If You Give a Mouse a Cookie
If You Give a Mouse a Cookie is a classic children's book written by Laura Numeroff and illustrated by Felicia Bond, first published in 1985. Described as a "circular tale", illustrating a slippery slope, it is Numeroff and Bond's first collaboration in what came to be the If You Give... series. A boy gives a cookie to a mouse; the mouse asks for a glass of milk. He requests a straw, a mirror, nail scissors, a broom. Next he wants to take a nap, have a story read to him, draw a picture, hang the drawing on the refrigerator. Looking at the refrigerator makes him thirsty, so the mouse asks for a glass of milk; the circle is complete. Author Laura Numeroff has said in interviews that the idea for the story came to her during a long car trip she took with a friend from San Francisco to Oregon, she narrated it as they drove and wrote it down. The manuscript was passed over by nine publishers before being taken on by Laura Gerringer, a publisher under the Harper and Row imprint, who thought of Felicia Bond to illustrate it.
The text was interpreted by illustrator Felicia Bond to show the increasing energy of the mouse, with the little boy being run ragged by the end of the story. The art was praised by School Library Journal for its "meticulous attention to detail", was executed with vibrant colors of blended pencil in a complex process of layering magenta, cyan and black on separate sheets, which were assembled during printing. Bond describes rushing to get the sketches done before leaving town with her boyfriend and that the energy of the mouse evolved from that excitement, she has mentioned on numerous occasions that the little boy in the book was her boyfriend, Stephen Roxburgh, as a child. If You Give a Mouse a Cookie became established as a popular favorite and is today considered a contemporary classic. A series of sixteen titles followed, they have been translated into more than thirteen languages. The If You Give... series has garnered numerous awards, their popularity is witnessed by their consistent presence on The New York Times Best Seller List.
Charles Schulz created two Peanuts strips about If You Give a Mouse a Cookie, in 2000 Oprah Winfrey chose If You Give a Pig a Pancake as one of her favorite things in 2000. She included it on her list Oprah’s Favorite Things from A-Z in that same year. "If You Give a Moose a Muffin" was the answer to a question on Jeopardy!. The books have been adapted into plays for children's theaters; the Bronx Zoo in New York featured the art in their Children's Zoo for one year and the artwork has been used to create murals in the wings of children's hospitals. The series has fans of all ages from all over the world including Japan, where an entire Tokyo city bus was painted with images of Mouse. Mouse made it to the White House. A bronze sculpture of her sleeping on the book is included in the George W. Bush Presidential Library. First Lady Michelle Obama read If You Give a Mouse a Cookie on the White House lawn during the 2009 Easter Egg Roll. Mouse's popularity inspired many subsequent books, an animated adaptation by Amazon in 2015.
Shepherd-Hayes, Deborah. A Guide for Using If You Give a Mouse a Cookie and If You Give a Moose a Muffin in the Classroom. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials. ISBN 1-55734-531-7. Publisher's official site Mouse Cookie Books Economics lesson plan from Economics and Children's Literature: Supplement 2 If You Give a Mouse a Cookie on IMDb
Stone Soup is an old folk story in which hungry strangers convince the people of a town to each share a small amount of their food in order to make a meal that everyone enjoys, exists as a moral regarding the value of sharing. In varying traditions, the stone has been replaced with other common inedible objects, therefore the fable is known as axe soup, button soup, nail soup, wood soup; some travelers come to a village. Upon their arrival, the villagers are unwilling to share any of their food stores with the hungry travelers; the travelers go to a stream and fill the pot with water, drop a large stone in it, place it over a fire. One of the villagers asks what they are doing; the travelers answer that they are making "stone soup", which tastes wonderful and which they would be delighted to share with the villager, although it still needs a little bit of garnish, which they are missing, to improve the flavor. The villager, who anticipates enjoying a share of the soup, does not mind parting with a few carrots, so these are added to the soup.
