Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic amoebozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba. Predominantly infecting humans and other primates causing amoebiasis, E. histolytica is estimated to infect about 50 million people worldwide. E. histolytica infection is estimated to kill more than 55,000 people each year. It was thought that 10% of the world population was infected, but these figures predate the recognition that at least 90% of these infections were due to a second species, E. dispar. Mammals such as dogs and cats can become infected transiently, but are not thought to contribute to transmission; the word histolysis means disintegration and dissolution of organic tissues. The active stage exists only in fresh loose feces; the infection can occur when a person puts anything into their mouth that has touched the feces of a person, infected with E. histolytica, swallows something, such as water or food, contaminated with E. histolytica, or swallows E. histolytica cysts picked up from contaminated surfaces or fingers.
The cysts are killed by heat and by freezing temperatures, survive for only a few months outside of the host. When cysts are swallowed they cause infections by excysting in the digestive tract; the pathogenic nature of E. histolytica was first reported by Lösch in 1875, but it was not given its Latin name until Fritz Schaudinn described it in 1903. E. histolytica, as its name suggests, is pathogenic. Symptoms can include fulminating dysentery, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, amoeboma; the amoeba can actually'bore' into the intestinal wall, causing lesions and intestinal symptoms, it may reach the blood stream. From there, it can reach different vital organs of the human body the liver, but sometimes the lungs, spleen, etc. A common outcome of this invasion of tissues is a liver abscess. Ingested red blood cells are sometimes seen in the amoeba cell cytoplasm. Poor sanitary conditions are known to increase the risk of contracting amebiasis E. histolytica. In the United States, there is a much higher rate of amebiasis-related mortality in California and Texas, which might be caused by the proximity of those states to E. histolytica-endemic areas, such as Mexico, other parts of Latin America, Asia.
E. histolytica is recognized as an emerging sexually transmissible pathogen in male homosexual relations, causing outbreaks in non-endemic regions. As such, high-risk sex behaviour is a potential source of infection. Although it is unclear whether there is a causal link, studies indicate a higher chance of being infected with E. histolytica if one is infected with HIV. The E. histolytica genome was sequenced and automatically annotated in 2005. The genome was reassembled and reannotated in 2010; the 20 million basepair genome assembly contains. The major group of transposable elements in E. histolytica are non-LTR retrotransposons. These have been divided in three families called EhSINEs. EhLINE1 encode an endonuclease protein, which have similarity with bacterial restriction endonuclease; this similarity with bacterial protein indicates that transposable elements have been acquired from prokaryotes by horizontal gene transfer in this protozoan parasite. In the vast majority of cases, infection is asymptomatic and the carrier is unaware they are infected.
However, in an estimated 10% of cases E. histolytica causes disease. Once the trophozoites are excysted they colonize the large bowel, remaining on the surface of the mucus layer and feeding on bacteria and food particles, and in response to unknown stimuli, trophozoites move through the mucus layer where they come in contact with the epithelial cell layer and start the pathological process. E. histolytica has a lectin that binds to galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine sugars on the surface of the epithelial cells, The lectin is used to bind bacteria for ingestion. The parasite has several enzymes such as pore forming proteins and cysteine proteases, which are used to digest bacteria in food vacuoles but which can cause lysis of the epithelial cells by inducing cellular necrosis and apoptosis when the trophozoite comes in contact with them and binds via the lectin. Enzymes released allow penetration into intestinal wall and blood vessels, sometimes on to liver and other organs; the trophozoites will ingest these dead cells.
This damage to the epithelial cell layer attracts human immune cells and these in turn can be lysed by the trophozoite, which releases the immune cell's own lytic enzymes into the surrounding tissue, creating a type of chain reaction and leading to tissue destruction. This destruction manifests itself in the form of an'ulcer' in the tissue described as flask-shaped because of its appearance in transverse section; this tissue destruction can involve blood vessels leading to bloody diarrhea, amebic dysentery. Trophozoites enter the bloodstream where they are transported to the liver via the portal system. In the liver
Wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine; these variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define qualities of wine; these restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, pomegranate and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years; the earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia and Sicily although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic drink being consumed earlier in China. The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; the earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was later having taken place in the Southern Caucasus, or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, northern Iran; the earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China, Georgia from 6000 BC, Iran from 5000 BC, Sicily from 4000 BC. The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, introduced there 6000 years later; the spread of wine culture westwards was most due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact; as the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina.
