click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Football League Third Division North

The Third Division North of the Football League was a tier in the English football league system from 1921 to 1958. It ran in parallel with the Third Division South with clubs elected to the League or relegated from a higher division allocated to one or the other according to geographical position; some clubs in the English Midlands shuttled between the Third Division North and the Third Division South according to the composition of the two leagues in any one season. The Third Division South had been created in 1921 from the Third Division formed the previous year made up of 22 teams drawn from the Southern League, it was decided that this gave the Football League overall too much of a southern bias, so the Third Division North was created in 1921-22 to redress the balance. Stockport County had finished bottom of the Second Division at the end of the 1920-21 season, they were relegated into this new division, where they joined Grimsby Town who had spent a season in the Third Division after relegation from the Second Division in 1919-20.

As there was no Northern equivalent of the Southern League, the remaining 18 teams came from several regional leagues: the Midland League, the Central League, the North Eastern League, the Lancashire Combination and the Birmingham Combination. The original 20 teams were: Stockport County, Grimsby Town, Accrington Stanley, Crewe Alexandra, Stalybridge Celtic, Southport, Durham City, Chesterfield, Lincoln City, Nelson, Wigan Borough, Tranmere Rovers, Halifax Town and Rochdale; the division was extended by a further two teams in 1923 to take the total to 22, for the 1950-51 season the division was expanded to 24 clubs, with Scunthorpe United and Shrewsbury Town joining. Only one promotion place was available each season from the Third Division North to the Second Division, which made it difficult to win promotion. Eight teams, Accrington Stanley, Crewe Alexandra, Halifax Town, Hartlepool United, Rochdale and Wrexham, were ever-present in the division for the 30 years of its existence. Of the teams that played in Third Division North, Wolverhampton Wanderers and Derby County were English football champions.

Its final season was 1957–58, after which the North and South sections were merged to form a single Third Division and the Fourth Division. The top 12 clubs in Division Three North, except for the Champions Scunthorpe United, went into the new Third Division, the bottom 12 clubs went into the Fourth Division. From 1934 to the war's outbreak there was a short-lived knockout competition Football League Third Division North Cup. From the 1954-55 season until the 1957-58 season, there was a series of games between teams representing the Third Division North and the Third Division South. Football League Third Division South Football League Third Division

Charisma.com

Charisma.com is a Japanese electro/rap group that formed in 2011. Featuring MC Itsuka and DJ Gonchi, the members work as office ladies while performing. In 2015, the group made their major label debut under Warner Music Japan. Members Itsuka and Gonchi first met when they were junior high school classmates, however they had never discussed music together until leaving school. After Itsuka graduated high school and went to university, she joined her friend's rock band as the vocalist; when the group disbanded, Itsuka was about to start making music with a vocalist. She asked Gonchi, who had experience with turntables due to her brother being a DJ, to join as she felt a DJ would increase the group's appeal. Gonchi accepted, having no plans after returning from studying overseas and waiting for university to begin; the group did not intend to make hip-hop music, begun with a rock sound. Itsuka had begun rapping when she went to karaoke with friends, after noticing that nobody sang the rap sections of popular songs by Japanese groups Heartsdales and Bennie K.

She decided her rap skills were better than her singing skills, so decided to rap in Charisma.com. "Charisma" was a nickname Itsuka had been given by her vocalist friend. After adding more people, she added the ".com" to represent the word "company" unaware that the domain name.com referred to the word commercial. Itsuka and Gonchi consider the start of Charisma.com to be from. Charisma.com created a blog on Ameblo and posted their first entry on October 1, 2011. The group uploaded their first song, "Hate", to YouTube on July 9, 2012. At the same time, Itsuka worked with 07ch Records, collaborating with C. R. E. A. M Sodaz on their Kissa Dark Side album in November 2011, releasing her own extended play Majo EP under the name Meliyas in September 2012; the group uploaded their second song, "George", to YouTube on February 7, 2013. Due to the popularity of their videos on YouTube, the group were able to release their debut extended play Ai Ai Syndrome on July 10, 2013; the release was promoted with a new recording of "Hate", which managed to chart in the top 50 of Billboard's Japan Hot 100 singles chart.

Ai Ai Syndrome was well-received critically, being awarded at the 2014 CD Shop Awards for best Kantō region artist. The release impressed iTunes Japan staff, who listed them in their annual list of new artists who they expect to break into mainstream music in 2014. In April 2014, Itsuka announced the return of her solo project Meliyas, released a full-length album Majo LP to 500 members of the Charisma.com fanclub. It was given a wide release in November 2014; the group's debut studio album Distopping was released on June 4, 2014. This was followed by a digital single collaborating with dance troupe Tempura Kidz. In early 2015, Charisma.com performed the theme song for the live action film adaptation of Tomohiro Koizumi's manga Shinda Me o Shita Shōnen, entitled "Tongari Young", in April released "Kongara Girl", a song to promote Tangle Teezer-brand hair brushes. In July 2015, Charisma.com released their first extended play under major label Warner Music Japan, OLest. On December 8, 2017, Charisma.com announce.