Another villager walks by, inquiring about the pot, the travelers again mention their stone soup which has not yet reached its full potential. The villager hands them a little bit of seasoning. More and more villagers walk by, each adding another ingredient; the stone is removed from the pot, a delicious and nourishing pot of soup is enjoyed by travelers and villagers alike. Although the travelers have thus tricked the villagers into sharing their food with them, they have transformed it into a tasty meal which they share with the donors; the Eastern European variation of the story is called "axe soup", with an axe as the catalyst. In the French and Russian versions of the tale, the travelers are soldiers returning home. In the Hungarian version, a single starving soldier encounters several hardships on his journey back to his homeland. At the end of the story, he sells the rock to the villagers after eating the soup. In Russian tradition, a soldier prepares "axe kasha". Johann Peter Hebel wrote a German version, "Der schlaue Pilgrim", in which a wily pilgrim on his way to Jerusalem, tricks a hostess step-by-step into adding rich soup ingredients to his pebble stones leaving the stones uneaten.
In Northern European and Scandinavian countries, the story is most known as "nail soup", the main character is a tramp looking for food and lodgings, who convinces an old woman that he will make a tasty nail soup for the both of them if she would just add a few ingredients for the garnish. In the Portuguese tradition, the traveler is a monk, the story takes place around Almeirim, Portugal. Nowadays sopa de pedra is considered a regional dish of Almeirim. In the Chinese version, three monks are the ones who boil the soup. Villagers who are curious pass by and add ingredients such as carrots, rice wine, salt etc. In a Native American version, bears show her where to find food; the women find food fit for soup beneath the snow. Bears add rocks to the soup, they help one another. In the Aarne-Thompson-Uther folktale classification system this tale and set of variants is type 1548. There are many examples of projects referencing the "Stone Soup" story's theme of making something significant by accumulating lots of small contributions.
Examples include: Dungeon Crawl Stone Soup a computer game which expanded on an abandoned project using contributions from many different coders. The protagonists need to hold a wedding ceremony. Therefore, they set up a folding card table by the main street of a sleepy Texas town, dust it off, invite passersby to come to the wedding; as they concoct stories of delinquent caterers and crashed champagne trucks, the friendly townspeople contribute their time and resources, the result being a magical wedding ceremony. William Butler Yeats' play, The Pot of Broth, tells a version of the story in which a clever Irish tramp uses his wits to swindle a shrewish medieval housewife out of her dinner; the story is the basis of Marcia Brown's 1947 children's book, Stone Soup, which features soldiers tricking miserly villages into cooking them a feast. The book was a Caldecott Honor book in 1948 and was read aloud by the Captain on an early episode of Captain Kangaroo in the 1950s, as well as at least once in the 1960s or early 1970s.
In 1965, Gordon R. Dickson published a short story called "Soupstone", where a headstrong pilot is sent to solve a problem on a planet under the guise of a educated and competent official, he succeeds by pretending to understand everything, but merely making the locals apply their present knowledge and abilities to the task. "Stone Soup", written by Ann McGovern and illustrated by Nola Langner, tells the story of a little old lady and a hungry young man at the door asking for food, he tricks her into making stone soup. Canadian children's author Aubrey Davis adapted the story to a Jewish context in his book Bone Button Borscht. According to Davis, he wrote the story when he was unable to find a story that he liked for a Hanukkah reading. Barbara Budd's narration of Bone Button Borscht traditionally airs across Canada on CBC Radio One's As It Happens, on th
Foot in the Door (album)
"Foot in the Door" is the fourth studio album by Australian singer songwriter Russell Morris. It was credited to The Russell Morris Band. Two singles were released from the album throughout 1979, with "Hot Love" peaking at number 48; the album peaked at number 38 on the Kent Music Report. In May 2014, the album was reissued on music download by Sandman Records, and music download Throughout the mid-1970s, Morris has lived and recorded in the United States of America. He formed a touring band and hit the Australian pub circuit, he said that he felt his artistic merit was compromised in America and upon his return to Australia, mused "It was like diving under water for five years and finally coming back for air". The Australian pub circuit was in full swing in 1978 and the Russell Morris Band played alongside bands such as Mondo Rock, Jim Keays Band, Jo Jo Zep and newly formed Cold Chisel and Rose Tattoo; the band was signed by Michael Gudinski to Mushroom Records and recorded the track " Thunder Ground"/"Two Minute Warning", released in March 1979 and peaked at number 49 on the Kent Music Report.
