Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton. He is best known as the author of Principles of Geology, which presented uniformitarianism–the idea that the Earth was shaped by the same scientific processes still in operation today–to the broad general public. Principles of Geology challenged theories popularised by Georges Cuvier, which were the most accepted and circulated ideas about geology in Europe at the time, his scientific contributions included an explanation of earthquakes, the theory of gradual "backed up-building" of volcanoes, in stratigraphy the division of the Tertiary period into the Pliocene and Eocene. He coined the currently-used names for geological eras, Palaeozoic and Cenozoic, he incorrectly conjectured that icebergs may be the emphasis behind the transport of glacial erratics, that silty loess deposits might have settled out of flood waters. Lyell, following deistic traditions, favoured an indefinitely long age for the earth, despite geological evidence suggesting an old but finite age.
He was a close friend of Charles Darwin, contributed to Darwin's thinking on the processes involved in evolution. He helped to arrange the simultaneous publication in 1858 of papers by Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace on natural selection, despite his personal religious qualms about the theory, he published evidence from geology of the time man had existed on Earth. Lyell was born into a wealthy family, on 14 November 1797, at the family's estate house, Kinnordy House, near Kirriemuir in Forfarshire, he was the eldest of ten children. Lyell's father named Charles Lyell, was noted as a translator and scholar of Dante. An accomplished botanist, it was he who first exposed his son to the study of nature. Lyell's grandfather Charles Lyell, had made the family fortune supplying the Royal Navy at Montrose, enabling him to buy Kinnordy House; the family seat is located near the Highland Boundary Fault. Round the house, in the strath, is good farmland, but within a short distance to the north-west, on the other side of the fault, are the Grampian Mountains in the Highlands.
His family's second country home was in a different geological and ecological area: he spent much of his childhood at Bartley Lodge in the New Forest, in Hampshire in southern England. Lyell entered Exeter College, Oxford, in 1816, attended William Buckland's lectures, he graduated with a BA Hons. Second class degree in classics, in December 1819, gained his M. A. 1821. After graduation he took up law as a profession, entering Lincoln's Inn in 1820, he completed a circuit through rural England. In 1821 he attended Robert Jameson's lectures in Edinburgh, visited Gideon Mantell at Lewes, in Sussex. In 1823 he was elected joint secretary of the Geological Society; as his eyesight began to deteriorate, he turned to geology as a full-time profession. His first paper, "On a recent formation of freshwater limestone in Forfarshire", was presented in 1822. By 1827, he had abandoned law and embarked on a geological career that would result in fame and the general acceptance of uniformitarianism, a working out of the ideas proposed by James Hutton a few decades earlier.
In 1832, Lyell married Mary Horner in Bonn, daughter of Leonard Horner associated with the Geological Society of London. The new couple spent their honeymoon in Italy on a geological tour of the area. During the 1840s, Lyell travelled to the United States and Canada, wrote two popular travel-and-geology books: Travels in North America and A Second Visit to the United States. After the Great Chicago Fire, Lyell was one of the first to donate books to help found the Chicago Public Library. In 1866, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Lyell's wife died in 1873, two years Lyell himself died as he was revising the twelfth edition of Principles, he is buried in Westminster Abbey. Lyell was knighted in 1848, in 1864, made a baronet, an hereditary honour, he was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1858 and the Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society in 1866. Mount Lyell, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park, is named after him. In Southwest Nelson in the South Island of New Zealand, the Lyell Range, Lyell River and the gold mining town of Lyell were all named after Lyell.
The jawless fish Cephalaspis lyelli, from the Old Red Sandstone of southern Scotland, was named by Louis Agassiz in honour of Lyell. Lyell had private means, earned further income as an author, he came from a prosperous family, worked as a lawyer in the 1820s, held the post of Professor of Geology at King's College London in the 1830s. From 1830 onward his books provided both fame; each of his three major books was a work continually in progress. All three went through multiple editions during his lifetime, although many of his friends thought the first edition of the Principles was the best written. Lyell used each edition to incorporate additional material, rearrange existing material, revisit old conclusions in light of new evidence. Principles of Geology, Lyell's first book, was his most famous, most influential, most important. First published in three volumes in 1830–33, it established Lyell's credentials as an important geological theorist and pr
A solutional cave or karst cave is a cave formed in the soluble rock limestone. It is the most occurring type of cave, it can form in other rocks, including chalk, marble, salt beds, gypsum. Bedrock is dissolved by natural acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding-planes, joints and so on. Over geological epochs these openings expand as the walls are dissolved to become caves or cave systems; the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded. The largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone caves are adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation; these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws, calcite rafts and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3 and occurring organic acids; the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes, underground drainage.
