The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency, the agency was created in February 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1 in 1957. By collaborating with academic and government partners, DARPA formulates and executes research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science beyond immediate U. S. military requirements. DARPA-funded projects have provided significant technologies that influenced many non-military fields, such as computer networking and the basis for the modern Internet, graphical user interfaces in information technology. DARPA is independent of other military research and development and reports directly to senior Department of Defense management. DARPA has about 220 employees, of whom 100 are in management; the name of the organization first changed from its founding name ARPA to DARPA in March 1972 changing back to ARPA in February 1993, only to revert to DARPA in March 1996.
Their mission statement is "to make pivotal investments in breakthrough technologies for national security". The creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency was authorized by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1958 for the purpose of forming and executing research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, able to reach far beyond immediate military requirements, the two relevant acts being the Supplemental Military Construction Authorization and Department of Defense Directive 5105.15, in February 1958. Its creation was directly attributed to the launching of Sputnik and to U. S. realization that the Soviet Union had developed the capacity to exploit military technology. Initial funding of ARPA was $520 million. ARPA's first director, Roy Johnson, left a $160,000 management job at General Electric for an $18,000 job at ARPA. Herbert York from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was hired as his scientific assistant. Johnson and York were both keen on space projects, but when NASA was established in 1958 all space projects and most of ARPA's funding were transferred to it.
Johnson resigned and ARPA was repurposed to do "high-risk", "high-gain", "far out" basic research, a posture, enthusiastically embraced by the nation's scientists and research universities. ARPA's second director was Brigadier General Austin W. Betts, who resigned in early 1961, he was succeeded by Jack Ruina who served until 1963. Ruina, the first scientist to administer ARPA, managed to raise its budget to $250 million, it was Ruina who hired J. C. R. Licklider as the first administrator of the Information Processing Techniques Office, which played a vital role in creation of ARPANET, the basis for the future Internet. Additionally, the political and defense communities recognized the need for a high-level Department of Defense organization to formulate and execute R&D projects that would expand the frontiers of technology beyond the immediate and specific requirements of the Military Services and their laboratories. In pursuit of this mission, DARPA has developed and transferred technology programs encompassing a wide range of scientific disciplines that address the full spectrum of national security needs.
From 1958 to 1965, ARPA's emphasis centered on major national issues, including space, ballistic missile defense, nuclear test detection. During 1960, all of its civilian space programs were transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the military space programs to the individual services; this allowed ARPA to concentrate its efforts on the Project Defender, Project Vela, Project AGILE programs, to begin work on computer processing, behavioral sciences, materials sciences. The DEFENDER and AGILE programs formed the foundation of DARPA sensor and directed energy R&D in the study of radar, infrared sensing, x-ray/gamma ray detection. ARPA at this point played an early role in Transit a predecessor to the Global Positioning System. "Fast-forward to 1959 when a joint effort between DARPA and the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory began to fine-tune the early explorers’ discoveries. TRANSIT, sponsored by the Navy and developed under the leadership of Dr. Richard Kirschner at Johns Hopkins, was the first satellite positioning system."During the late 1960s, with the transfer of these mature programs to the Services, ARPA redefined its role and concentrated on a diverse set of small exploratory research programs.
The agency was renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1972, during the early 1970s, it emphasized direct energy programs, information processing, tactical technologies. Concerning information processing, DARPA made great progress through its support of the development of time-sharing. DARPA supported the evolution of the ARPANET, Packet Radio Network, Packet Satellite Network and the Internet and research in the artificial intelligence fields of speech recognition and signal processing, including parts of Shakey the robot. DARPA funded the development of the Douglas Engelbart's NLS computer system and The Mother of
Transistor–transistor logic is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors. Its name signifies that transistors perform both the amplifying function. TTL integrated circuits were used in applications such as computers, industrial controls, test equipment and instrumentation, consumer electronics, synthesizers. Sometimes TTL-compatible logic levels are not associated directly with TTL integrated circuits, for example, they may be used at the inputs and outputs of electronic instruments. After their introduction in integrated circuit form in 1963 by Sylvania, TTL integrated circuits were manufactured by several semiconductor companies; the 7400 series by Texas Instruments became popular. TTL manufacturers offered a wide range of logic gates, flip-flops and other circuits. Variations of the original TTL circuit design offered higher speed or lower power dissipation to allow design optimization. TTL devices were made in ceramic and plastic dual-in-line packages, flat-pack form. TTL chips are now made in surface-mount packages.
