Early childhood education
Early childhood education is a branch of education theory which relates to the teaching of young children up until the age of about eight. Infant/toddler education, a subset of childhood education, denotes the education of children from birth to age two. It emerged as a field of study during the Enlightenment, particularly in European countries with high literacy rates and it continued to grow through the nineteenth century as universal primary education became a norm in the Western world. In recent years, early education has become a prevalent public policy issue, as municipal, state. It is described as an important period in childs development. It refers to the development of a childs personality. The history of childhood care and education refers to the development of care. ECCE has a scope, and caring for and educating young children has always been an integral part of human societies. Historically, such arrangements have largely been informal, involving family, while the first two years of a childs life are spent in the creation of a childs first sense of self, most children are able to differentiate between themselves and others by their second year.
This differentiation is crucial to the ability to determine how they should function in relation to other people. Parents can be seen as a childs first teacher and therefore a part of the early learning process. Early childhood attachment processes that occurs during childhood years 0–2 years of age. With proper guidance and exploration children begin to more comfortable with their environment. Parents who are consistent with response times, and emotions will properly make this attachment early on, if this attachment is not made, there can be detrimental effects on the child in their future relationships and independence. There are proper techniques that parents and caregivers can use to establish these relationships, academic Journal Reference This provides experimental research on the emphasis on caregiving effecting attachment. Education for young students can help them excel academically and socially, with exposure and organized lesson plans children can learn anything they want to. The tools they learn to use during these beginning years will provide benefits to their success.
Developmentally, having structure and freedom, children are able to reach their full potential, Childrens curiosity and imagination naturally evoke learning when unfettered. Learning through play will allow a child to develop cognitively, children learn more efficiently and gain more knowledge through activities such as dramatic play and social games
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and Insulinde
Academy (English school)
Academy schools are state-funded schools in England which are directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control. The terms of the arrangements are set out in individual Academy Funding Agreements, some primary schools, as well as some of the remaining first and high schools, are academies. Academies are self-governing non-profit charitable trusts and may receive support from personal or corporate sponsors. They do not have to follow the National Curriculum, but do have to ensure that their curriculum is broad and balanced, and they are subject to inspection by Ofsted. The following are all types of academy, Sponsored academy, A formerly maintained school that has transformed to academy status as part of a government intervention strategy. They are consequently run by a Government-approved sponsor and they are sometimes referred to as traditional academies. Converter academy, A formerly maintained school that has converted to academy status. It is not necessary for an academy to have a sponsor.
Free school, Free schools are new academies established since 2011 via the Free School Programme, from May 2015, usage of the term was extended to new academies set up via a Local Authority competition. The majority of schools are similar in size and shape to other types of academy. An academy trust that operates more than one academy is known as an Academy Chain, an Academy Chain is a group of schools working together under a shared academy structure that is either an Umbrella Trust or a Multi-Academy Trust. An academy with an official designation is sometimes referred to as a Faith Academy. Like other state funded schools, academies are required to adhere to the National Admissions Code, in terms of their governance, academies are established as companies limited by guarantee with a Board of Directors that acts as a Trust. The Academy Trust has exempt charity status, regulated by the Department for Education, the trustees are legally, but not financially, accountable for the operation of the academy.
The Trust serves as the entity of which the school is part. The trustees oversee the running of the school, sometimes delegating responsibility to a governing body which they appoint. The day-to-day management of the school is, as in most schools, conducted by the Head Teacher, in Sponsored Academies, the sponsor is able to influence the process of establishing the school, including its curriculum, ethos and building. The sponsor has the power to appoint governors to the governing body
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
It was disbanded on the creation of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy on 14 July 2016. Following the departments dissolution, it no longer has ministers responsible, the Permanent Secretary was Sir Martin Donnelly. Economic policy is devolved but several important policy areas are reserved to Westminster. Further and higher education policy is mostly devolved and excepted matters are outlined below. Official website bis. gov. uk/ Archived Website Precursor departments, Department for Business and Regulatory Reform Archived Website Department for Innovation and Skills Archived Website
For-profit higher education in the United States
For-profit higher education in the United States refers to higher education educational institutions operated by private, profit-seeking businesses. Historically, most colleges and universities in the US have been non-profit, in some cases operators of for-profit colleges have faced criminal charges or other legal sanctions. Since 2010, for-profit colleges have received greater scrutiny and negative attention from the US government, state Attorneys General, the media, the National Bureau of Economic Research paper was based on an analysis of 567,000 students who attended for-profit colleges from 2006 to 2008. More than 80% carried student loan debt, the advocacy group the Debt Collective has created its own, unofficial Defense to Repayment App that allows former students of schools accused of fraud to pursue debt cancellation. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, there were approximately 3,200 for-profit institutions in the US in 2015, many for-profit institutions are subsidiaries of larger companies.
