Zyklon-B was a Norwegian black metal band founded in 1995. The band’s members were Tomas "Samoth" Thormodsæter Haugen and Vegard "Ihsahn" Sverre Tveitan from Emperor, Kjetil "Frost" Haraldstad from Satyricon and Björn "Aldrahn" Dencker Gjerde from Dødheimsgard, their lyrics deal with death and warfare. The band recorded only one EP; the band Zyklon featuring members of Zyklon-B is thought to be the same band, wrong. The name refers to a gas used in gas chambers during the Holocaust. However, the band states that "Zyklon-B is not related to any political or racial preference". Blood Must Be Shed EP "Mental Orgasm" – 2:54 "Bloodsoil" – 2:25 "Warfare" – 5:35 Blood Must Be Shed / Wraths of Time split EP with Swordmaster "Mental Orgasm" – 2:54 "Bloodsoil" – 2:25 "Warfare" – 5:35 "Wraths of Time" – 5:37 "Upon Blood and Ashes" – 5:17 "Conspiracy - Preview" – 2:56 Necrolust / Total Warfare split single with Mayhem "Necrolust" – 3:43 "Total Warfare" – 5:46
An audio engineer helps to produce a recording or a live performance and adjusting sound sources using equalization and audio effects, mixing and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the "...technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer... the nuts and bolts." It's a creative hobby and profession where musical instruments and technology are used to produce sound for film, television and video games. Audio engineers set up, sound check and do live sound mixing using a mixing console and a sound reinforcement system for music concerts, sports games and corporate events. Alternatively, audio engineer can refer to a scientist or professional engineer who holds an engineering degree and who designs and builds audio or musical technology working under terms such as acoustical engineering, electronic/electrical engineering or signal processing. Research and development audio engineers invent new technologies and techniques, to enhance the process and art of audio engineering.
They might design acoustical simulations of rooms, shape algorithms for audio signal processing, specify the requirements for public address systems, carry out research on audible sound for video game console manufacturers, other advanced fields of audio engineering. They might be referred to as acoustic engineers. Audio engineers working in research and development may come from backgrounds such as acoustics, computer science, broadcast engineering, acoustical engineering, electrical engineering and electronics. Audio engineering courses at university or college fall into two rough categories: training in the creative use of audio as a sound engineer, training in science or engineering topics, which allows students to apply these concepts while pursuing a career developing audio technologies. Audio training courses give you a good knowledge of technologies and their application to recording studio and sound reinforcement systems, but do not have sufficient mathematical and scientific content to allow you to get a job in research and development in the audio and acoustic industry.
Audio engineers in research and development possess a bachelor's degree, master's degree or higher qualification in acoustics, computer science or another engineering discipline. They might work in acoustic consultancy. Alternatively they might work in audio companies, or other industries that need audio expertise, or carry out research in a university; some positions, such as faculty require a Doctor of Philosophy. In Germany a Toningenieur is an audio engineer who designs and repairs audio systems; the listed subdisciplines are based on PACS coding used by the Acoustical Society of America with some revision. Audio engineers develop audio signal processing algorithms to allow the electronic manipulation of audio signals; these can be processed at the heart of much audio production such as reverberation, Auto-Tune or perceptual coding. Alternatively, the algorithms might carry out echo cancellation on Skype, or identify and categorize audio tracks through Music Information Retrieval. Architectural acoustics is the engineering of achieving a good sound within a room.
For audio engineers, architectural acoustics can be about achieving good speech intelligibility in a stadium or enhancing the quality of music in a theatre. Architectural Acoustic design is done by acoustic consultants. Electroacoustics is concerned with the design of headphones, loudspeakers, sound reproduction systems and recording technologies. Examples of electroacoustic design include portable electronic devices, sound systems in architectural acoustics, surround sound and wave field synthesis in movie theater and vehicle audio. Musical acoustics is concerned with describing the science of music. In audio engineering, this includes the design of electronic instruments such as synthesizers. Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of. At the heart of audio engineering are listeners who are the final arbitrator as to whether an audio design is successful, such as whether a binaural recording sounds immersive; the production, computer processing and perception of speech is an important part of audio engineering.
Ensuring speech is transmitted intelligibly and with high quality. A variety of terms are used to describe audio engineers who install or operate sound recording, sound reinforcement, or sound broadcasting equipment, including large and small format consoles. Terms such as "audio technician," "sound technician," "audio engineer," "audio technologist," "recording engineer," "sound mixer" and "sound engineer" can be ambiguous; such terms can refer to a person working in music production.