Two additional singles were released, alongside the album in 1979. The band supported the album with a national tour and supported Santana, Eddie Money and Oats, Bob Marley and Dr. Hook on their Australian tours. 1979 Vinyl/ Cassette2014 Reissue"Hot Love" - 3:40 "Doctor In The House" - 3:54 "Kidnapped" - 3:42 "The Sky Is Falling" - 5:32 "Your Place Or Mine" - 3:40 "I'm Just a Writer" - 3:31 "Next Exit" - 3:58 "Surprise, Surprise" - 3:56 "Love Stealer" - 3:56 "Thunder Ground" - 4:30 "Two Minute Warning" - 3:36 Bass – Graham Thompson Drums – Keith Elliott Engineer – Ian McKenzie Keyboards – James Black Lead Guitar – Joey Amenta Guitar - Russell Morris Photography By – David Parker Saxophone – Bruce Sandell Vocals – Russell Morris, James Black, Joey Amenta, Mike Emerson
Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods or services sold in a given time period. The seller, or the provider of the goods or services, completes a sale in response to an acquisition, requisition or a direct interaction with the buyer at the point of sale. There is a passing of title of the item, the settlement of a price, in which agreement is reached on a price for which transfer of ownership of the item will occur; the seller, not the purchaser executes the sale and it may be completed prior to the obligation of payment. In the case of indirect interaction, a person who sells goods or service on behalf of the owner is known as a salesman or saleswoman or salesperson, but this refers to someone selling goods in a store/shop, in which case other terms are common, including salesclerk, shop assistant, retail clerk. In common law countries, sales are governed by the common law and commercial codes. In the United States, the laws governing sales of goods are somewhat uniform to the extent that most jurisdictions have adopted Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code, albeit with some non-uniform variations.
A persons or organization expressing an interest in acquiring the offered item of value is referred to as a potential buyer, prospective customer or prospect. Buying and selling are understood to be two sides of the same "coin" or transaction. Both seller and buyer engage in a process of negotiation to consummate the exchange of values; the exchange, or selling, process has implied identifiable stages. It is implied that the selling process will proceed and ethically so that the parties end up nearly rewarded; the stages of selling, buying, involve getting acquainted, assessing each party's need for the other's item of value, determining if the values to be exchanged are equivalent or nearly so, or, in buyer's terms, "worth the price". Sometimes, sellers have to use their own experiences when selling products with appropriate discounts. Although the skills required are different, from a management viewpoint, sales is a part of marketing. Sales form a separate grouping in a corporate structure, employing separate specialist operatives known as salespersons.
Selling is considered by many to be a sort of persuading "art". Contrary to popular belief, the methodological approach of selling refers to a systematic process of repetitive and measurable milestones, by which a salesman relates his or her offering of a product or service in return enabling the buyer to achieve their goal in an economic way. According to a 2018 survey of salespeople, selling has become more difficult in recent years due to changes in technology and general access to prospects. While the sales process refers to a systematic process of repetitive and measurable milestones, the definition of the selling is somewhat ambiguous due to the close nature of advertising, public relations, direct marketing. Selling is the profession-wide term, much like marketing defines a profession. Attempts have been made to understand, in the sales profession, and, not. There are many articles looking at marketing, advertising and public relations as ways to create a unique transaction. Many believe that the focus of selling is on the human agents involved in the exchange between buyer and seller.
Effective selling requires a systems approach, at minimum involving roles that sell, enable selling, develop sales capabilities. Selling involves salespeople who possess a specific set of sales skills and the knowledge required to facilitate the exchange of value between buyers and sellers, unique from marketing, etc. Within these three tenets, the following definition of professional selling is offered by the American Society for Training and Development: Team selling is one way to influence sales. Team selling is "a group of people representing the sales department and other functional areas in the firm, such as finance and research and development". Team selling came about in the 1990s through total quality management. TQM occurs when companies work to improve their customer satisfaction by improving all of their operations. Marketing and sales differ but have the same goal. Selling is the final stage in marketing. A marketing plan includes pricing, promotion and product. A marketing department in an organization has the goals of increasing the desirability and value of the products and services to the customer, increasing the number and engagement of successful interactions between potential customers and the organization.