Former President of the United States Bill Clinton has been an honorary Chancellor of the for-profit enterprise and lobbying play a significant part in the history of US for-profit school growth. The for-profit education industry has spent more than $40 million on lobbying since 2007, For-profit education lobbying grew from $83,000 in 1990 to approximately $4.5 million in its peak year of 2012. The most significant industry lobby is Career Education Colleges and Universities, before 2010, the organization was known as the Career College Association. The Cato Institutes Center for Educational Freedom supports higher education. In 2014, APSCU hired Michael Dakduk, former head of Student Veterans of America, from 2010 to 2015, Bill Clinton received at least $17.5 million from Laureate Education, the parent company of Walden University. The for-profit college industry has spent billions of dollars on student recruiting, advertising, in 2011, for example, University of Phoenix, ITT Tech and Capella together spent more than $100,000,000 on Google Ads.
Several Wall Street-backed schools spend large amounts on advertisements on day time, in 2012, Apollo Group, the parent company of University of Phoenix, reportedly spent $665,000,000 on advertising and marketing. Lead Generators are companies that find potential students and provide the consumers personal information, For-profit colleges in the US have their origins in the Colonial Era. From 1974 to 1986, for-profit colleges share of Pell Grants rose from 7 percent to 21 percent, in the late 1980s, Secretary of Education William Bennett hired an outside firm and Associates, to investigate the problems with for-profit higher education. The investigators found widespread abuses across the industry, from 1989 to the mid-1990s, Stephen Blair, a former Department of Education official, led for-profit college industrys aggressive lobbying campaign in Washington, DC. Blair gathered funds to combat the Pelavin report and to maintain for-profit educations position, Blair recruited politicians Bob Beckel, Patty Sullivan, and Haley Barbour to sell their cause to Democrats and Republicans.
1992, the Higher Education Act was amended to include the 85–15 rule, supporters of the 85–15 rule argued that the measure was necessary to stem fraudulent and abusive practices at for-profit colleges, and that it might restore some market incentive to education. At the time, former Career College Association lobbyist Patty Sullivan estimated that 35 or 40 percent of for-profit colleges engaged in fraud, in 1993, the 85–15 rule was shelved after complaints were made to the Department of Education
The original purpose of medieval grammar schools was the teaching of Latin. Over time the curriculum was broadened, first to include Ancient Greek, and English and other European languages, natural sciences, history and other subjects. In the late Victorian era grammar schools were reorganised to provide secondary education throughout England and Wales, Grammar schools of these types were established in British territories overseas, where they have evolved in different ways. With the move to comprehensive schools in the 1960s and 1970s, some grammar schools became fully independent and charged fees. In both cases, many of these schools kept grammar school in their names, more recently, a number of state grammar schools still retaining their selective intake gained academy status, meaning that they are independent of the Local Education Authority. Some parts of England retain forms of the Tripartite System, some of the remaining grammar schools can trace their histories to before the 16th century.