Solutional caves in this landform—topography are called karst caves. Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of another type of solutional cave, they were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of petroleum give off sulfurous fumes. This gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4; the acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, by acidic water percolating from the surface. Black Dwarf Cave, Pingtung County Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky Russell Cave National Monument, Alabama Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota Gunn, John. Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science. Routledge. Pp. 417, 1421. Young, Rob. Geological Monitoring. Geological Society of America. P. 27. Goudie, Andrew. Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. Routledge. P. 124. Media related to Limestone caves at Wikimedia Commons
Neanderthals are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived within Eurasia from circa 400,000 until 40,000 years ago. The earliest fossils of Neanderthals in Europe are dated between 450,000 and 430,000 years ago, thereafter Neanderthals expanded into Southwest and Central Asia, they are known from numerous fossils, as well as stone tool assemblages. All assemblages younger than 160,000 years are of the so-called Mousterian techno-complex, characterised by tools made out of stone flakes; the type specimen is Neanderthal 1, found in Neander Valley in the German Rhineland, in 1856. Compared to modern humans, Neanderthals were stockier, with bigger bodies. In conformance with Bergmann's rule, as well as Allen's rule, this was was an adaptation to preserve heat in cold climates. Male and female Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1,600 cm3 and 1,300 cm3 within the range of the values for anatomically modern humans. Average males stood around females 152 to 156 cm tall.
There has been growing evidence for admixture between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans, reflected in the genomes of all modern non-African populations but not in the genomes of most sub-Saharan Africans. This suggests that interbreeding between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans took place after the recent "out of Africa" migration, around 70,000 years ago. Recent admixture analyses have added to the complexity, finding that Eastern Neanderthals derived up to 2% of their ancestry from anatomically modern humans who left Africa some 100,000 years ago. Neanderthals are named after one of the first sites where their fossils were discovered in the mid-19th century in the Neander Valley, just east of Düsseldorf, at the time in the Rhine Province of the Kingdom of Prussia; the valley itself was named for Joachim Neander, Neander being the graecicized form of the surname Neumann. The German spelling of Thal "Valley" was current in the 19th century. Neanderthal 1 was known as the "Neanderthal cranium" or "Neanderthal skull" in anthropological literature, the individual reconstructed on the basis of the skull was called "the Neanderthal man".
The binomial name Homo neanderthalensis—extending the name "Neanderthal man" from the individual type specimen to the entire group—was first proposed by the Anglo-Irish geologist William King in a paper read to the British Association in 1863, although in the following year he stated that the specimen was not human and rejected the name. King's name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Homo stupidus. Popular English usage of "Neanderthal" as shorthand for "Neanderthal man", as in "the Neanderthals" or "a Neanderthal", emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s. Since the historical spelling -th- in German represents the phoneme /t/ or /tʰ/, not the fricative /θ/, standard British pronunciation of "Neanderthal" is with /t/; because of the usual sound represented by digraph ⟨th⟩ in English, "Neanderthal" is pronounced with the voiceless fricative /θ/, at least in "layman's American English". The spelling Neandertal is seen in English in scientific publications. Since "Neanderthal", or "Neandertal", is a common name, there is no authoritative prescription on its spelling, unlike the spelling of the binominal name H. neanderthalensis, predicated by King 1864.
The common name in German is always invariably Neandertaler, not Neandertal, but the spelling of the name of the Neander Valley itself has been affected by the species name, the names of the Neanderthal Museum and of Neanderthal station persisting with pre-1900 orthography. Since the discovery of the Neanderthal fossils, expert opinion has been divided as to whether Neanderthals should be considered a separate species or a subspecies relative to modern humans. Pääbo described such "taxonomic wars" as unresolveable in principle, "since there is no definition of species describing the case." The question depends on the definition of Homo sapiens as a chronospecies, in flux throughout the 20th century. Authorities preferring classification of Neanderthals as subspecies have introduced the subspecies name Homo sapiens sapiens for the anatomically modern Cro-Magnon population which lived in Europe at the same time as Neanderthals, while authorities preferring classification as separate species use Homo sapiens as equivalent to "anatomically modern humans".