Although the nuragic Sardinians consumed wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC; the first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production; the Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine; the English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or " vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o-. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo, meaning "in" or " of the new wine", wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine
Yeast in winemaking
The role of yeast in winemaking is the most important element that distinguishes wine from grape juice. In the absence of oxygen, yeast converts the sugars of wine grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxide through the process of fermentation; the more sugars in the grapes, the higher the potential alcohol level of the wine if the yeast are allowed to carry out fermentation to dryness. Sometimes winemakers will stop fermentation early in order to leave some residual sugars and sweetness in the wine such as with dessert wines; this can be achieved by dropping fermentation temperatures to the point where the yeast are inactive, sterile filtering the wine to remove the yeast or fortification with brandy or neutral spirits to kill off the yeast cells. If fermentation is unintentionally stopped, such as when the yeasts become exhausted of available nutrients and the wine has not yet reached dryness, this is considered a stuck fermentation; the most common yeast associated with winemaking is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, favored due to its predictable and vigorous fermentation capabilities, tolerance of high levels of alcohol and sulfur dioxide as well as its ability to thrive in normal wine pH between 2.8 and 4.
Despite its widespread use which includes deliberate inoculation from cultured stock, S. cerevisiae is the only yeast species involved in a fermentation. Grapes brought in from harvest are teeming with a variety of "wild yeast" from the Kloeckera and Candida genera; these yeasts begin the fermentation process as soon as the grapes are picked when the weight of the clusters in the harvest bins begin to crush the grapes, releasing the sugar-rich must. While additions of sulfur dioxide may limit some of the wild yeast activities, these yeasts will die out once the alcohol level reaches about 15% due to the toxicity of alcohol on the yeast cells physiology while the more alcohol tolerant Saccharomyces species take over. In addition to S. cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus is a species of yeast that can tolerate alcohol levels of 17–20% and is used in fortified wine production such as ports and varieties such as Zinfandel and Syrah harvested at high Brix sugar levels. Another common yeast involved in wine production is Brettanomyces whose presence in a wine may be viewed by different winemakers as either a wine fault or in limited quantities as an added note of complexity.
For most of the history of wine, winemakers did not know the mechanism that somehow converted sugary grape juice into alcoholic wine. They could observe the fermentation process, described as "boiling", "seething" or the wine being "troubled" due to release of carbon dioxide that gave the wine a frothy, bubbling appearance; this history is preserved in the etymology of the word "yeast" itself which means "to boil". In the mid-19th century, the French scientist Louis Pasteur was tasked by the French government to study what made some wines spoil, his work, which would lead to Pasteur being considered one of the "Fathers of Microbiology", would uncover the connection between microscopic yeast cells and the process of the fermentation. It was Pasteur who discovered that yeast converted sugars in the must into alcohol and carbon dioxide, though the exact mechanisms of how the yeast would accomplish this task was not discovered till the 20th century with the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway; the yeast species known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae was first identified in late 19th century enology text as Saccharomyces ellipsoideus due to the elliptical shape of the cells.
Throughout the 20th century, more than 700 different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified. The difference between the vast majority of these strains are minor, though individual winemakers will develop a preference for particular strains when making certain wines or working with particular grape varieties; some of these difference include the "vigor" or speed of fermentation, temperature tolerance, the production of volatile sulfur compounds and other compounds that may influence the aroma of the wine. The primary role of yeast is to convert the sugars present in the grape; the yeast accomplishes this by utilizing glucose through a series of metabolic pathways that, in the presence of oxygen, produces not only large amounts of energy for the cell but many different intermediates that the cell needs to function. In the absence of oxygen, the cell will continue some metabolic functions but will rely on other pathways such as reduction of acetaldehyde into ethanol to "recharge" the co-enzymes needed to keep metabolism going.