Ivar Tristan Lundsten is a Norwegian bassist and songwriter, presently living in Oslo, but hails from the nearby municipalities of Nesodden and Jessheim. He is known for his time as bassist for the black metal-band Dimmu Borgir, from 1993 to 1996, which he left after the album Stormblåst. In 1994-1995 Brynjard was a member of Old Man's Child, where he was a songwriter and played bass on the band's demo In The Shades Of Life. However, he left the band just before the release of their first album, he used to be a writer for the Norwegian music magazine Mute. Presently Brynjard is working on his new band, where he is the vocalist. Inn I Evighetens Mørke, EP, Necromantic Gallery Productions, 1993 For All Tid, album, No Colours Records, 1994 Stormblåst, Cacophonous Records, 1996 In the Shades of Life, demo, 1994, reissued as split EP with Dimmu Borgir named Sons of Satan Gather for Attack, Hammerheart Records, 1999 Angstkrieg, EP, self-released, 2010 Angstkrieg website
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Metal Heart is the sixth studio album by German heavy metal band Accept, released in 1985. Although the group had recorded before at Dierks-Studios, this was the first album produced by Dieter Dierks himself, it marked the return of guitarist Jörg Fischer after a two year absence, with Herman Frank having been his replacement. This album was a cautious attempt to crack the lucrative American market with more accessible songcraft and emphasis on hooks and melodies. Although critically panned at the time, today Metal Heart is considered by fans as one of the band's best records, it contains several of their classic songs such as "Metal Heart" and "Living for Tonite". The band makes a detour into jazz metal territory with the unusual song "Teach Us to Survive". Wolf Hoffmann explained the concept behind the album: "We had read an article that someone was working on an artificial heart and that one day everybody is going to have a computerized heart, it talked, in general terms, about how more and more of humanity gets sucked out of the daily life and more and more replaced by machine.
It's not a new thing now, but it was new. Humans versus machine, was the general vibe of the record." The original cover concept was for a hologram of a metal heart, until budget considerations resulted in a traditional cover. But fittingly for the futuristic theme of the album, Metal Heart was the first Accept album to be digitally mastered. Hoffmann recalls Dieter Dierks as a demanding producer: "We would do some pieces several dozen times trying to capture what he had in his mind for a specific section," adding: "Each song we tried different combinations of guitars, mic'ing and strings!"The song "Metal Heart" is well known for containing the cover of two famous classical themes: Tchaikovsky's "Slavonic March" and Beethoven's "Für Elise" in the main riff and solo. This song was covered in 1998 by Norwegian black metal band Dimmu Borgir for their album Godless Savage Garden. "I had no idea it would become as popular as it did," Hoffmann remembers of his contribution to the song."Midnight Mover", about a drug dealer, is one of the more commercial songs on the album and was selected for a memorable music video that anticipates the bullet time filming technique by a full decade.
"Just ahead of our time again!" jests Hoffmann. Despite the more commercially appealing sound of the album, it fell short of the sales figures of its predecessor Balls to the Wall in America. Udo remembers the Breaker through Metal Heart era as the time, thus this would turn out to be the last album of Accept's golden era, as cracks were soon to appear in the band's solidarity. The 2002 digitally remastered CD edition includes two live bonus tracks, "Love Child" and "Living for Tonite", both taken from the live EP Kaizoku-Ban; the 2013 release from UK based. All lyrics and music written by Deaffy. Band membersUdo Dirkschneider – lead vocals, harmony vocals, backing vocals, finger snapping Wolf Hoffmann – lead & rhythm guitars, rhythm guitar, acoustic guitar, backing vocals, sitar Jörg Fischer – rhythm guitar, lead & rhythm guitars, 8-string bass, backing vocals, finger snapping Peter Baltes – bass, Moog Taurus, 8-string bass, backing vocals, harmony vocals, acoustic bass guitar Stefan Kaufmann – drums, backing vocals, timpani and gongs, drum effects and gang vocals ProductionDieter Dierks – producer, arrangements Gerd Rautenbach – engineer Mike Kashnitz, Peter Brandt – assistant engineers Bob Ludwig – mastering at Masterdisk, New York Gaby "Deaffy" Hauke – management, cover concept Dirksen & Sohn Modellwerkstâtten, Werbefotografie – cover art
Inn i evighetens mørke
Inn i evighetens mørke is the first EP by Norwegian black metal band Dimmu Borgir. It was first released as a demo in August 1994, as an EP on 17 December; the EP was released by Necromantic Gallery Productions on 7-inch vinyl limited to 1000 copies. The EP is included in the True Kings of Norway split-CD by Spinefarm Records, released in 2000. In 2003, a bootleg version on Hat Records was released, that only contained the two-part track "Inn i evighetens mørke" and "Raabjørn speiler draugheimens skodde" was not included on this release; the track "Raabjørn speiler draugheimens skodde" would be included on the band's debut album For all tid, would be re-recorded for Enthrone Darkness Triumphant and the Godless Savage Garden EP as well. Both parts of "Inn i evighetens mørke" were remastered for the re-release of For all tid in 1997, again using the instrumental version of Part I. All tracks written by Shagrath. Sven Atle Kopperud – lead vocals, guitar Kenneth Akesson – guitar Ivar Lundsten – bass guitar Stian Thorensen – drums Stian Aarstad - synthesizers, effects