During the early 20th century, a prevailing view of Neanderthals as "simian", influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, tended to exaggerate the anatomical differences between Neanderthals and Cro Magnon. Beginning in the 1930s, revised reconstructions of Neanderthals emphasized the similarity rather than differences from modern humans. From the 1940s throughout the 1970s, it was common to use the subspecies classification of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis vs. Homo sapiens sapiens; the hypothesis of "multiregional origin" of modern man was formulated in the 1980s on such grounds, arguing for the presence of an unbroken succession of fossil sites in both Europe and Asia. Hybridization between Neanderthals and Cro Magnon had been suggested on skeletal and craniological grounds since the early 20th century, found increasing support in the 20th century, until Neanderthal admixture was found to be present in modern populations genet
Hugh Falconer MD FRS was a Scottish geologist, botanist and paleoanthropologist. He studied the flora and geology of India and Burma, was the first to suggest the modern evolutionary theory of punctuated equilibrium, he was the first to discover the Siwalik fossil beds, may have been the first person to discover a fossil ape. Falconer was the youngest son of David Falconer of Elginshire. In 1826 Hugh Falconer graduated at the University of Aberdeen. Afterward, he studied medicine in the University of Edinburgh, taking the degree of MD in 1829. During this period he zealously attended the botanical classes of Prof. R. Graham, those on geology by Prof. Robert Jameson, the teacher of Charles Darwin. Falconer became an assistant-surgeon on the Bengal establishment of the British East India Company in 1830. Upon his arrival in Bengal he made an examination of the fossil bones from Ava, upper Burma in the possession of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, his description of the fossils, published soon afterward, gave him a recognized position among the scientists of India.
Early in 1831 he was posted to the army station at Meerut, India in the North Western Provinces, now in the state of Uttar Pradesh. In 1832, Falconer became Superintendent of the Saharanpur botanical garden, succeeding John Royle. Falconer remained at Saharanpur until 1842, during which time he became known for his study of fossil mammals in the Siwalik Hills. Falconer and his associates may have made the first discovery of a fossil ape, in the 1830s in the Neogene deposits in the Siwalik Hills. In the Tertiary strata of the Siwalik Hills in 1831 Falconer discovered bones of crocodiles and other animals. With others, he brought to light a sub-tropical fossil fauna of unexampled extent and richness, including remains of Mastodon, the colossal ruminant Sivatherium, the enormous extinct tortoise Colossochelys Atlas. Falconer published a geological description of the Siwálik Hills in 1834. For these valuable discoveries he and Proby Cautley together received the Wollaston Medal from the Geological Society of London, its highest award, in 1837.
In 1834 Falconer was asked by a Commission of Bengal to investigate the commercial feasibility of growing tea in India. On his recommendation tea plants were introduced, the resultant black tea became competitive with Chinese teas. Falconer returned from India in 1842 because of ill health, he brought back 70 large chests of dried plants and 48 cases of fossils and geological specimens. He travelled throughout Europe making geological observations, was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1845. Continuing in the service of the British East India Company as a naturalist, he pursued research at the British Museum and East India House and prepared casts of the most remarkable fossils for the leading museums of Europe. In 1847 Falconer became superintendent of the Calcutta Botanical Garden and professor of botany in the Medical College, near his older brother, Alexander Falconer, a Calcutta merchant. Hugh Falconer served as an advisor to the Indian government and the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of Bengal, the de facto colonial "Department of Agriculture".
He prepared an important report on the teak forests of Tenasserim, this saved them from destruction by reckless felling. Through his recommendation, the cultivation of the cinchona in the Indian empire was introduced for the medicinal use of its bark in the treatment of malaria. Falconer was a creationist who denied the fact of evolution. In November 1859, Charles Darwin sent Falconer a copy of his On the Origin of Species with a letter which stated "I am convinced that you will become, year after year, less fixed in your belief in the immutability of species". In June 1861, Falconer expressed respect in a letter to Darwin for receiving the book. By the early 1860s he reassessed his worldview and came to embrace evolution from his studies of the fossil record. In 1863, Falconer authored a monograph On the American Fossil elephant of the regions bordering the Gulf of Mexico. A year before he had sent the work to Darwin, delighted to read it. In the work he observed long periods of evolutionary stasis in fossil mammals with short periods of rapid evolutionary change throughout geological time.
This research shows great foresight. Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould developed the same basic theory a century a theory known as punctuated equilibrium. According to Gould, the work "anticipates a primary inference of punctuated equilibrium— that a local pattern of abrupt replacement does not signify macromutational transformation in situ, but an origin of the species from an ancestral population living elsewhere, followed by migration into the local region." Having to leave India again in 1855 because of ill health, he spent the remainder of his life examining and comparing fossil species in England and the Continent to those he found in India, notably the species of mastodon and rhinoceros. He described some new mammalia from the Purbeck strata of Wessex. Turning to the subject of human origins, he reported on the bone caves of Sicily, Gibraltar and Brixham. Discovered dwarf species of elephants palaeoloxodon falconeri both on Sicily and Malta, he found the bones of the giant swan Cygnus falconeri a type of flightless giant swan in Malta at Għar Dalam.
Falconer served as vice-president of the Royal Society 1863-1864. Although suffering from exposure and overwork, Falconer returned hastily from Gibraltar to support Charles Darwin's claim to the Copley Medal in 1864. Falconer succumbed in London, England, on 31
In biology, a type is a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon. In older usage, a type was a taxon rather than a specimen. A taxon is a scientifically named grouping of organisms with other like organisms, a set that includes some organisms and excludes others, based on a detailed published description and on the provision of type material, available to scientists for examination in a major museum research collection, or similar institution. According to a precise set of rules laid down in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants, the scientific name of every taxon is always based on one particular specimen, or in some cases specimens. Types are of great significance to biologists to taxonomists. Types are physical specimens that are kept in a museum or herbarium research collection, but failing that, an image of an individual of that taxon has sometimes been designated as a type.
