The Football League War Cup was an association football tournament held between 1939 and 1945. It aimed to fill the hole left in English football by the cancellation of the FA Cup during the Second World War. Throughout the latter 1930s it was becoming inevitable that a second World War with Germany was coming. On 3 September 1939 following Germany’s invasion of Poland, Neville Chamberlain announced war on Nazi Germany. Shortly after war was declared, most competitions were abandoned as the country's attention turned to the war effort. Over 780 footballers signed up to fight in the war and as a result many of England's best teams were depleted – for example, Liverpool saw 76 players sign up, Wolves saw 91 sign up and Huddersfield and Charlton all saw over 60 players sign up for the war; because of this many teams fielded guest players instead. The FA Cup Extra-Preliminary Round was played, but with hostilities declared before replays took place, a 50-mile travelling limit, that competition too was abandoned.
The Football League War Cup was held between 1939 and 1945 in an attempt to fill the gaping hole left in English Football by the cancellation of the FA Cup. 137 games were played to get to the final of the inaugural Football League War Cup. These matches were condensed into just 9 weeks. Despite the fears that London would be bombed by the Luftwaffe fans came in thousands to watch the game at Wembley, despite its obvious danger as a bombing target. In the nine months leading up to the final, 127 large-scale night-raids had taken place, with London, the home of the final, being a regular target; this threat did not stop 60,000 people turning up to watch the game. Preston North End beat Bury, Tranmere Rovers, Manchester City and Newcastle to reach the final. Andrew McLaren had scored nine goals during the tournament, including five goals in Preston's 12–1 win over Tranmere. Thanks to a late equaliser from Arsenal's Compton in the game at Wembley, this was the first final of the tournament to go to a replay.
The replay was moved away from London to Ewood Park. The win for Preston meant that they had completed the first wartime league and cup double, having won the Northern Regional League; the third competition in 1942 saw the final switched to a two-legged format with each team playing one leg on their home ground. This was the only time in the tournament's history. Eric Robinson of Wolves was to die soon after his team won the tournament, during a military exercise. In its final three years, the competition was split into north and south halves, with the winners of each section competing in a play-off, staged at Stamford Bridge, to decide the cup winner; the northern winners were decided over two legs, while the southern finalists met in a one-off Wembley final. The overall final marked, they would end up being the club who had reached the most Football League War Cup finals, yet did not win once. The final was notable because both clubs had won their respective wartime divisions. With the score in the final tied at 1–1 and, due to transport restrictions and bombing threats, a replay not an option, the game ended a draw.
Charlton Athletic and Aston Villa shared the 1944 trophy, an event that had not happened before and did not happen again. Association football during World War I Association football during World War II
The harlequin tuskfish, Choerodon fasciatus, is a species of wrasse native to the western Pacific Ocean. It makes its way into the aquarium trade; the harlequin tuskfish grows to length of 30 cm. It is a brightly colored marine fish with shades of blue and orange, it has sharp blue teeth. The specimens found in Australia have brighter coloration; the harlequin tuskfish is a carnivore, eating benthic invertebrates such as echinoderms, crustaceans and worms. This species is found in the western Pacific Ocean in two separate areas. One is from the Ryukyus to Taiwan and the other is from Queensland, Australia, to New Caledonia; this species inhabits reefs at depths from 5 to 35 m. This fish has been observed to be a tool user in the sense that it will carry small clams to a home base where it will fling it against a hard surface such as a rock multiple times until it breaks open, allowing the fish to eat the soft parts; this behavior was observed multiple times and filmed in the making of BBC's TV series Blue Planet II, qualifying this fish as a tool using animal.