TTL became the foundation of other digital electronics. After Very-large-scale integration integrated circuits made multiple-circuit-board processors obsolete, TTL devices still found extensive use as the glue logic interfacing between more densely integrated components. TTL was invented in 1961 by James L. Buie of TRW, which declared it, "particularly suited to the newly developing integrated circuit design technology." The original name for TTL was transistor-coupled transistor logic. The first commercial integrated-circuit TTL devices were manufactured by Sylvania in 1963, called the Sylvania Universal High-Level Logic family; the Sylvania parts were used in the controls of the Phoenix missile. TTL became popular with electronic systems designers after Texas Instruments introduced the 5400 series of ICs, with military temperature range, in 1964 and the 7400 series, specified over a narrower range and with inexpensive plastic packages, in 1966; the Texas Instruments 7400 family became an industry standard.
Compatible parts were made by Motorola, AMD, Intel, Signetics, Siemens, SGS-Thomson, National Semiconductor, many other companies in the Eastern Bloc. Not only did others make compatible TTL parts, but compatible parts were made using many other circuit technologies as well. At least one manufacturer, IBM, produced non-compatible TTL circuits for its own use; the term "TTL" is applied to many successive generations of bipolar logic, with gradual improvements in speed and power consumption over about two decades. The most introduced family 74Fxx is still sold today, was used into the late 90s. 74AS/ALS Advanced Schottky was introduced in 1985. As of 2008, Texas Instruments continues to supply the more general-purpose chips in numerous obsolete technology families, albeit at increased prices. TTL chips integrate no more than a few hundred transistors each. Functions within a single package range from a few logic gates to a microprocessor bit-slice. TTL became important because its low cost made digital techniques economically practical for tasks done by analog methods.
The Kenbak-1, ancestor of the first personal computers, used TTL for its CPU instead of a microprocessor chip, not available in 1971. The Datapoint 2200 from 1970 used TTL components for its CPU and was the basis for the 8008 and the x86 instruction set; the 1973 Xerox Alto and 1981 Star workstations, which introduced the graphical user interface, used TTL circuits integrated at the level of Arithmetic logic units and bitslices, respectively. Most computers used TTL-compatible "glue logic" between larger chips well into the 1990s; until the advent of programmable logic, discrete bipolar logic was used to prototype and emulate microarchitectures under development. TTL inputs are the emitters of bipolar transistors. In the case of NAND inputs, the inputs are the emitters of multiple-emitter transistors, functionally equivalent to multiple transistors where the bases and collectors are tied together; the output is buffered by a common emitter amplifier. Inputs both logical ones; when all the inputs are held at high voltage, the base–emitter junctions of the multiple-emitter transistor are reverse-biased.
Unlike DTL, a small “collector” current is drawn by each of the inputs. This is. An constant current flows from the positive rail, through the resistor and into the base of the multiple emitter transistor; this current passes through the base–emitter junction of the output transistor, allowing it to conduct and pulling the output voltage low. An input logical zero. Note that the base–collector junction of the multiple-emitter transistor and the base–emitter junction of the output transistor are in series between the bottom of the resistor and ground. If one input voltage becomes zero, the corresponding base–emitter junction of the multiple-emitter transistor is in parallel with these two junctions. A phenomenon called current steering means that when two voltage-stable elements with different threshold voltages are connected in parallel, the current flows through the path with the smaller threshold voltage; that is, current flows out of this input and into the zero voltage source. As a result, no current flows through t
Tron (video game)
Tron is a coin-operated arcade video game manufactured and distributed by Bally Midway in 1982. The game consists of four subgames inspired by the events of the Walt Disney Productions motion picture Tron released in the same year; the lead programmer was Bill Adams. Tron was followed by the 1983 sequel, Discs of Tron, not as successful as the original. A number of other licensed Tron games were released for home systems, but these were based directly on elements of the movie and not the arcade game. Tron consists of four sub-games based on characters in the movie. In general, the player controls Tron, either in human form or piloting a vehicle, using an eight-way joystick for movement, a trigger button on the stick to fire, a rotary dial for aiming; the goal of the game is to score points and advance through the game's twelve levels by completing each of the sub-games. Most of the 12 levels are named after programming languages: RPG, COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN, SNOBOL, PL1, PASCAL, ALGOL, ASSEMBLY, OS, JCL, USER.