It is through this process of fermentation that ethanol is released by the yeast cells as a waste product. If the yeast cells are healthy and fermentation is allowed to run to the completion, all fermentable sugars will be used up by the yeast with only the unfermentable pentose leaving behind a negligible amount of residual sugar. While the production of alcohol is the most noteworthy by-product of yeast metabolism from a winemaking perspective, there are a number of other products that yeast produce that can be influence the resulting wine; this includes glycerol, produced when an intermediate of the glycolysis cycle is reduced to "recharge" the NADH enzyme needed to continue other metabolic activities. This is produced early in the fermentation process before the mechanisms to reduce acetaldehyde into ethanol to recharge NADH becomes the cell's primary means of maintaining redox balance; as glycerol contributes increased body and a sweet taste without increasing
Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies. As of 2019, 20 species were identified. Named after the British pioneer of sterile surgery Joseph Lister, the genus received its current name in 1940. Listeria species are Gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, do not produce endospores; the major human pathogen in the genus Listeria is L. monocytogenes. It is the causative agent of the rare bacterial disease listeriosis, an infection caused by eating food contaminated with the bacteria. Listeriosis can cause serious illness in pregnant women, adults with weakened immune systems and the elderly, may cause gastroenteritis in others who have been infected. Listeriosis is a serious disease for humans; the two main clinical manifestations are sepsis and meningitis. Meningitis is complicated by encephalitis, when it is known as meningoencephalitis, a pathology, unusual for bacterial infections. L. ivanovii is a pathogen of mammals ruminants, has caused listeriosis in humans.
The incubation period can vary between 70 days. The first documented case of listeriosis was in 1924. In the late 1920s, two researchers independently identified L. monocytogenes from animal outbreaks. They proposed the genus Listerella in honor of surgeon and early antiseptic advocate Joseph Lister, but that name was in use for a slime mold and a protozoan; the genus Listeria was proposed and accepted. All species within the genus Listeria are Gram-positive, catalase-positive rods and do not produce endospores; the genus Listeria was classified in the family Corynebacteriaceae through the seventh edition of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. The 16S rRNA cataloging studies of Stackebrandt, et al. demonstrated that L. monocytogenes is a distinct taxon within the Lactobacillus-Bacillus branch of the bacterial phylogeny constructed by Woese. In 2004, the genus was placed in the newly created family Listeriaceae; the only other genus in the family is Brochothrix. The genus Listeria contains 20 species: L. aquatica, L. booriae, L. cornellensis, L. costaricensis, L. goaensis, L. fleischmannii, L. floridensis, L. grandensis, L. grayi, L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. marthii, L. monocytogenes, L. newyorkensis, L. riparia, L. rocourtiae, L. seeligeri, L. thailandensis, L. weihenstephanensis, L. welshimeri.
Listeria dinitrificans thought to be part of the genus Listeria, was reclassified into the new genus Jonesia. Under the microscope, Listeria species appear as small rods, which are sometimes arranged in short chains. In direct smears, they may be coccoid, so they can be mistaken for streptococci. Longer cells may resemble corynebacteria. Flagella are produced at room temperature, but not at 37 °C. Hemolytic activity on blood agar has been used as a marker to distinguish L. monocytogenes from other Listeria species, but it is not an definitive criterion. Further biochemical characterization may be necessary to distinguish between the different species of Listeria. Listeria can be found in soil. Animals can be carriers. Listeria has been found in uncooked meats, uncooked vegetables, fruit such as rockmelon and apples, pasteurized or unpasteurized milk, foods made from milk, processed foods. Pasteurization and sufficient cooking kill Listeria. For example, meat-processing plants producing ready-to-eat foods, such as hot dogs and deli meats, must follow extensive sanitation policies and procedures to prevent Listeria contamination.
Listeria monocytogenes is found in soil, stream water, sewage and food. Listeria is responsible for listeriosis, a rare but lethal foodborne illness; the case fatality rate for those with a severe form of infection may approach 25%. Although L. monocytogenes has low infectivity, it is hardy and can grow in temperatures from 4 °C to 37 °C. Listeriosis is a serious illness, the disease may manifest as meningitis, or affect newborns due to its ability to penetrate the endothelial layer of the placenta. Listeria uses the cellular machinery to move around inside the host cell, it induces directed polymerization of actin by the ActA transmembrane protein, thus pushing the bacterial cell around. L. Monocytogenes, for example, encodes virulence genes; the expression of virulence factor is optimal at 39 °C, is controlled by a transcriptional activator, PrfA, whose expression is thermoregulated by the PrfA thermoregulator UTR element. At low temperatures, the PrfA transcript is not translated due to structural elements near the ribosome binding site.
