teat; the action of the hand or fingers is designed to close off the milk duct at the udder end and, by the movement of the fingers, close the duct progressively to the tip to express the trapped milk. Each half or quarter of the udder is emptied one milk-duct capacity at a time; the stripping action is repeated. Both methods result in the milk, trapped in the milk duct being squirted out the end into a bucket, supported between the knees of the milker, who sits on a low stool. Traditionally the cow, or cows, would stand in the paddock while being milked.
Young stock, would have to be trained to remain still to be milked. In many countries, the cows milked. While most countries produce their own milk products, the structure of the dairy industry varies in different parts of the world. In major milk-producing countries most milk is distributed through whole sale markets. In Ireland and Australia, for example, farmers' co-operatives own many of the large-scale processors, while in the United States many farmers and processors do business through individual contracts. In the United States, the country's 196 farmers' cooperatives sold 86% of milk in the U. S. in 2002, with five cooperatives accounting for half that. This was down from 2,300 cooperatives in the 1940s. In developing countries, the past practice of farmers marketing milk in their own neighborhoods is changing rapidly. Notable
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary. Used broadly, shrimp may cover any of the groups with elongated bodies and a swimming mode of locomotion – most Caridea and Dendrobranchiata. In some fields, the term is used more narrowly and may be restricted to Caridea, to smaller species of either group or to only the marine species. Under the broader definition, shrimp may be synonymous with prawn, covering stalk-eyed swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular tails, long whiskers, slender legs. Any small crustacean which resembles a shrimp tends to be called one, they swim forward by paddling with swimmerets on the underside of their abdomens, although their escape response is repeated flicks with the tail driving them backwards quickly. Crabs and lobsters have strong walking legs, whereas shrimp have thin, fragile legs which they use for perching. Shrimp are abundant. There are thousands of species adapted to a wide range of habitats.
They can be found feeding near the seafloor on most coasts and estuaries, as well as in rivers and lakes. To escape predators, some species flip off the dive into the sediment, they live from one to seven years. Shrimp are solitary, though they can form large schools during the spawning season, they play important roles in the food chain and are an important food source for larger animals ranging from fish to whales. The muscular tails of many shrimp are edible to humans, they are caught and farmed for human consumption. Commercial shrimp species support an industry worth 50 billion dollars a year, in 2010 the total commercial production of shrimp was nearly 7 million tonnes. Shrimp farming became more prevalent during the 1980s in China, by 2007 the harvest from shrimp farms exceeded the capture of wild shrimp. There are significant issues with excessive bycatch when shrimp are captured in the wild, with pollution damage done to estuaries when they are used to support shrimp farming. Many shrimp species are small as the term shrimp suggests, about 2 cm long, but some shrimp exceed 25 cm.
Larger shrimp are more to be targeted commercially and are referred to as prawns in Britain. Shrimp are swimming crustaceans with long antennae. Unlike crabs and lobsters, shrimp have well developed slender walking legs, it was the distinction between walking and swimming that formed the primary taxonomic division into the former suborders Natantia and Reptantia. Members of the Natantia were adapted for swimming while the Reptantia were adapted for crawling or walking; some other groups have common names that include the word "shrimp". The following description refers to the external anatomy of the common European shrimp, Crangon crangon, as a typical example of a decapod shrimp; the body of the shrimp is divided into two main parts: the head and thorax which are fused together to form the cephalothorax, a long narrow abdomen. The shell which protects the cephalothorax is harder and thicker than the shell elsewhere on the shrimp and is called the carapace; the carapace surrounds the gills, through which water is pumped by the action of the mouthparts.
The rostrum, eyes and legs issue from the carapace. The rostrum, from the Latin rōstrum meaning beak, looks like a beak or pointed nose at the front of the shrimp's head, it can be used for attack or defense. It may stabilize the shrimp when it swims backward. Two bulbous eyes on stalks sit either side of the rostrum; these are compound eyes which have panoramic vision and are good at detecting movement. Two pairs of whiskers issue from the head. One of these pairs is long and can be twice the length of the shrimp, while the other pair is quite short; the antennae have sensors on them which allow the shrimp to feel where they touch, allow them to "smell" or "taste" things by sampling the chemicals in the water. The long antennae help the shrimp orient itself with regard to its immediate surroundings, while the short antennae help assess the suitability of prey. Eight pairs of appendages issue from the cephalothorax; the first three pairs, the maxillipeds, Latin for "jaw feet", are used as mouthparts.