The Harlequin Tusk is a moderately difficult fish to maintain in captivity. Juveniles can be shy and bullied by aggressive tankmates, while adults will be quite aggressive. At a minimum, they should be kept in a 120-gallon tank for a single specimen, they will accept frozen and meaty foods such as brine shrimp and shellfish. It is a semi-aggressive fish and ideal tankmates would include angels and small triggerfish. However, it will not tolerate its own kind, so there should be only one specimen per tank, they are not reef-safe. Although they will not nip at corals or sessile invertebrates, they will attack and consume crabs, hermit crabs and shrimp. A reef temperature of 78F-80F is ideal for maintaining the Harlequin Tusk
Transit police are a specialized police agency or unit employed by a common carrier, which could be a transit district, bus line, other transport carrier, or the state. Their mandate is to prevent and investigate crimes committed against the carrier or by or against passengers or other customers of the carrier, or those committed on the carrier's property. A transit police force may consist of officers employed directly by a transit system, such as the Amtrak Police, or it may exist as a specialized unit of a local police force, such as the Transit Police Services Bureau of the Orange County, California Sheriff's Department, which serves the Orange County Transportation Authority or South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Police Service which serves the transit system of southern British Columbia, Canada. Where the term "transit police" is used for the police working for a railroad/railway, it refers to a railroad providing urban mass transit as opposed to long-distance rail carriage.
Police who work either for a private non-passenger railroad or long-haul rail carrier are referred to as "railroad police" or "railway police". In Britain, most of the rail system, including the London Underground, is policed by a national transport police agency, the British Transport Police; some transit police forces have full policing powers, such as BART Police, SEPTA Transit Police, Metro Transit Police Department, Utah Transit Authority Police Department or MBTA Transit Police, while in other areas, they have limited powers and are classed as special police or special constables with limited powers. Some of the crimes transit police and railroad police investigate include trespassing on the right-of-way of a railroad, assaults against passengers, tagging of graffiti on railroad rolling stock and buses or bus stops, ticket fraud and theft of personal belongings, baggage or freight, drug dealing at transit stations, they may engage in random ticket checking hoping to catch and fine ticketless travelers.
These controls are more frequent in transit systems using an honor-based fare collecting approach. In federal states like the United States, Canada, or Australia and state statutes determine the jurisdiction and authority of all police departments, including transit police. Most transit police services have the same police authority as any other national and local police agencies, such as the British Transport Police, New Jersey Transit Police Department, BART Police, Maryland Transit Administration Police, DART Police, SEPTA Transit Police, Utah Transit Authority Police Department, the South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Police Service have rather extensive jurisdictions, including traffic enforcement, with arrest powers on and off property. Transit and railroad police tend to have better results in finding perpetrators of crimes they investigate than public police forces due to specialization and smaller case loads. New South Wales Commuter Crime Unit, New South Wales Police Force Police Transport Command New South Wales Police Force as of 2013.
Transit Officers, RailCorp Closed down as of October 2013. Queensland Railway Squad, Queensland Police Authorised Officers, Queensland Rail TransLink Senior Network Officers, TransLink Customer Service Officers, G:linkSouth Australia Transit Services Branch, South Australia Police. Private security maintain a presence during peak hours or events. Victoria Transit Safety Division, Victoria Police members and Protective Services Officers Authorised Officers employed by Public Transport operator companies and by Public Transport Victoria. Western Australia Police Rail Unit, Western Australia Police Transit Officers, Public Transport Authority of Western Australia The South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Police Service is the only full transit police force in Canada, a necessity since Metro Vancouver's TransLink public transit system spans 22 separate municipalities and 16 police jurisdictions. Most other large Canadian cities use security officers appointed as special constables or peace officers.
These officers assist local jurisdiction's police officers in investigations of illegal activity on the transit system. Some transit security forces using special constables include: Calgary Transit Public Safety and Enforcement Section Edmonton Transit Protective Services GO Transit Special Constables OC Transpo Special Constable Service Société de Transport de Montréal Sûreté et Controle Toronto Transit Commission Transit Enforcement Unit Via Rail Police YRT/Viva Special Constable Services Cities in China which have rapid transit systems all have their transit police force associated to the local public security bureau. There are no non-governmental police forces. National Rail used to have a police force under the Ministry of Railways, but such authority is transferred to local police now. However, the structure of institutions can be vary from city to city. For example, cities like Tianjin and Chengdu might have a joint public transportation force of division level, operates on all the taxis, bus routes, rapid transit and ferry lines as well as transportation hubs inside city limit.
Again, all these agencies are supervised by the PSBs of higher level. Police Régionale des Transports Service National de Police Ferroviaire (Police Nationale-Direction Centrale de la Police aux Front