Achieving this goal may involve the sales team using promotional techniques such as advertising, sales promotion and public relations, creating new sales channels, or creating new products. It can include encouraging the potential customer to visit the organization's website, contact the organization for more information, or interact with the organization via social media channels such as Twitter and blogs. Social values play a major role in consumer decision processes. Marketing is the whole of the work on persuasion made for the whole of the target people. Sales is the process of persuasion and effort from one person to one person, or one person to a corporation, in order to make a living resource enter the company; this may occur over the phone or digitally. The field of sales process engineering views "sales" as the output of a larger system, not just as the output of one department; the larger system includes many functional areas within an organization. From this perspec
Obedience (human behavior)
Obedience, in human behavior, is a form of "social influence in which a person yields to explicit instructions or orders from an authority figure". Obedience is distinguished from compliance, behavior influenced by peers, from conformity, behavior intended to match that of the majority. Depending on context, obedience can be seen as immoral, or amoral. Humans have been shown to be obedient in the presence of perceived legitimate authority figures, as shown by the Milgram experiment in the 1960s, carried out by Stanley Milgram to find out how the Nazis managed to get ordinary people to take part in the mass murders of the Holocaust; the experiment showed. Regarding obedience, Milgram said that "Obedience is as basic an element in the structure of social life as one can point to; some system of authority is a requirement of all communal living, it is only the man dwelling in isolation, not forced to respond, through defiance or submission, to the commands of others." A similar conclusion was reached in the Stanford prison experiment.
Although other fields have studied obedience, social psychology has been responsible for the advancement of research on obedience. It has been studied experimentally in several different ways. In one classical study, Stanley Milgram created a controversial yet replicated study. Like many other experiments in psychology, Milgram's setup involved deception of the participants. In the experiment, subjects were told they were going to take part in a study of the effects of punishment on learning. In reality, the experiment focuses on people's willingness to obey malevolent authority; each subject served as a teacher of associations between arbitrary pairs of words. After meeting the "teacher" at the beginning of the experiment, the "learner" sat in another room and could be heard, but not seen. Teachers were told to give the "learner" electric shocks of increasing severity for each wrong answer. If subjects questioned the procedure, the "researcher" would encourage them to continue. Subjects were told to ignore the agonized screams of the learner, his desire to be untied and stop the experiment, his pleas that his life was at risk and that he suffered from a heart condition.
The experiment, the "researcher" insisted, had to go on. The dependent variable in this experiment was the voltage amount of shocks administered; the other classical study on obedience was conducted at Stanford University during the 1970s. Phillip Zimbardo was the main psychologist responsible for the experiment. In the Stanford Prison Experiment, college age students were put into a pseudo prison environment in order to study the impacts of "social forces" on participants behavior. Unlike the Milgram study in which each participant underwent the same experimental conditions, here using random assignment half the participants were prison guards and the other half were prisoners; the experimental setting was made to physically resemble a prison while inducing "a psychological state of imprisonment". The Milgram study found that most participants would obey orders when obedience posed severe harm to others. With encouragement from a perceived authority figure, about two-thirds of the participants were willing to administer the highest level of shock to the learner.
This result was surprising to Milgram because he thought that "subjects have learned from childhood that it is a fundamental breach of moral conduct to hurt another person against his will". Milgram attempted to explain how ordinary people were capable of performing lethal acts against other human beings by suggesting that participants may have entered into an agentic state, where they allowed the authority figure to take responsibility for their own actions. Zimbardo obtained similar results as the guards in the study turned aggressive. Prisoners were hostile to and resented their guards; the cruelty of the "guards" and the consequent stress of the "prisoners," forced Zimbardo to terminate the experiment prematurely, after 6 days. The previous two studies influenced how modern psychologists think about obedience. Milgram's study in particular generated a large response from the psychology community. In a modern study, Jerry Burger replicated Milgram's method with a few alterations. Burger's method was identical to Milgram's except when the shocks reached 150 volts, participants decided whether or not they wanted to continue and the experiment ended.