In Crangon crangon, the first pair, the maxillula, pumps water into the gill cavity. After the maxilliped come five more pairs of appendages, the pereiopods; these form the ten decapod legs. In Crangon crangon, the first two pairs of pereiopods have claws or chela; the chela can bring them to the mouth. They can be used for fighting and grooming; the remaining six legs are long and slender, are used for walking or perching. The muscular abdomen has a thinner shell than the carapace; each segment has a separate overlapping shell. The first five segments each have a pair of appendages on the underside, which are shaped like paddles and are used for swimming forward; the appendages are called pleopods or swimmerets, can be used for purposes other than swimming. Some shrimp species use them for brooding eggs, others have gills on them for breathing, the males in some species use the first pair or two for insemination; the sixth segment terminates in the telson flanked by two pairs of appendages called the uropods.
The uropods allow the shrimp to swim backward, function like rudders, steering the shrimp when it
Fishing in Bangladesh
Bangladesh being a first line littoral state of the Indian Ocean has a good source of marine resources in the Bay of Bengal. The country has an exclusive economic zone of 41,000 square miles, 73% of the country's land area. On the other hand, Bangladesh is a small and developing country overloaded with unbearable pressure of human population. In the past, people of Bangladesh were dependent upon land-based proteins. But, the continuous process of industrialisation and urbanisation consumes the limited land area. Now there is no other way than to harvest the vast under water protein from the Bay of Bengal, which can meet the country's demand. More than 80 percent of the animal protein in the Bangladeshi diet comes from fish. Fish accounted for 6 percent of GDP in the fiscal year of 1970, nearly 50 percent more than modern industrial manufacturing at that time. Most commercial fishermen are low-caste Hindus who eke out the barest subsistence working under primitive and dangerous conditions, they bring a high degree of ingenuity to their occupation.
Fish for local consumption are of freshwater varieties. As of the end of 1987, prevailing methods for culturing shrimp in Bangladesh were still unsophisticated, average yields per hectare were low. In the late 1980s all inland shrimping was done by capture rather than by intensive aquaculture. Farmers relied on wild postlarval and juvenile shrimp as their sources of stock, acquired either by trapping in ponds during tidal water exchange or by gathering from local estuaries and stocking directly in the ponds. Despite the low level of technology applied to shrimp aquaculture, it became an important part of the frozen seafood industry in the mid-1980s; the shrimp farming industry in Bangladesh has been handicapped by low prices. The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank financed projects to develop shrimp aquaculture in the 1980s. Much of the emphasis was on construction of modern hatcheries. Private investors were initiating similar projects to increase capacity and to introduce modern technology that would increase average yields.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has provided assistance to the shrimp and fishing industry in meeting fish safety and quality control standards based on the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point approach. Shrimp in the wild are associated with mangrove. Mangrove estuaries such as those found in the Sundarbans of southwestern Bangladesh are rich productive ecosystems and provide the spawning grounds for shrimp and fish. Intensive shrimp farming involves conversion of mangrove stands to brine ponds where shrimp are grown. Training for the fishing industry of Bangladesh, as well as for merchant shipping and related maritime industries is provided by the Bangladesh Marine Fisheries an Academy. Shrimp and dried fish are emblematic of Bangladeshi cuisine. However, according to a 2014 Bureau of International Labor Affairs report, they rank among the goods that are produced by child labour and forced labour in Bangladesh; the US Department of Labor reported that "some children work under forced labor conditions in the dried fishing sector to help their families pay off debts to local moneylenders".
Classified as "aquacultural goods" in the Public Library of US Diplomacy's TVPRA Response on the production of goods under child labour conditions in Bangladesh, the Government of Bangladesh recognises that "some of the worst forms of child labor may exist in the rural sector and has been working with the ILO and other donors to craft an appropriate development program response." List of fish in Bangladesh Agriculture in Bangladesh This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world's population. Only subsistence farmers, those who survive on what they grow, hunter-gatherers can be considered outside the scope of the modern food industry; the food Industry includes: Agriculture: raising crops and seafood Manufacturing: agrichemicals, agricultural construction, farm machinery and supplies, etc. Food processing: preparation of fresh products for market, manufacture of prepared food products Marketing: promotion of generic products, new products, marketing campaigns, public relations, etc. Wholesale and food distribution: logistics, warehousing Foodservice Grocery, farmers' markets, public markets and other retailing Regulation: local, regional and international rules and regulations for food production and sale, including food quality, food security, food safety, marketing/advertising, industry lobbying activities Education: academic, vocational Research and development: food technology Financial services: credit, insurance It is challenging to find an inclusive way to cover all aspects of food production and sale.