The schools were attached to cathedrals and monasteries, teaching Latin – the language of the church – to future priests, other subjects required for religious work were occasionally added, including music and verse and mathematics and law. With the foundation of the ancient universities from the late 12th century, grammar schools became the point to a liberal arts education. Pupils were usually educated in schools up to the age of 14, after which they would look to universities. An example of a grammar school founded by a medieval borough corporation unconnected with church or university is Bridgnorth Grammar School. During the English Reformation in the 16th century, most cathedral schools were closed and replaced by new foundations funded from the dissolution of the monasteries. For example, the oldest extant schools in Wales – Christ College, with the increased emphasis on studying the scriptures after the Reformation, many schools added Greek and, in a few cases, Hebrew. The teaching of languages was hampered by a shortage of non-Latin type.
Many of these are commemorated in annual Founders Day services and ceremonies at surviving schools. The usual pattern was to create an endowment to pay the wages of a master to instruct boys in Latin. The school day ran from 6 a. m. to 5 p. m. with a two-hour break for lunch, in winter, school started at 7 a. m. Most of the day was spent in the learning of Latin. To encourage fluency, some schoolmasters recommended punishing any pupil who spoke in English, by the end of their studies at age 14, they would be quite familiar with the great Latin authors, and with Latin drama and rhetoric
The Independent is a British online newspaper. The printed edition of the paper ceased in March 2016, nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet newspaper, but changed to tabloid format in 2003. Until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as free from party political bias and it tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues. The daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had a daily circulation of just below 58,000,85 per cent down from its 1990 peak. On 12 February 2016, it was announced that The Independent, the last print edition of The Independent on Sunday was published on 20 March 2016, with the main paper ceasing print publication the following Saturday. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format and it was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds.
All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwells ownership, marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, and Whittam Smith took control of the paper. The paper was created at a time of a change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and ultimately defeated them in the Wapping dispute, production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition. As a result of controversy around Murdochs move to Wapping, the plant was effectively having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside, the Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his companys new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan It is, and challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years. Some aspects of production merged with the paper, although the Sunday paper retained a largely distinct editorial staff. It featured spoofs of the other papers mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, a number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony OReillys media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994, in March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into OReillys Independent News & Media, MGN, and Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, and in March 1998, OReilly bought the other 54% of the company for £30 million, brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, and Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure, Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in his book, My Trade
Michael Andrew Gove is a British Conservative politician, who was Secretary of State for Education from 2010 to 2014 and Secretary of State for Justice from 2015 to 2016. He has been the Member of Parliament for Surrey Heath since 2005 and he is an author and is a columnist for The Times. Born in Edinburgh, Gove was raised in Aberdeen and attended Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford and he was first elected to the House of Commons in the 2005 election for the safe Conservative seat of Surrey Heath. He was appointed to the Shadow Cabinet by David Cameron in 2007 as Shadow Secretary of State for Children, after the formation of the Coalition Government in 2010, Gove was appointed Secretary of State for Education. Gove sought to expand the academies programme introduced by the previous Labour Government, votes of no confidence were passed by the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, National Union of Teachers and NASUWT at their conferences in 2013. In a 2014 Cabinet reshuffle, Gove was moved to the post of Chief Whip, following the 2015 election, Gove was promoted to the offices of Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice.
In 2016, Gove played a role in the UKs referendum on EU membership as the co-convenor of Vote Leave and along with Boris Johnson. In the first round of voting, Gove came third to Theresa May and he was eliminated from the leadership race on the second ballot on 7 July 2016. Following her appointment as Prime Minister, May did not appoint him to the Cabinet on 14 July 2016, and he was succeeded as Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice by Liz Truss. Gove was born in Edinburgh and named Graham by his mother, at four months old, he was adopted by a Labour-supporting family in Aberdeen, where he was brought up. His adoptive father ran a fish processing business, his mother was a lab assistant at the University of Aberdeen before working at the Aberdeen School for the Deaf. In Aberdeen he was educated at a school, and attended the independent Robert Gordons College. In October 2012, Gove wrote an letter to his former French teacher for misbehaving in class. From 1985 to 1988 he studied English at Lady Margaret Hall, Gove became a trainee reporter at the Press and Journal in Aberdeen, where he spent several months on strike in the 1989–1990 dispute over union recognition and representation.