To ensure the safety of the participants, Burger added a two-step screening process. In the modeled refusal condition, two confederates were used, where one confederate acted as the learner and the other was the teacher; the teacher stopped after going up to 90 volts, the participant was asked to continue where the confederate left off. This methodology was considered more ethical because many of the adverse psychological effects seen in previous studies' participants occurred after moving past 150 volts. Additionally, since Milgram's study only used men, Burger tried to determine if there were differences between genders in his study and randomly assigned equal numbers of men and women to the experimental conditions. Using data from his previous study, Burger probed participant's thoughts about obedience. Participants' comments from the previous study were coded for the number of times they mentioned "personal responsibility and the learner's well being"; the number of prods the participants used in the first experiment were measured.
Another study that use
Ben Franklin effect
The Ben Franklin effect is a proposed psychological phenomenon: a person who has performed a favor for another is more to do another favor for the other than if they had received a favor from that person. An explanation for this is cognitive dissonance. People reason that they help others because they like them if they do not, because their minds struggle to maintain logical consistency between their actions and perceptions; the Benjamin Franklin effect, in other words, is the result of one's concept of self coming under attack. Every person develops a persona, that persona persists because inconsistencies in one's personal narrative get rewritten and misinterpreted. Benjamin Franklin, after whom the effect is named, quoted what he described as an "old maxim" in his autobiography: "He that has once done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another, than he whom you yourself have obliged."In his autobiography, Franklin explains how he dealt with the animosity of a rival legislator when he served in the Pennsylvania legislature in the 18th century: Having heard that he had in his library a certain scarce and curious book, I wrote a note to him, expressing my desire of perusing that book, requesting he would do me the favour of lending it to me for a few days.
He sent it and I return'd it in about a week with another note, expressing my sense of the favour. When we next met in the House, he spoke to me, with great civility; the initial study of the effect was done by Jecker and Landy in 1969. After this competition was over, one-third of the students who had "won" were approached by the researcher, who asked them to return the money on the grounds that he had used his own funds to pay the winners and was running short. All three groups were asked how much they liked the researcher; the second group liked him the least, the first group the most – suggesting that a refund request by an intermediary had decreased their liking, while a direct request had increased their liking. In 1971, University of North Carolina psychologists John Schopler and John Compere carried out the following experiment: They had their subjects administer learning tests to accomplices pretending to be other students; the subjects were told the learners would watch as the teachers used sticks to tap out long patterns on a series of wooden cubes.
The learners would be asked to repeat the patterns. Each teacher was to try out two different methods on one at a time. In one run, the teachers would offer encouragement. In the other run of the experiment, the teacher criticized the learner when they erred. Afterward, the teachers filled out a debriefing questionnaire that included questions about how attractive and likable the learners were. Across the board, the subjects who received the insults were rated as less attractive than the ones who got encouragement. In short, the subjects' own conduct toward the accomplices shaped their perception of them – "You tend to like the people to whom you are kind and dislike the people to whom you are rude."Results were mimicked in a more recent but smaller study by psychologist Yu Niiya with Japanese and American subjects. This perception of Franklin has been cited as an example within cognitive dissonance theory, which says that people change their attitudes or behavior to resolve tensions, or "dissonance", between their thoughts and actions.
In the case of the Ben Franklin effect, the dissonance is between the subject's negative attitudes to the other person and the knowledge that they did that person a favor. One science blogger accounts for the phenomenon in the following way: "Current self-perception theory tells us that our brains behave like an outside observer, continually watching what we do and contriving explanations for those actions, which subsequently influence our beliefs about ourselves.... Our observing brain doesn't like it when our actions don't match the beliefs we have about ourselves, a situation referred to as cognitive dissonance. So, whenever your behavior is in conflict with your beliefs, this conflict sets off alarm bells in your brain; the brain has a clever response – it goes about changing how you feel in order to reduce the conflict and turn off the alarms." Psychologist Yu Niiya attributes the phenomenon to the requestee reciprocating a perceived attempt by the requester to ignite friendly relations.
