The Foraker Act, Pub. L. 56–191, 31 Stat. 77, enacted April 12, 1900 known as the Organic Act of 1900, is a United States federal law that established civilian government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had become a possession of the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War. Section VII of the Foraker Act established Puerto Rican citizenship. President William McKinley signed the act on April 12, 1900 and it became known as the Foraker Act after its sponsor, Ohio Senator Joseph B. Foraker, its main author has been identified as Secretary of War Elihu Root. The new government had a governor and an 11-member executive council appointed by the President of the United States, a House of Representatives with 35 elected members, a judicial system with a Supreme Court and a United States District Court, a non-voting Resident Commissioner in Congress; the Executive council was all appointed: five individuals were selected from Puerto Rico residents while the rest were from those in top cabinet positions, including attorney general and chief of police.
The Insular Supreme Court was appointed. In addition, all federal laws of the United States were to be in effect on the island; the first civil governor of the island under the Foraker Act was Charles H. Allen, inaugurated on May 1, 1900 in San Juan, Puerto Rico; this law was superseded in 1917 by the Jones–Shafroth Act. 2 Required that the same tariffs and duties be levied collected and paid upon all articles imported into Puerto Rico from ports other than those of the United States which are required by law to be collected upon importation into the United States from foreign countries. 3 Implemented a temporary tariff on goods transferred between Puerto Rico and the United States. This tariff was set to expire either upon the implementation of local taxation by the Legislature of Puerto Rico sufficient to "meet the necessities of the government" or on the first day of March 1902. 4 Provided that the tariff collected under section 2 would be placed into a fund and held in trust for the benefit of the people of Puerto Rico until the Legislature was established.
After the establishment of the new government, the funds would be transferred to the local treasury. 6 Established the capital of Puerto Rico as the city of San Juan and established that the seat of government would be maintained there. 7 Established that residents of Puerto Rico who were Spanish Citizens who decide to remain in Puerto Rico until the 11th day of April 1899 and their children would be considered citizens of Puerto Rico and be entitled to the protection of the United States. A provision was made for residents who wanted to remain citizens of Spain. 11 Provided for the replacement of Spanish currency on the island with US Dollars. Established that all debts payable in Puerto Rican currency would henceforth be payable with US Dollars. 13 Provided a mechanism to transfer all property held by the United States Government as ceded by Spain to the newly established government of Puerto Rico upon its establishment. 14 Established that the statues of the United States would apply if applicable to the citizens of Puerto Rico with the exception of internal revenue laws.
15 Enabled the newly formed government to amend or repeal any law, implemented in the course of the transition. 16 Established a judicial system similar to that of the United States and provided that all government officials take an oath to support both the constitution of the United States and the laws of Puerto Rico. 17 Established a chief executive with the title of governor, appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate for a term of four years. 18 Established an executive council for the Governor of Puerto Rico, appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate for a term of four years. 27 Established a bicameral legislative body with one house consisting of the executive council as established in 18 and the other consisting of 35 elected members serving a term of two years. The territory was to be split into seven districts. 28,29 Provided for the general election of members of the legislative body.
30 Established the requirements for office in the legislative body. 31 Defined the mechanisms by. A bill can be proposed in either house but must be passed by a majority vote in both houses to become a law. A bill, passed by both houses is presented to the Governor for his signature. Upon the signature of the governor, the bill becomes law. If the governor does not sign the bill or vetoes it, the legislature can override the veto with a 2/3rd majority vote. Requires that all bills passed by the legislative body be reported to the United States Congress and enables the United States Congress to annul them. 33 Provided for the transition of existing court system unto the official court system. Provided for the nomination of the chief justice by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. 34 Created the United States District of Puerto Rico and established a district judge to be appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate for a term of four years.
38 Prevented export duties from being collected. Provided that the legislative body may implement taxes for the general purposes of government, protecting the public credit, reimbursing the United States government for funds expended out of the emergency fund of the War Department for relief of the industrial situation caused by the hurricane of August 8, 1899. Prevented the government of Puerto Rico and all of its municipalities from entering into d
Han Qide is a Chinese physician and politician. Han is the chairman of the Jiusan Society and a member of the Communist Party of China, he was the Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and is the Vice Chairperman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. He is the President of the Chinese Society for Science and Technology. Han was born in Cixi, Zhejiang Province in July 1945. 1962–1968, Han studied medicine at the First Medical College of Shanghai. Han worked as a medical staff and clinic physician in many hospitals in Shaanxi Province from 1968 to 1979. Han did his postgraduate study at the Xi'an Medical College. After graduation, Han taught at Beijing Medical College as a lecturer. Han served as the last President of Beijing Medical University; when Beijing Medical University was merged into Peking University, Han was transferred into Peking University, became the head of the Peking University's medical school, the Executive Vice-president of the Peking University.