Gonchi decided to retire from the entertainment industry to help out with her family's business. The duo's final activity was a farewell concert held at Zepp Tokyo on January 27, 2018. On September 8, 2018, a new single Introduction Tekina was released on the charismadotcom Youtube channel. Itsuka is the group's lyricist. Gonchi is the group's DJ, in charge of turn tables. Charisma.com's sound was inspired by Japanese hip-hop group Astro, which inspired Itsuka to make music featuring rapping on top of a constant dance beat. The group's songs begin. After she receives them, she adds a melody. Both members continue to work their jobs as office ladies in addition to being members of Charisma.com. Itsuka works at the office of a magazine, while Gonchi works at a company specialising in precision machinery. Much of Charisma.com's music is inspired by everyday happenings in offices the difference between life as a musician compared to life as an office lady. Itsuka's lyrics when she first began performing music were more about love, however the longer she worked as an office lady, the more she sang about society and angrier things.

During Distopping, most of her songs were from the point of view of other people, including her younger sister, her coworkers or is inspired by snatches of conversation on the train. Critics have focused praise on Charisma.com for Itsuka's lyric rapping. Charisma.com, Gametsuku Strong ~ dokuzetsu OL rappā, seken o buttagiru!, Tokyo: Fusosha Publishing, ISBN 978-4-594-07415-9 Official website Official blog

Recapture of Angola

The Recapture of Angola, or Reconquest of Angola, was a military campaign fought between the Portuguese and the Dutch occupiers of Angola. Its most important episode was the siege imposed by the Portuguese on the far larger Dutch garrison of Luanda. In 1641 Johan Maurits sent an expedition under Admiral Cornelis Jol from Recife in Dutch Brazil to seize the Angolan capital of Luanda; the Dutch were able to capture Luanda in August as the Portuguese forces were occupied inland in a campaign against the Kingdom of Kongo. The two countries fought to a stalemate over Angola, until in 1648 the governor of Rio de Janeiro and Angola, Salvador de Sá, reached Luanda and finding the city defended by 1200 Dutch troops, besieged them and regained it for Portugal seven years after its loss; when a Dutch force of 300 soldiers returned from the interior to help their garrison of Luanda, they surrendered to the Portuguese, but their allied warriors of the Queen Ndjinga fought a battle against the Portuguese and were defeated as well.

Salvador Correia de Sa sent a force to Benguela where the Dutch garrison surrendered. He sent a fleet which recaptured the archipelago of São Tomé e Príncipe from the Dutch, who left behind their artillery; this was a decisive Dutch defeat since the Dutch Brazil couldn't survive without the slaves from Angola. And the end of the Dutch presence in South America meant not only the bankruptcy of the WIC, but the end of the West Dutch empire

The Trumpet Artistry of Chet Baker

The Trumpet Artistry of Chet Baker is an album by jazz trumpeter Chet Baker recorded in 1953 and 1954 and released on the Pacific Jazz label. The album compiles tracks released on the 1954 10 inch LP Chet Baker Sextet along with unissued recordings. Allmusic rated the album with 3 stars stating "This well-rounded LP features the popular trumpeter in his early days... those listeners running across this LP will find it a perfect introduction to the music of the early Chet Baker". "I'm Glad There Is You" - 3:10 "Moon Love" - 3:15 "Moonlight Becomes You" - 3:24 "Imagination" - 3:01 "Little Man You've Had a Busy Day" - 4:44 "Goodbye" - 3:50 "All the Things You Are" - 2:57 "No Ties" - 3:01 "Happy Little Sunbeam" - 2:45 "Bea's Flat" - 2:58 "Russ Job" - 2:54 "Tommy Hawk" - 3:39Recorded in Los Angeles on July 29 & 30, 1953, at Radio Recorders in Hollywood on October 3, 1953, at Capitol Studios in Hollywood on December 22, 1953 and in Los Angeles on September 9, 1954 and September 15, 1954 Chet Baker - trumpet Bob Brookmeyer - valve trombone Herb Geller - alto saxophone, tenor saxophone Jack Montrose - tenor saxophone Bob Gordon, Bud Shank - baritone saxophone Russ Freeman - piano Joe Mondragon, Carson Smith, Bob Whitlock - bass Shelly Manne, Bobby White - drums

Polish mine detector

The Mine detector Mark I was a metal detector for landmines developed during World War II. Initial work on the design had started in Poland but after the invasion of Poland by the Germans in 1939, the Fall of France in 1940, it was not until the winter of 1941–1942 that work was completed by Polish lieutenant Józef Kosacki. In the pre-war period the Department of Artillery of Poland's Ministry of National Defence ordered the construction of a device that could be helpful in locating duds on artillery training grounds; the instrument was designed by the AVA Wytwórnia Radiotechniczna, but its implementation was prevented by the German invasion of Poland. Following the fall of Poland and the transfer of Polish HQ to France, work restarted on the device, this time intended as a mine detector. Little is known of this stage of construction as the work was stopped by the Battle of France and the need to evacuate the Polish personnel to Great Britain. There in late 1941 Lieutenant Józef Kosacki devised a final version, based on the earlier designs.