As the bacteria infect the host, the temperature of the host melts the structure and allows translation initiation for the virulent genes. The majority of Listeria bacteria are targeted by the immune system before they are able to cause infection; those that escape the immune system's initial response, spread through intracellular mechanisms and are, guarded against circulating immune factors. To invade, Listeria induces macrophage phagocytic uptake by displaying D-galactose in their teichoic acids that are bound by the macrophage's polysaccharide s. Other important adhesins are the internalins. Listeria uses internalin B to bind to cellular receptors. Internalin A binds to E-cadherin. If both of these receptors have a high enough aff
Water activity or aw is the partial vapor pressure of water in a substance divided by the standard state partial vapor pressure of water. In the field of food science, the standard state is most defined as the partial vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature. Using this particular definition, pure distilled water has a water activity of one; as temperature increases, aw increases, except in some products with crystalline salt or sugar. Higher aw substances tend to support more microorganisms. Bacteria require at least 0.91, fungi at least 0.7. See fermentation. Water migrates from areas of high aw to areas of low aw. For example, if honey is exposed to humid air, the honey absorbs water from the air. If salami is exposed to dry air, the salami dries out, which could spoil it. Definition of aw: a w ≡ p / p ∗ where p is the partial vapor pressure of water in the solution, p*₀ is the partial vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature. Alternate definition: a w ≡ l w x w where lw is the activity coefficient of water and xw is the mole fraction of water in the aqueous fraction.
Relationship to relative humidity: The relative humidity of air in equilibrium with a sample is called the Equilibrium Relative Humidity. E R H = a w × 100 % Estimated mold-free shelf life in days at 21° C: M F S L = 10 7.91 − 8.1 a w Water activity is an important consideration for food product design and food safety. Food designers use water activity to formulate shelf-stable food. If a product is kept below a certain water activity mold growth is inhibited; this results in a longer shelf life. Water activity values can help limit moisture migration within a food product made with different ingredients. If raisins of a higher water activity are packaged with bran flakes of a lower water activity, the water from the raisins migrates to the bran flakes over time, making the raisins hard and the bran flakes soggy. Food formulators use water activity to predict. Water activity is used in many cases as a critical control point for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points programs. Samples of the food product are periodically taken from the production area and tested to ensure water activity values are within a specified range for food quality and safety.
Measurements can be made in as little as five minutes, are made in most major food production facilities. For many years, researchers tried to equate bacterial growth potential with water content, they found that the values were specific to each food product. W. J. Scott first established that bacterial growth correlated with water activity, not water content, in 1953, it is established that growth of bacteria is inhibited at specific water activity values. U. S. Food and Drug Administration regulations for intermediate moisture foods are based on these values. Lowering the water activity of a food product should not be seen as a kill step. Studies in powdered milk show that viable cells can exist at much lower water activity values, but that they never grow. Over time, bacterial levels decline. Water activity values are obtained by either a resistive electrolytic, a capacitance or a dew point hygrometer. Resistive electrolytic hygrometers use a sensing element in the form of a liquid electrolyte held in between of two small glass rods by capillary force.
The electrolyte changes resistance if it loses water vapor. The resistance is directly proportional to relative air humidity, to water activity of the sample; this relation can be checked by either a verification or calibration using salt-water mixtures, which provide a well-defined and reproducible air humidity in the measurement chamber. The sensor does not have any physically given hysteresis as it is known from capacitance hygrometers and sensors, does not require regular cleaning as its surface is not the sensing element. Volatiles, in principle, influence the measurement performance—especially those that dissociate in the electrolyte and thereby change its resistance; such influences can be avoided by using chemical protection filters that absorb the volatile compound before arriving at the sensor. Capacitance hygrometers consist of two charged plates separated by a polymer membrane dielectric; as the membrane adsorbs water, its ability to hold a charge increases and the capacitance is measured.