The game supports two players alternating. At the start of each level, the player must choose between four quadrants, each one corresponding to one of the sub-games; the sub-game in each quadrant is not known to the player until it is selected - if the player fails the game and loses a life, he/she is taken back to this selection screen and an icon representing that game is now visible. The sub-games are as follows: I/O TowerThe player must guide Tron to the flashing circle of an Input/Output tower within a set time limit while avoiding or destroying Grid Bugs; this game is based on the I/O Tower scene while adding the Grid Bugs as enemies. MCP ConeThe player must break through a rotating shield wall protecting the MCP cone and enter the cone without touching any of the shield blocks; this game is based on Tron's final battle with the MCP in the film, but changes the nature of the MCP's shield. Light CyclesIn a player-vs-AI variant of the Snake game concept, the player guides Tron's blue Light Cycle in an arena against one or more yellow opponents.
The objective is to force the enemy light cycles into walls and jet trails, while avoiding them. This game is based on the Light Cycle Arena sequence in the film, though the colors of the friendly and enemy characters are reversed; this is the only sub-game in Tron to not use the rotary dial. Battle TanksThe player must guide Tron's red battle tank through a maze and destroy all of the opposing blue enemy tanks by hitting each of them three times; the tank can warp to a random location in the maze by moving into a diamond in the center. In higher difficulty levels, the enemy tanks are replaced by red Recognizers that are much faster and attempt to collide with the player instead of shooting at him/her; this game is not based on any particular scene, but is rather based on Tank Program elements, including Clu's failed intrusion into the ENCOM mainframe and the "Space Paranoids" game featured at the beginning of the film. Tron was awarded "Coin-Operated Game of the Year" by Electronic Games magazine.
The New York Times reported that 800 arcade cabinets were sold by 1982. The book The naked computer reported that Tron made $45,000,000 by 1983. In USgamer's estimation 10,000 cabinets were sold and the game made more than $30,000,000 of revenue by 1983; the world record high score for Tron was set in July 2011 by David Cruz of Florida. Cruz scored 14,007,645 points based on Twin Galaxies settings for the game. Discs of Tron is an arcade game, intended as a fifth segment of Tron but was left out because programming was not finished in time. In it, the player engages in disc throwing combat, similar to the film sequence. Discs of Tron was not released; the light cycles segment of Tron has led to snake games sometimes being called "Light Cycles" games, despite the concept dating from 1976. Some post-Tron snake games use themes or terminology from the film. On January 10, 2008, Tron was released for Xbox Live Arcade, ported by Digital Eclipse and branded by Disney Interactive. A miniature Tron arcade cabinet showing a looping video of the game's attract screens is featured as a toy in the Tron Legacy pinball machine, released in 2011 by Stern Pinball.
Tron at the Killer List of Videogames Tron homage site
Central processing unit
A central processing unit called a central processor or main processor, is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic and input/output operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more to its processing unit and control unit, distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry; the form and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit that performs arithmetic and logic operations, processor registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching and execution of instructions by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components.
Most modern CPUs are microprocessors, meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit chip. An IC that contains a CPU may contain memory, peripheral interfaces, other components of a computer; some computers employ a multi-core processor, a single chip containing two or more CPUs called "cores". Array processors or vector processors have multiple processors that operate in parallel, with no unit considered central. There exists the concept of virtual CPUs which are an abstraction of dynamical aggregated computational resources. Early computers such as the ENIAC had to be physically rewired to perform different tasks, which caused these machines to be called "fixed-program computers". Since the term "CPU" is defined as a device for software execution, the earliest devices that could rightly be called CPUs came with the advent of the stored-program computer; the idea of a stored-program computer had been present in the design of J. Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly's ENIAC, but was omitted so that it could be finished sooner.
On June 30, 1945, before ENIAC was made, mathematician John von Neumann distributed the paper entitled First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. It was the outline of a stored-program computer that would be completed in August 1949. EDVAC was designed to perform a certain number of instructions of various types; the programs written for EDVAC were to be stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer. This overcame a severe limitation of ENIAC, the considerable time and effort required to reconfigure the computer to perform a new task. With von Neumann's design, the program that EDVAC ran could be changed by changing the contents of the memory. EDVAC, was not the first stored-program computer. Early CPUs were custom designs used as part of a sometimes distinctive computer. However, this method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has given way to the development of multi-purpose processors produced in large quantities; this standardization began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit.