He is President of the PKU Health Science Centre and Chairperson of the Board. Han was elected as an Academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1997. 2000–2002: Vice-Chairman of the Central Committee of Jiusan Society 2002–2017: Chairman of the Central Committee of Jiusan Society 2003–2008: Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the 10th National People's Congress 2008–2013: Vice-Chairman the Standing Committee of the 11th National People's Congress 2013–2018: Vice-Chairman of the 12th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference 1995–2000: Vice-President of the Beijing Medical University, the Dean of its Postgraduate School.
Arkady Romanovich Rotenberg is a Russian businessman and tycoon. With his brother Boris Rotenberg, he is co-owner of the Stroygazmontazh group, the largest construction company for gas pipelines and electrical power supply lines in Russia, he was listed by Forbes in 621st place among the world's wealthiest persons in 2014. He is considered a close confidant of president Vladimir Putin; as of November 2017, Forbes estimates his fortune at $2.5 billion. He is subject to personal sanctions by the United States government related to the events during the Ukrainian crisis. Rotenberg was born in 1951 in Leningrad, where his father, worked in management at the Red Dawn telephone factory, allowing the family to avoid living in a communal apartment. Rotenberg is of Jewish ancestry. In 1963, when he was age twelve and Vladimir Putin both joined Anatoly Rakhlin's sambo club. In 1978, Rotenberg graduated from the Lesgaft National State University of Physical Education and Health and became a judo trainer. After Putin returned to Russia in 1990, Rotenberg trained with him several times a week.
During the 1990s, Rotenberg and his brother, who had moved to Finland, traded in petroleum products. When Putin became vice-mayor, Rotenberg secured funding from Gennady Timchenko to found Yavara-Neva, a professional judo club. After the club won nine European Judo Championships and trained four Olympic champions, it was given a new state-funded $180 million facility, including a thousand-seat arena and a yacht club. In 2000, who had become President of Russia, created Rosspirtprom, a state-owned enterprise controlling 30% of Russia's vodka market, put Rotenberg in control. In 2001, Rotenberg and his brother founded the SMP bank, which operates in 40 Russian cities with over 100 branches, more than half of them in the Moscow area. SMP oversees the operation of more than 900 ATM-machines. SMP bank became a leading large-diameter gas pipe supplier. Gazprom appears to have paid Rotenberg inflated prices. In 2007, Gazprom rejected an earlier plan to build a 350-mile pipeline and instead paid Rotenberg $45 billion, 300% of ordinary costs, to build a 1,500 mile pipeline to the Arctic Circle.
In 2008, Rotenberg formed Stroygazmontazh with five companies he had purchased from Gazprom for $348 million. The next year the company earned over $2 billion in revenue. Rotenberg bought Northern Europe Pipe Project, which supplied 90% of Gazprom's large diameter pipes and operated at a 30% profit margin, twice the industry average. In 2013, Gazprom increased Rotenberg's contract for a Krasnodar pipeline by 45% continued payments for a year after the Bulgarian segment was canceled. While he was the Minister of Transport of the Russian Federation from May 20, 2004 to 2012, Igor Levitin ensured in 2010 that Arkady Rotenberg's firms would construct the toll roads on Russian federal highways. Rotenberg is the president of the Hockey Club Dynamo Moscow. In 2013 he became a member of the committee of the International Judo Federation. In preparation 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Rotenburg won contracts worth $7 billion, including a $2 billion coastal highway and an underwater gas pipeline that came it at 300% of average costs.
Rotenberg was named in the Panama Papers. Those leaked legal documents show Rotenberg sent $231 million in loans to a company in the British Virgin Islands in 2013. In 2013 Rotenberg became the chairman of the Enlightenment Publishing House, which had once been the biggest supplier for textbooks in the Soviet Union. After Enlightenment became a private company in 2011, the government of the Russian Federation started to make several changes in that sector. In 2013 an internal council was formed by the Ministry of Education to check all textbooks. Many of Enlightenments competitors books did not pass this new evaluation and so Enlightenment won about 70% of the contracts for new textbooks in the Russian Federation in 2014. In 2015, Arkady Rotenberg sold to his son Igor Rotenberg a number of assets including up to 79% of Gazprom Drilling, 28% of the road construction company Mostotrest, 33.3% of Jersey-based TPS Real Estate Holdings Ltd. Alexander Ponomarenko and Aleksandr Skorobogatko own 66.6% of TPC Real Estates Holdings.