The UK Food Standards Agency describes it thus: "...the whole food industry – from farming and food production and distribution, to retail and catering."The Economic Research Service of the USDA uses the term food system to describe the same thing: "The U. S. food system is a complex network of the industries that link to them. Those links include makers of farm equipment and chemicals as well as firms that provide services to agribusinesses, such as providers of transportation and financial services; the system includes the food marketing industries that link farms to consumers, which include food and fiber processors, wholesalers and foodservice establishments."The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, preparation and packaging of foodstuffs. The food industry today has become diversified, with manufacturing ranging from small, family-run activities that are labor intensive, to large, capital-intensive and mechanized industrial processes.
Many food industries depend entirely on local agriculture or fishing. Agriculture is the process of producing food, feeding products and other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals; the practice of agriculture is known as "farming". Scientists and others devoted to improving farming methods and implements are said to be engaged in agriculture. 1 in 3 people worldwide are employed in agriculture, yet it only contributes 3% to global GDP. Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel and land reclamation. Agronomy encompasses work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology and soil science. Agronomy is the application of a combination of sciences. Agronomists today are involved with many issues including producing food, creating healthier food, managing environmental impact of agriculture, extracting energy from plants. Food processing includes the methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for human consumption.
Food processing takes clean, harvested or slaughtered and butchered components and uses them to produce marketable food products. There are several different ways. One-off production: This method is used when customers make an order for something to be made to their own specifications, for example a wedding cake; the making of one-off products could take days depending on. Batch production: This method is used when the size of the market for a product is not clear, where there is a range within a product line. A certain number of the same goods will be produced to make up a batch or run, for example a bakery may bake a limited number of cupcakes; this method involves estimating consumer demand. Mass production: This method is used when there is a mass market for a large number of identical products, for example chocolate bars, ready meals and canned food; the product passes from one stage of production to another along a production line. Just-in-time: This method of production is used in restaurants.
All components of the product are available in-house and the customer chooses what they want in the product. It is prepared in a kitchen, or in front of the buyer as in sandwich delicatessens and sushi bars; the food industry has a large influence on consumerism. Organizations, such as The American Academy of Family Physicians, have been criticized for accepting monetary donations from companies within the food industry, such as Coca-Cola; these donations have been criticized for creating a conflict of interest and favoring an interest such as financial gains. Since World War II, agriculture in the United States and the entire national food system in its entirety has been characterized by models that focus on monetary profitability at the expense of social and environmental integrity. Regulations exist to protect consumers and somewhat balance this economic orientation with public interests for food quality, food security, food safety, animal well-being, environmental protection and health. A vast global cargo network connects the numerous parts of the industry.
These include suppliers, warehousers and the end consumers. Wholesale markets for fresh food products have tended to decline in importance in urbanizing countries, including Latin America and some Asian countries a
A rice huller or rice husker is an agricultural machine used to automate the process of removing the chaff of grains of rice. Throughout history, there have been numerous techniques to hull rice. Traditionally, it would be pounded using some form of pestle. An early simple machine to do this is a rice pounder. More efficient machinery was developed to hull and polish rice; these machines are most developed and used throughout Asia where the most popular type is the Engelberg huller designed by German Brazilian engineer Evaristo Conrado Engelberg in Brazil and first patented in 1885. The Engelberg huller uses steel rollers to remove the husk. Other types of huller include the disk or cono huller which uses an abrasive rotating disk to first remove the husk before passing the grain to conical rollers which polish it, this is done since other sides of circular side of rice are not husked. Rubber rollers may be used to reduce the amount of breakage of the grains, so increasing the yield of the best quality head rice, but the rubber rollers tend to require frequent replacement, which can be a significant drawback.
Rice hulls Rice polisher Rice pounder, an earlier simple tool to dehull rice Threshing machine, a general grain hulling machine Winnowing barn, a previous method of hulling in commercial rice growing
Bangladesh the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It shares land borders with Myanmar; the country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country as well as its most densely-populated, to the exclusion of small island nations and city-states. Dhaka is largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population; the politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh. Most of Bangladesh is covered by the largest delta on Earth; the country has 8,046 km of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has a coral reef. The longest unbroken natural sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located in the southeast, it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal; the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia; the Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries. The region was home to many principalities; as the Mughal Empire's wealthiest province, Bangladesh as part of the Bengal Subah was worth 12% of the world's GDP, larger than the entirety of western Europe. It was a notable center of the global muslin and silk trade.
As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements. The Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan; the region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy; the country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty, education and corruption. Bangladesh is a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity, it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Japan and Singapore. With its strategically vital location between South and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation.
It is a founding member of SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Initiative. It is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Commonwealth of Nations, the Developing 8 Countries, the OIC, the Indian-Ocean Rim Association, the Non Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces; the etymology of Bangladesh can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term. The term Bangladesh was written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan; the term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD; the term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.