The IC has allowed complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured to tolerances on the order of nanometers. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in electronic devices ranging from automobiles to cellphones, sometimes in toys. While von Neumann is most credited with the design of the stored-program computer because of his design of EDVAC, the design became known as the von Neumann architecture, others before him, such as Konrad Zuse, had suggested and implemented similar ideas; the so-called Harvard architecture of the Harvard Mark I, completed before EDVAC used a stored-program design using punched paper tape rather than electronic memory. The key difference between the von Neumann and Harvard architectures is that the latter separates the storage and treatment of CPU instructions and data, while the former uses the same memory space for both.
Most modern CPUs are von Neumann in design, but CPUs with the Harvard architecture are seen as well in embedded applications. Relays and vacuum tubes were used as switching elements; the overall speed of a system is dependent on the speed of the switches. Tube computers like EDVAC tended to average eight hours between failures, whereas relay computers like the Harvard Mark I failed rarely. In the end, tube-based CPUs became dominant because the significant speed advantages afforded outweighed the reliability problems. Most of these early synchronous CPUs ran at low clock rates compared to modern microelectronic designs. Clock signal frequencies ranging from 100 kHz to 4 MHz were common at this time, limited by the speed of the switching de
A front end processor, or a communications processor, is a small-sized computer which interfaces to the host computer a number of networks, such as SNA, or a number of peripheral devices, such as terminals, disk units and tape units. Data is transferred between the host computer and the front end processor using a high-speed parallel interface; the front end processor communicates with peripheral devices using slower serial interfaces also through communication networks. The purpose is to off-load from the host computer the work of managing the peripheral devices and receiving messages, packet assembly and disassembly, error detection, error correction. Two examples are the IBM 3705 Communications Controller and the Burroughs Data Communications Processor. Sometimes FEP is synonymous with a communications controller, although the latter is not as flexible. Early communications controllers such as the IBM 270x series were hard wired, but units were programmable devices. Front end processor is used in a more general sense in asymmetric multi-processor systems.
The FEP is a processing device, closer to the input source than is the main processor. It performs some task such as telemetry control, data collection, reduction of raw sensor data, analysis of keyboard input, etc. Front-end processes relates to the software interface between the user and the application processes in the client/server architecture; the user enters input into the front-end process where it is collected and processed in such a way that it conforms to what the receiving application on the server can accept and process. As an example, the user enters a URL into a GUI such as Microsoft Internet Explorer; the GUI processes the URL in such a way that the user is able to reach or access the intended web pages on the web server. Front-end processors or communications processors relates to efficient use of the host CPU by off-loading processing for peripheral control, as an example, to another device or controller. FEPs are responsible for linking client applications and their associated networks to host computer based applications.
With the advent of the Internet and of IP as a universal protocol, it is assumed that there is no longer any need for FEPs, which traditionally handled SNA traffic. This may be true. However, FEPs perform other vital functions, that are linked to transaction applications, including message and transaction switching, transaction security, Quality of Service guarantors, end-to-end transaction management and reporting; the need for these functions is important in mission critical transaction environments such as banking, point-of-sale and health care applications. In these environments, FEP functionality is more necessary than before. Although the IBM Corporation withdrew its 3745/3746 Communications Front End Processors from marketing in 2003, the company continues to maintain the estimated 20,000 installed front end processors. IBM provides microcode enhancement features. Smaller companies have filled the void created by IBM's action, providing machines, features and services worldwide. Front End Processors for Substations
Star Trek III: The Search for Spock
Star Trek III: The Search for Spock is a 1984 American science fiction film directed by Leonard Nimoy and based on the television series of the same name created by Gene Roddenberry. It is the third film in the Star Trek film series, is the second part of a three-film story arc that begins with Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan and concludes with Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home. After the death of Spock, the crew of the USS Enterprise returns to Earth; when James T. Kirk learns that Spock's spirit, or katra, is held in the mind of Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy and company steal the Enterprise to return Spock's body to his homeworld; the crew must contend with hostile Klingons led by Kruge who are bent on stealing the secrets of a powerful terraforming device. Paramount Pictures commissioned the film after the positive critical and commercial reaction to The Wrath of Khan. Nimoy directed the film, becoming the first Star Trek cast member to do so. Producer Harve Bennett wrote the script starting from the end and working back, intended the destruction of the Enterprise to be a shocking development.