It was reported that Arkady Rotenberg made this move after being placed on the U. S. sanctions list. As a result of the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Barack Obama President of the United States, signed an executive order instructing his government to impose sanctions on the Rotenberg brothers and other close friends of the President Putin, including Sergei Ivanov and Gennadi Timchenko; these persons were placed on the Specially Designated Nationals List. As a result of the sanctions and MasterCard stopped servicing SMP Bank. In September 2014, Italy seized €30 million of Rotenberg's real estate, including four villas in Sardinia and Tarquinia, a hotel in Rome; the Russian State Duma proposed a bill, known as the Rotenberg Law, allowing sanctioned Russians to get compensated by the state, but it was declined. Rotenberg is one of many Russian "oligarchs" named in the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act, CAATSA, signed into law by President Donald Trump in 2017.
Rotenberg's personal wealth has been estimated in 2018 at $3.1 billion. From 2005 to 2013 he was married to his second wife Natalia Rotenberg, about 30 years his junior and their two children Varvara and Arkady live in the United Kingdom with Nataliya, they divorced in 2015 in the U. K. While the financial details of the divorce are private, the agreement includes division of the use of a £35 million Surrey mansion and a £8 million apartment in London; the couple's la
Rude is a 1995 Canadian crime film directed by Clement Virgo. It was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1995 Cannes Film Festival, before having its Canadian premiere at the 1995 Toronto International Film Festival as the opening film of the Perspectives Canada program. Set in Toronto, the film tells three distinct but interrelated stories about Black Canadian life in the impoverished Regent Park neighbourhood of the city. One focuses on "The General", a drug dealer trying to rebuild his life with the help of his brother Reece after being released from prison. All three stories are tied together by the voice of Rude, a disc jockey for a pirate radio station in the neighbourhood. Produced with the assistance of the Canadian Film Centre, Rude was the first Canadian dramatic feature to be written and directed by an all-black team, it was hailed, along with Soul Survivor, as ushering in a new Black Canadian film aesthetic. At TIFF, the film received an honorable mention from the jury for the Best Canadian Film award.
The film received eight Genie Award nominations at the 16th Genie Awards in 1996, for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actress, Best Screenplay, Best Cinematography, Best Editing and Best Original Score. In 2017 the film was digitally restored by Technicolor and Montreal, under the supervision of Virgo and producer Damon D'Oliveira; the restored version screened in the Cinematheque section of the 2017 Toronto International Film Festival. Maurice Dean Wint - General Rachael Crawford - Maxine Clark Johnson - Reece Richard Chevolleau - Jordan Sharon Lewis - Rude Melanie Nicholls-King - Jessica Stephen Shellen - Yankee Gordon Michael Woolvett - Ricky Dayo Ade - Mike Dean Marshall - Joe Ashley Brown - Johnny Andy Marshall - Addict Falconer Abraham - Austin Junior Williams - Curtis Andrew Moodie - Andre Rude on IMDb
Fernando Souza da Silva is an Olympic and National Record holding swimmer from Brazil. He swam for Brazil as a member of the men's 4 × 100-metre freestyle relay; until 2006, Fernando did not swim 100-metre freestyle. He was a butterfly specialist; as he began to achieve good results in the faster swimming races, became a sprinter and established himself as one of the best in his country. He was at the 2006 FINA World Swimming Championships in Shanghai, where he finished 17th in the 200-metre butterfly. Silva swam at the 2006 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships, where he finished 14th in the 100-metre butterfly, 17th in the 200-metre butterfly and was disqualified at the 4×100-metre freestyle. At the 2007 Pan American Games in Rio de Janeiro, he won the gold medal in the 4×100-metre freestyle, beating the South American and Pan American records, with a time of 3:15.90, along with Eduardo Deboni, Nicolas Oliveira and César Cielo Participating in the 2007 Summer Universiade in Bangkok, won the bronze medal at the 100-metre freestyle.