This value is proportional to the water activity as determined by a sensor-specific calibration. Capacitance hygrometers are not affected by most volatile chemicals and can be much smaller than other alternative sensors, they are less accurate than dew point hygrometers. They should have regular calibration checks and can be affected by residual water in the polymer membrane; the temperature at which dew forms on a clean surface is directly related to the vapor pressure of the air. Dew point hygrometers work by placing a mirror over a closed sample chamber; the mirror is cooled. This temperature is used to find the rel
Fermentation in food processing
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation implies that the action of microorganisms is desired; the science of fermentation is known as zymurgy. The term fermentation sometimes refers to the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol, producing alcoholic drinks such as wine and cider. However, similar processes take place in the leavening of bread, in the preservation of sour foods with the production of lactic acid, such as in sauerkraut and yogurt. Other consumed fermented foods include vinegar and cheese. More localised foods prepared by fermentation may be based on beans, vegetables, honey, dairy products, meat, or tea. Natural fermentation precedes human history. Since ancient times, humans have exploited the fermentation process; the earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation is 13,000-year-old residues of a beer, with the consistency of gruel, found in a cave near Haifa in Israel.
Another early alcoholic drink, made from fruit and honey, dates from 7000-6600 BCE, in the Neolithic Chinese village of Jiahu, winemaking dates from ca. 6000 BCE, in Georgia, in the Caucasus area. Seven-thousand-year-old jars containing the remains of wine, now on display at the University of Pennsylvania, were excavated in the Zagros Mountains in Iran. There is strong evidence that people were fermenting alcoholic drinks in Babylon ca. 3000 BCE, ancient Egypt ca. 3150 BCE, pre-Hispanic Mexico ca. 2000 BCE, Sudan ca. 1500 BCE. The French chemist Louis Pasteur founded zymology; when studying the fermentation of sugar to alcohol by yeast, Pasteur concluded that the fermentation was catalyzed by a vital force, called "ferments", within the yeast cells. The "ferments" were thought to function only within living organisms. "Alcoholic fermentation is an act correlated with the life and organization of the yeast cells, not with the death or putrefaction of the cells", he wrote. It was known that yeast extracts can ferment sugar in the absence of living yeast cells.
While studying this process in 1897, the German chemist and zymologist Eduard Buchner of Humboldt University of Berlin, found that sugar was fermented when there were no living yeast cells in the mixture, by an enzyme complex secreted by yeast that he termed zymase. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research and discovery of "cell-free fermentation". One year earlier, in 1906, ethanol fermentation studies led to the early discovery of NAD+. Food fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates into alcohol or preservative organic acids and carbon dioxide. All three products have found human uses; the production of alcohol is made use of when fruit juices are converted to wine, when grains are made into beer, when foods rich in starch, such as potatoes, are fermented and distilled to make spirits such as gin and vodka. The production of carbon dioxide is used to leaven bread; the production of organic acids is exploited to flavor vegetables and dairy products.
Food fermentation serves five main purposes: to enrich the diet through development of a diversity of flavors and textures in food substrates. Worldwide: alcohol, olives, bread, cheese Asia East and Southeast Asia: amazake, bai-ming, burong mangga, com ruou, doenjang, jeruk, kimchi, leppet-so, miang, nata de coco, nata de pina, naw-mai-dong, pak-siam-dong, paw-tsaynob, ruou nep, seokbakji, soy sauce, stinky tofu, szechwan cabbage, tai-tan tsoi, tape, totkal kimchi, yen tsai, zha cai Central Asia: kumis, shubat South Asia: achar, dosa, dahi, kaanji, mixed pickle, hawaichaar, sinki, paneer Africa: fermented millet porridge, hibiscus seed, hot pepper sauce, lamoun makbouss, mageu, msir, oilseed, ogili, iru Americas: sourdough bread, cultured milk, elderberry wine, pickling, lupin seed, chocolate, hot sauce, pulque, muktuk Middle East: kushuk, lamoun makbouss, torshi, boza Europe: rakfisk, pickled cucumber, surströmming, elderberry wine, sucuk, cultured milk products such as quark, filmjölk, crème fraîche, skyr, rakı, tupí.
Oceania: poi, kaanga pirau, sago Cheonggukjang, fermented bean curd, natto, soy sauce, stinky tofu, oncom, soybean paste, Beijing mung bean milk, iru Amazake, bread, gamju, kvass, murri, rejuvelac, sikhye, sowans, rice wine, malt whisky, grain whisky, dosa, vodka and chicha, among others. Kimchi, mixed pickle, Indian pickle, tursu Wine, cider, brandy, nata de coco, burong mangga, pickling, vişinată, rakı Mead, metheglin Some kinds of cheese kefir, shubat, cultured milk products such as quark, filmjölk, crème fraîche, smetana and yogurt Bagoong, fish sauce, Garum, Hákarl, rakfisk, shrim