Bennett and Nimoy collaborated with effects house Industrial Light & Magic to develop storyboards and new ship designs. Aside from a single day of location shooting, all of the film's scenes were shot on Paramount and ILM soundstages. Composer James Horner returned to expand his themes from the previous film; the Search for Spock opened on June 1, 1984. In its first week of release, the film grossed over $16 million from 2,000 theaters across North America, it went on to gross $76 million with a total of $87 million worldwide. Critical reaction to The Search for Spock was positive, but notably less so than the previous film. Reviewers praised the cast and characters, while criticism tended to focus on the plot. Roger Ebert called the film a compromise between the tones of the second Star Trek films; the Search for Spock has since been released on multiple home video formats, including VHS, DVD, Blu-ray high definition discs. Nimoy went on to direct The Search for Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home; the Federation Starship Enterprise returns to Earth following a battle with the superhuman Khan Noonien Singh, who tried to destroy the Enterprise by detonating an experimental terraforming device known as Genesis.
The casualties of the fight include Admiral James T. Kirk's Vulcan friend, whose casket was launched into space and landed on the planet created by the Genesis Device. On arriving at Earth Spacedock, Doctor Leonard McCoy is detained. Commander-Starfleet, Admiral Morrow visits the Enterprise and informs the crew the ship is to be decommissioned. David Marcus —Kirk's son, a key scientist in Genesis's development—and Lieutenant Saavik are investigating the Genesis planet on board the science vessel Grissom. Discovering an unexpected life form on the surface and Saavik transport to the planet, they find that the Genesis Device has resurrected Spock in the form of a child, although his mind is not present. Marcus admits that he used unstable "protomatter" in the development of the Genesis Device, causing Spock to age and meaning the planet will be destroyed within hours. Meanwhile, the commander of a Klingon vessel, intercepts information about Genesis. Believing the device to be useful as a weapon, he takes his cloaked ship to the Genesis planet, destroys the Grissom, searches the planet for the survivors.
Spock's father, confronts Kirk about his son's death. The pair learn that before he died, Spock transferred living spirit, to McCoy. Spock's katra and body are needed to lay him to rest on his homeworld and without help, McCoy will die from carrying the katra. Disobeying orders and his officers spring McCoy from detention, disable the USS Excelsior, steal the Enterprise from Spacedock to return to the Genesis planet to retrieve Spock's body. On Genesis, the Klingons capture Marcus and Spock and before Kruge can interrogate them their ship signals that the Enterprise has arrived and Kruge beams back to the Bird of Prey. In orbit, the undermanned Enterprise gains the upper hand in battle, but the Klingons return fire and disable the ship. In the standoff that follows, Kruge orders that one of the hostages on the surface be executed. Marcus is killed defending Spock. Kirk and company feign surrender and activate the Enterprise's self-destruct sequence, killing the Klingon boarding party while the Enterprise crew transports to the planet's surface.
Promising the secret of Genesis, Kirk lures Kruge to the planet and has him beam his crew to the Klingon vessel. As the Genesis planet disintegrates and Kruge engage in a fistfight. Kirk and his officers take control of the Klingon head to Vulcan. There, Spock's katra is reunited with his body in a dangerous procedure called fal-tor-pan; the ceremony is successful and Spock is resurrected and well, though his memories are fragmented. At Kirk's prompting, Spock remembers he recognizes the crew, his friends joyfully gather around him. William Shatner reprises the role of Starfleet officer. Shatner remarked that being directed by Leonard Nimoy, his longtime co-star and friend, was awkward, although as the shoot went on, it be
Flight of the Navigator
Flight of the Navigator is a 1986 American science fiction adventure film directed by Randal Kleiser and written by Mark H. Baker, Michael Burton and Matt MacManus, it stars Joey Cramer as David Freeman, a 12-year-old boy, abducted by an alien spaceship and finds himself caught in a world that has changed around him. The film's producers sent the project to Walt Disney Pictures in 1984, but the studio was unable to approve it and it was sent to Producers Sales Organization, which made a deal with Disney to distribute it in the United States, it was shot in Fort Lauderdale, in Norway, being a co-production with Norwegian company Viking Film. On the night of July 4, 1978, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 12-year-old David Freeman walks through the woods to pick up his 8-year-old younger brother, from a friend's house when he accidentally falls into a ravine and is knocked unconscious; when he comes to, he discovers that eight years have passed and it is now 1986. Police are shocked to see David fits the exact same photo on a missing child poster, not having aged at all.