His invention was not patented. He was given a letter of thanks from the King for this act, his design was accepted and 500 mine detectors were sent to El Alamein where they doubled the speed of the British Eighth Army. During the war more than 100,000 of this type were produced, together with several hundred thousands of further developments of the mine detector; the detector was used during the Allied invasion of Sicily, the Allied invasion of Italy and the Invasion of Normandy. This type of detector was used by the British Army until 1995. An attempt was made to mount a version of the mine detector on a vehicle so that sappers would be less vulnerable. To this end "Lulu" and subsequently "Bantu" were developed; the detector mechanism was in non-metallic rollers on arms held away from the vehicle. When the roller passed over a mine, or a similar piece of metal, the roller it was under was indicated in the vehicle. Prototypes were never tried in combat. There is a long history of an ethnic joke whose punch line is that Polish people stamp their feet on the ground to detect mines, ironic since the real mine detector was designed by a Pole.

Media mogul and billionaire Ted Turner once told such a joke. Mr. Turner made his version of the joke during a speech to the National Family Planning and Reproductive Association in Washington in 1999. Turner apologized to the Polish Foreign Ministry saying he regretted his comments. Demining Land mine Polish mine detector, March 8, 1999 page 18 MK. III "Polish" Mine Detector

Luděk Pachman

Luděk Pachman was a Czechoslovak-German chess grandmaster, chess writer, political activist. In 1972, after being imprisoned and tortured to death by the Communist regime in Czechoslovakia, he was allowed to emigrate to West Germany, he lived the remainder of his life there, resumed his chess career with considerable success, including playing in the Interzonal in 1976 and winning the West German Championship in 1978. Pachman's first chess championship came in 1940, when he became champion of the nearby village of Cista; the first break in his chess career came in 1943, when he was invited to an international tournament in Prague. World Champion Alekhine dominated the event, with Keres taking second place. Pachman finished ninth in the nineteen-player tournament. Alekhine paid him a compliment in an article in the Frankfurter Zeitung and from the fifth round on, invited him every evening to analyze games and opening variations. "I don't have to tell you how a beginner from a village chess club felt at that time", Pachman wrote.

Pachman went on to become one of the world's leading players. He was awarded the International Master title in 1950 and the Grandmaster title in 1954, he won fifteen international tournaments, but considered sharing second place in Havana 1963, with Mikhail Tal and Efim Geller, behind Viktor Korchnoi, his best tournament result. Pachman won the Czechoslovak championship seven times between 1946 and 1966, he became the champion of West Germany in 1978. He played in six Interzonal tournaments between Saltsjöbaden 1948 and Manila 1976, he represented Czechoslovakia in eight consecutive Chess Olympiads from 1952 through 1966 playing first board. The most successful year of his career was 1959. After winning the Czechoslovakian championship he went on a South American tour, winning tournaments in Mar del Plata. On this tour he beat the 16-year-old Bobby Fischer twice. Pachman made an lifetime score against Fischer, +2−2=4. Pachman was politically active throughout his life, first as a Communist and as a staunch anti-Communist.

In December 1968, he won a tournament in Athens. Upon his return to Prague, the authorities arrested and tortured him for months. During this time he attempted suicide: On Christmas Eve 1969, doctors called his wife and told her that he would not survive the night. In 1972, Pachman was allowed to emigrate to West Germany, he soon became known as a anti-Communist political activist, his eloquence made him a regular guest on political talk shows. Pachman was a prolific author, publishing eighty books in five languages. In the 1950s, he became the world's leading opening expert with the publication of his four-volume opus, Theory of Modern Chess. Pachman considered Modern Chess Strategy, published in 1959, his book Checkmate in Prague recounts his treatment at the hands of the Communist authorities. Ludek Pachman vs. Oleg Neikirch, Portoroz 1958, Queen's Gambit Declined, Semi-Tarrasch, 1–0. Pachman attacks his opponent's castled king, offering the sacrifice of both bishops, his opponent declines the second bishop, could have continued the game with 25...

Qh7!, but it is not easy to find such moves over the board in the limited time. Pachman knew well where it pays to take a risk in the game. See this account of a swindle by Pachman, who deliberately wasted an hour on his clock in order to get into time trouble and thereby lull his opponent into being swindled. Pachman, Luděk, Chess Endings for the Practical Player, Routledge & Kegan Paul, ISBN 0-7100-9266-0 Pachman, Luděk, Modern Chess Strategy, Dover, ISBN 978-0-486-20290-7 Pachman, Luděk, Complete Chess Strategy, Volume 1: First Principles of the Middle Game, Cornerstone Library, ISBN 0-346-12321-6 Pachman, Luděk, Complete Chess Strategy, Volume 2: Principles of Pawn Play and the Center, Cornerstone Library, ISBN 0-346-12343-7 Grandmaster Ludek Pachman dies at 78 Luděk Pachman player profile and games at Chessgames.com Edward Winter, Pachman and Politics Visa with photo 1959 Visa with photo 1962