The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342; the word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century; the origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe, the Austric word "Bonga", the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal". Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years, remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration. Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region.
By the 11th century people lived in systemically-aligned housing, buried their dead, manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. The Ganges and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permit
Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying and other types of cooking. It is used in food preparation and flavouring not involving heat, such as salad dressings and bread dips, in this sense might be more termed edible oil. Cooking oil is a liquid at room temperature, although some oils that contain saturated fat, such as coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil are solid. There is a wide variety of cooking oils from plant sources such as olive oil, palm oil, soybean oil, canola oil, corn oil, peanut oil and other vegetable oils, as well as animal-based oils like butter and lard. Oil can be flavoured with aromatic foodstuffs such as chillies or garlic. A guideline for the appropriate amount of fat—a component of daily food consumption—is established by government agencies. > While consumption of small amounts of saturated fats is common in diets, meta-analyses found a significant correlation between high consumption of saturated fats and blood LDL concentration, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.
Other meta-analyses based on cohort studies and on controlled, randomized trials found a positive, or neutral, effect from consuming polyunsaturated fats instead of saturated fats. Mayo Clinic has highlighted certain oils that are high in saturated fats, including coconut, palm oil and palm kernel oil; those having lower amounts of saturated fats and higher levels of unsaturated fats like olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil and cottonseed oils are healthier. The US National Heart and Blood Institute urged saturated fats be replaced with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, listing olive and canola oils as sources of healthier monounsaturated oils while soybean and sunflower oils as good sources of polyunsaturated fats. One study showed that consumption of non-hydrogenated unsaturated oils like soybean and sunflower is preferable to the consumption of palm oil for lowering the risk of heart disease. Peanut oil, cashew oil and other nut-based oils may present a hazard to persons with a nut allergy.
Unlike other dietary fats, trans fats are not essential, they do not promote good health. The consumption of trans fats increases one's risk of coronary heart disease by raising levels of "bad" LDL cholesterol and lowering levels of "good" HDL cholesterol. Trans fats from hydrogenated oils are more harmful than occurring oils. Several large studies indicate a link between the consumption of high amounts of trans fat and coronary heart disease, some other diseases; the United States Food and Drug Administration, the National Heart and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association all have recommended limiting the intake of trans fats. In the US, trans fats are no longer "generally recognized as safe," and cannot be added to foods, including cooking oils, without special permission. Heating an oil changes its characteristics. Oils that are healthy at room temperature can become unhealthy when heated above certain temperatures, so when choosing a cooking oil, it is important to match the oil's heat tolerance with the temperature which will be used.
Deep-fat frying temperatures are in the range of 170–190 °C, less lower temperatures ≥ 130 °C are used. Palm oil contains more saturated fats than canola oil, corn oil, linseed oil, soybean oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil. Therefore, palm oil can withstand deep frying at higher temperatures and is resistant to oxidation compared to high-polyunsaturated vegetable oils. Since about 1900, palm oil has been incorporated into food by the global commercial food industry because it remains stable in deep frying, or in baking at high temperatures, for its high levels of natural antioxidants, though the refined palm oil used in industrial food has lost most of its carotenoid content; the following oils are suitable for high-temperature frying due to their high smoke point above 230 °C: Avocado oil Mustard oil Palm oil Peanut oil Rice bran oil Safflower oil Semi-refined sesame oil Semi-refined sunflower oilLess aggressive frying temperatures are used. A quality frying oil has a bland flavor, at least 200 °C smoke and 315 °C flash points, with maximums of 0.1% free fatty acids and 3% linolenic acid.
Those oils with higher linolenic fractions are avoided due to polymerization or gumming marked by increases in viscosity with age. Olive oil has been used as a frying oil for thousands of years. Olive oil All oils degrade in response to heat and oxygen. To delay the onset of rancidity, a blanket of an inert gas nitrogen, is applied to the vapor space in the storage container after production – a process called tank blanketing. In a cool, dry place, oils have greater stability, but may thicken, although they will soon return to liquid form if they are left at room temperature. To minimize the degrading effects of heat and light, oils should be removed from cold storage just long enough for use. Refined oils high in monounsaturated fats, such as macadamia oil, keep up to a year, while those high in polyunsaturated fats, such as soybean oil, keep about six months. Rancidity tests have shown that the shelf life of walnut oil is about 3 months, a period shorter than the best before date shown on labels.
By contrast, oils high in saturated fats, such as avocado oil, have long shelf lives and can be safely stored at room temperature, as the low polyunsaturated fat content facilitates stability. Cooking oils are composed of various fractions of fatty acids. For the purpose of frying food, o