This theory would explain the Ben Franklin effect's absence. Some have observed that the Ben Franklin effect can be useful for improving relationships among coworkers. In the sales field, the Ben Franklin effect can be used to build rapport with a client. Instead of offering to help the potential client, a salesperson can instead ask the potential client for assistance: "For example, ask them to share with you what product benefits they find most compelling, where they think the market is headed, or what products may be of interest several years from now; this pure favor, left unrepaid, can build likability that will enhance your ability to earn that client's time and investment in the fu
Compliance refers to a response—specifically, a submission—made in reaction to a request. The request may be implicit; the target may not recognize that he or she is being urged to act in a particular way. Social psychology is centered on the idea of social influence. Defined as the effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, attitudes, or behavior, it is important that psychologists and ordinary people alike recognize that social influence extends beyond our behavior—to our thoughts and beliefs—and that it takes on many forms. Persuasion and the gaining of compliance are significant types of social influence since they utilize the respective effect's power to attain the submission of others. Studying compliance is significant because it is a type of social influence that affects our everyday behavior—especially social interactions. Compliance itself is a complicated concept that must be studied in depth so that its uses and both its theoretical and experimental approaches may be better understood.
In the study of personality psychology, certain personality disorders display characteristics involving the need to gain compliance or control over others: Those with antisocial personality disorder tend to display a glibness and grandiose sense of self-worth. Due to their shallow affect and lack of remorse or empathy, they are well suited to con and/or manipulate others into complying with their wishes; those with histrionic personality disorder need to be the center of attention. Those with narcissistic personality disorder have an inflated self-importance, hypersensitivity to criticism and a sense of entitlement that compels them to persuade others to comply with their requests. Social psychologists view compliance as a means of social influence used to reach goals and attain social or personal gains. Rather than concentrating on an individual's personality or characteristics, social psychology focuses on people as a whole and how thoughts and behaviors allow individuals to attain compliance and/or make them vulnerable to complying with the demands of others.
Their gaining of or submission to compliance is influenced by construals—i.e. An individual's interpretation of interactions; the study of compliance is recognized for the overt demonstrations of dramatic experiments such as the Stanford prison experiment and the Stanley Milgram shock experiments. These experiments served as displays of the psychological phenomena of compliance; such compliance occurred in response to overt social forces and while these types of studies have provided useful insight into the nature of compliance, today's researchers are inclined to concentrate their efforts on subtle, indirect and/or unconscious social influences. Those involved in this modern social-cognitive movement are attempting to discover the ways in which subjects' implicit and explicit beliefs and goals affect information processing and decision making in settings where influential forces are present. Philosophers view compliance in the context of arguments. Arguments are produced. In doing so, they utilize premises to support their conclusion.
Regardless of utilization of fallacy forms to get their point across, individuals engaged in philosophical arguments are overtly and logically expressing their opinion. This is an explicit action in which the person on the other side of the argument recognizes that the arguer seeks to gain compliance. In studying compliance, social psychologists aim to examine overt and subtle social influences experienced in various forms by all individuals. Implicit and explicit psychological processes are studied since they shape interactions; this is because these processes explain how certain individuals can make another comply and why someone else succumbs to compliance. In complying with the requests of others and/or by following their actions, we seek to maintain the goals of social influence: informative social influence normative social influence People are motivated to achieve their goals in the most efficient and accurate manner possible; when faced with information, an individual needs to interpret and react—particularly when faced with compliance-gaining attempts since an inaccurate behavior could result in great loss.
With that being said, people attempt to gain an accurate construal of their situation so they may respond accordingly. Individuals are rewarded for acting in accordance with the beliefs and commands of authority figures and/or social norms. Among other sources, authority may be gained on the basis of societal power and size. Individuals are to comply with an authority figure's orders or replicate the actions deemed correct by social norms because of an assumption that the individual is unaware of some important information; the need to be accurate—and the belief that others know something they do not—often supersedes the individual's personal opinion. Humans are fundamentally motivated by the need to belong—the need for social approval through the maintenance of meaningful social relationships; this need motivates people to engage in behavior. People are more to take actions to cultivate relationships with individuals they like and/or wish to gain approval from. By comp