He joined the The Times in 1996 as a writer and assumed posts as its comment editor, news editor, Saturday editor. He has written a column on politics and current affairs for the newspaper and contributed to The Times Literary Supplement, Prospect magazine. He remains on good terms with Rupert Murdoch, whom Gove described in evidence before the Leveson Inquiry as one of the most impressive and significant figures of the last 50 years. He has written a biography of Michael Portillo and a critical study of the Northern Ireland peace process, The Price of Peace
A business is an organizational entity involved in the provision of goods and services to consumers. Businesses may be social non-profit enterprises or state-owned public enterprises operated by governments with specific social, a business owned by multiple private individuals may form as an incorporated company or jointly organise as a partnership. Countries have different laws that may ascribe different rights to the business entities. The word business can refer to an organization or to an entire market sector or to the sum of all economic activity. Compound forms such as agribusiness represent subsets of the broader meaning. Businesses aim to maximize sales to have their income exceed their expenditures, resulting in a profit, the owner operates the business alone and may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, partnership, A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business, the three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are, general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships.
Corporation, The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a legal personality from its owners. Corporations can be either government-owned or privately owned and they can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A privately owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, a privately owned, for-profit corporation can be either privately held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange. Cooperative, Often referred to as a co-op, a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit, a cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, and they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are typically classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives, cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy. In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are not as protected.
Franchises, A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open, franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business. Real estate businesses sell, invest and develop properties – including land, residential homes, retailers and distributors act as middlemen and get goods produced by manufacturers to the intended consumers, they make their profits by marking up their prices. Most stores and catalog companies are distributors or retailers, transportation businesses such as railways, shipping companies that deliver goods and individuals to their destinations for a fee
Primary education or elementary education is typically the first stage of compulsory education, coming between early childhood education and secondary education. Primary education usually takes place in a school or elementary school. In some countries, primary education is followed by school, an educational stage which exists in some countries. In order to achieve the goal by 2015, the United Nations estimated that all children at the entry age for primary school would have had to have been attending classes by 2009. This would depend on the duration of the level, as well as how well the schools retain students until the end of the cycle. As of 2010, the number of new teachers needed in sub-Saharan Africa alone, the gender gap for children not in education had been narrowed. Between 1999 and 2008, the number of not in education worldwide had decreased from 57 percent to 53 percent, however it should be noted that in some regions. According to the United Nations, there are things in the regions that have already been accomplished.
The country doubled its enrollment ratio over the same period, other regions in Latin America such as Guatemala and Nicaragua as well as Zambia in Southern Africa broke through the 90 percent towards greater access to primary education. In Australia, students undertake preschool 13 years of schooling before moving to vocational or higher education, Primary schooling for most children starts after they turn 5 years old. In most states, children can be enrolled earlier at the discretion of individual school principals on the basis of intellectual giftedness, in Victoria, New South Wales, Northern Territory, ACT and Tasmania students move through Kindergarten/Preparatory School/Reception and Years 1 to 6 before starting high school. Pre-School/Kindergarten,4 to 5 years old Prep, currently, at the age of 6 children attend from the grade 1 to 4 what is called Ensino Primário, and afterwards from grade 5 to 9 the Ensino Fundamental. At the age of 15 the teenagers go to Ensino Médio, which is equivalent High School in other countries, Primary school is mandatory and consists in nine years called Ensino Fundamental, separated in Ensino Fundamental I and Ensino Fundamental II.
Primary school is followed by the three years called Ensino Médio. 1st grade, 15- to 16-year-olds, 2nd grade, 16- to 17-year-olds, 3rd grade, in Canada, primary school usually begins at ages three or four, starting with either Kindergarten or Grade 1 and lasts until age 13 or 14. Many places in Canada have a split between primary and elementary schools, in Nova Scotia elementary school is the most common term. The provincial government of Nova Scotia uses the term Primary instead of Kindergarten, most children are pupils in the Danish Folkeskolen, which has the current grades, Kindergarten, 3–6 years https, //meta. wikimedia. The first three grades of school are called Algkool which can be translated as beginning school and can be confused with primary school