David is reunited with his aged parents and Jeff is now 16. Meanwhile, an alien spaceship crashes through power lines and is promptly captured by NASA. David is taken to the hospital for tests. Dr. Louis Faraday, studying it since its arrival, persuades David to come to a NASA research facility for just 48 hours for extra tests, promising him that they can help him learn the truth about what happened to him. There, Dr. Faraday discovers that David's mind is filled with alien technical manuals and star charts covering expanses of the galaxy far exceeding NASA's research, it tells the scientists that he was taken to a planet called Phaelon, 560 light years away, in just over 2.2 hours. They realize that he has experienced severe time dilation as a result of having traveled faster than the speed of light, explaining why eight years have passed on Earth, but not for him, he is unable to comprehend what Dr. Faraday tells him and flees the room, leaving Dr. Faraday muttering that 48 hours will be insufficient to finish his investigation.
The next morning, following a telepathic communication from the spaceship, David secretly boards it and meets its robotic commander, "Trimaxion Drone Ship", which refers to David as the "Navigator". After they escape from the facility, Max tells David that his mission was to travel across the galaxy, collect biological specimens, take them to Phaelon for analysis, return them to their homes. Phaelon's scientists discovered humans only use 10% of their brain and, as an experiment, filled the remainder of David's with miscellaneous information; this includes all of the star charts discovered by Phaelon's astronomers, some of which were shown to the NASA scientists during David's interrogation. Max returned him to Earth, but did not take him back to his own time, having determined that a human would be unlikely to survive a trip back in time. Before leaving Earth, Max accidentally crashed the spaceship, erasing all the computer's star charts and data. Therefore, he needs the information in David's brain to return home.
Max programs the spaceship for a mind transfer, David is shown the eight remaining alien specimens on board, bonds with a "Puckmaren", a tiny bat-like one, the last of his kind after a comet destroyed its planet, Binpuka Minor. Max performs the mind transfer on David to reacquire the star charts, but in the process contracts human emotional attributes, resulting in Max behaving eccentrically and making goofy laughs, he and David start bickering while their antics trigger several UFO reports in Tokyo and other cities. Meanwhile, NASA intern Carolyn McAdams contacts David's family and tells them about his escape in the spaceship; when the spaceship stops at a gas station in the Florida Keys, David calls Jeff and asks him to send a signal to locate their new home. He sets off fireworks on the rooftop. David and Max arrive near the house, but NASA agents, having tracked the spaceship's every move, get there first. Fearing that he would be institutionalized for life if he remains in 1986, he orders Max to return him to 1978.
Max warns this could vaporize David. After the journey back in time, he wakes up in the ravine, walks home, finds everything as he left it. During the Fourth of July celebration, Jeff is surprised to see the Puckmaren in David's backpack, which David remarks to keep it secret while Max flies home across the firework-lit sky, remarking "See you navigator!". Joey Cramer as David Freeman Paul Reubens as the voice of Max Cliff DeYoung as Bill Freeman Veronica Cartwright as Helen Freeman Matt Adler as Jeff FreemanAlbie Whitaker plays eight-year-old Jeff FreemanSarah Jessica Parker as Carolyn McAdams Howard Hesseman as Dr. Louis Faraday Jonathan Sanger as Dr. Carr Richard Liberty as Larry Howard Iris Acker as Janet Howard Raymond Forchion as Detective Banks Keri Rogers as Jennifer Bradley The Trimaxion Drone Ship was rendered in computer-generated imagery by Omnibus Computer Animation, under the supervision of Jeff Kleiser, the brother of director Randal Kleiser; the music score for the film was composed by Alan Silvestri.
It is distinct from his other scores in being electronically generated, using the Synclavier, one of the first digital multi-track recorders and samplers. Theme from "Flight of the Navigator" "Main Title" "The Ship Beckons" "David in the Woods" "Robot Romp" "Transporting the Ship" "Ship Drop" "Have to Help a Friend" "The Shadow Universe" "Flight" "Finale" "Star Dancing" The film received positive rev