Silva was South American Champion in the 100-metre freestyle and the 100-metre butterfly in São Paulo 2008. He was at the 2008 FINA World Swimming Championships, in Manchester, where he reached the 4×100-metre medley final, finishing 6th, beating the short-course South American Record, with a time of 3:28.88, along with Guilherme Guido, Felipe França e Lucas Salatta. Silva did the 100-metre freestyle final, finishing 8th and the 4×100-metre freestyle final, finishing 8th too, finished 14th in the 50-metre freestyle. At the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, participated in the 4×100-metre freestyle, where the Brazilian team was disqualified. At the 2009 World Aquatics Championships, held in Rome, Silva ranked fourth in the 4×100-metre freestyle, along with Nicolas Oliveira, Guilherme Roth and César Cielo, with a time of 3:10.80, new South American record. He was at the 2010 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships in Irvine, where he finished 25th in the 50-metre freestyle, 30th in the 100-metre butterfly, 49th in the 100-metre freestyle
Richard P. Werbner is an American anthropologist who specializes in the Zimbabwe and Botswana region, including ritual and historical narrative, law, regional analysis, he has taught at the University of Manchester since 1961. Professor Richard Werbner was born in Massachusetts; the precise date is a matter of some controversy. He studied at Brandeis University, conducting fieldwork among the Winnebago of Nebraska in 1958 and graduating with a BA in 1959, he obtained a Fulbright Scholarship in 1959, through which he was able to go to the United Kingdom to study at Manchester University. He began field studies in southern Africa in 1960 among the Kalanga people, first in Zimbabwe and in Botswana, among the Tswapong people in Botswana. In 1961 he was appointed a research assistant at Manchester University. In 1968 he obtained a PhD from Manchester University, he is the father of two children. His wife Pnina Werbner a professor of anthropology, is the niece of Max Gluckman, a South African anthropologist who did important work in Barotseland and was a leading figure at the Manchester school.
After Gluckman died in 1975, Werbner assumed the role of continuing his legacy at the Manchester school. He has taught as a visitor at the Catholic University of Leuven, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the University of California, the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. the University of Bergen, the University of California, San Diego, Macquarie University, the Australian National University, the University of Hradec Králové, Czech Republic and the University of Botswana, Gaborone. As of 2012 Werbner was Professor Emeritus in African Anthropology, Honorary Research Professor in Visual Anthropology, Director of the International Centre for Contemporary Cultural Research at Manchester University. Werbner won the Amaury Talbot Prize of the Royal Anthropological Institute for his 1991 book Tears of the Dead: The Social Biography of an African Family. Mieka Ritsema, writing of Werbner's Reasonable Radicals and Citizenship in Botswana: The Public Anthropology of Kalanga Elites in the African Studies Review, described it as "a fascinating account of the state-making practices of elites, minority elites, in Botswana...
Werbner composes a powerful narrative, rich in documentation and insight developed from more than forty years of commitment to Botswana." Ritsema called the book a "seminal work of engaged retrospection." Werbner, Richard P.. Regional cults. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-744950-0. Retrieved 2012-09-17. Werbner, Richard P.. Land reform in the making: tradition, public policy and ideology in Botswana. R. Collings. ISBN 978-0-86036-186-2. Retrieved 2012-09-17. Werbner, Richard P.. Ritual Passage, Sacred Journey: The Process and Organization of Religious Movement. Manchester University Press ND. ISBN 978-0-7190-1929-6. Retrieved 2012-09-17. Werbner, Richard P.. Tears of the Dead: The Social Biography of an African Family. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-0304-6. Retrieved 2012-09-17. Werbner, Richard P. ed.. Postcolonial Subjectivities in Africa. Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-85649-955-2. Retrieved 2012-09-17. Werbner, Richard P. ed.. Memory and the postcolony: African anthropology and the critique of power. Zed Books.
ISBN 978-1-85649-591-2. Retrieved 2012-09-17. Werbner, Richard P.. Reasonable Radicals and Citizenship in Botswana: The Public Anthropology of Kalanga Elites. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34402-1. Retrieved 2012-09-17. Werbner directed a series of documentary films under the overall title The Well Being Quest in Botswana, which were published by the University of Manchester. 2004 Seance Reflections with Richard Werbner 2006 Shade Seekers and the Mixer 2008 Encountering Eloyi 2009 Holy Hustlers Seance Reflections documents a childless couple who try to recover their well-being by consulting a charismatic diviner and healer in the village of Moremi. They review and discuss the film of their seances. In Shade Seekers and the Mixer, the elders of a village, including a controversial healer and discuss an earlier film of the healer's séances with a former patient, now Werber's research assistant. Encountering Eloyi continues the story of the childless couple, who have now tried both traditional medecine and Western hospitals without success.
The woman turns to the Eloyi Christian Church to be healed of her barrenness. Holy Hustlers document a split within the Eloyi Christian Church between the village-based archbishop and his son, the city based bishop, shows the tension between holiness and hustling. Notes Citations Sources