Describing species and appointing type specimens is part of scientific nomenclature and alpha taxonomy. When identifying material, a scientist attempts to apply a taxon name to a specimen or group of specimens based on his or her understanding of the relevant taxa, based on having read the type description, preferably based on an examination of all the type material of all of the relevant taxa. If there is more than one named type that all appear to be the same taxon the oldest name takes precedence, is considered to be the correct name of the material in hand. If on the other hand the taxon appears never to have been named at all the scientist or another qualified expert picks a type specimen and publishes a new name and an official description; this process is crucial to the science of biological taxonomy. People's ideas of how living things should be grouped shift over time. How do we know that what we call "Canis lupus" is the same thing, or the same thing, as what they will be calling "Canis lupus" in 200 years' time?
It is possible to check this because there is a particular wolf specimen preserved in Sweden and everyone who uses that name – no matter what else they may mean by it – will include that particular specimen. Depending on the nomenclature code applied to the organism in question, a type can be a specimen, a culture, an illustration, or a description; some codes consider a subordinate taxon to be the type, but under the botanical code the type is always a specimen or illustration. For example, in the research collection of the Natural History Museum in London, there is a bird specimen numbered 18188.8.131.52. This is a specimen of a kind of bird known as the spotted harrier, which bears the scientific name Circus assimilis; this particular specimen is the holotype for that species. That species was named and described by Jardine and Selby in 1828, the holotype was placed in the museum collection so that other scientists might refer to it as necessary. Note that at least for type specimens there is no requirement for a "typical" individual to be used.
Genera and families those established by early taxonomists, tend to be named after species that are more "typical" for them, but here too this is not always the case and due to changes in systematics cannot be. Hence, the term name-bearing type or onomatophore is sometimes used, to denote the fact that biological types do not define "typical" individuals or taxa, but rather fix a scientific name to a specific operational taxonomic unit. Type specimens are theoretically allowed to be aberrant or deformed individuals or color variations, though this is chosen to be the case, as it makes it hard to determine to which population the individual belonged; the usage of the term type is somewhat complicated by different uses in botany and zoology. In the PhyloCode, type-based definitions are replaced by phylogenetic definitions. In some older taxonomic works the word "type" has sometimes been used differently; the meaning was similar in the first Laws of Botanical Nomenclature, but has a meaning closer to the term taxon in some other works: Ce seul caractère permet de distinguer ce type de toutes les autres espèces de la section.
… Après avoir étudié ces diverses formes, j'en arrivai à les considérer comme appartenant à un seul et même type spécifique. Translation: This single character permits distinguish this type from all other species of the section... After studying the diverse forms, I came to consider them as belonging to the one and the same specific type. In botanical nomenclature, a type, "is that element to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached." In botany a type is either an illustration. A specimen is a real plant and kept safe, "curated", in a herbarium. Examples of where an illustration may serve as a type include: A detailed drawing, etc. depicting the plant, from the early days of plant taxonomy. A dried plant was difficult to transport and hard to keep safe for the future. Skilled botanical artists were sometimes employed by a botanist to make a faithful and detailed illustration; some such illustrations have become the best record a
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
A pillbox is a type of blockhouse, or concrete dug-in guard post equipped with loopholes through which to fire weapons. It is in effect a trench firing step hardened to protect against small-arms fire and grenades and raised to improve the field of fire; the origin of the term is disputed. It has been assumed to be a jocular reference to the perceived similarity of the fortifications to the cylindrical and hexagonal boxes in which medical pills were once sold the first German concrete pillboxes discovered by Allies in Belgium were so small and light that were tilted and turned upside down by a nearby explosions of mediumshells. However, it seems more that it alluded to pillar boxes, with a comparison being drawn between the loophole on the pillbox and the letter-slot on the pillar box; the term is found in print in The Times on 2 August 1917, following the beginning of the Third Battle of Ypres. Other unpublished occurrences have been found in war diaries and similar documents of about the same date.
The concrete nature of pillboxes means. Some pillboxes were designed to be transported to their location for assembly. During World War I, Sir Ernest William Moir produced a design for concrete machine-gun pillboxes constructed from a system of interlocking precast concrete blocks, with a steel roof. Around 1500 Moir pillboxes were produced and sent to the Western Front in 1918. Pillboxes are camouflaged in order to conceal their location and to maximize the element of surprise, they may be part of a trench system, form an interlocking line of defence with other pillboxes by providing covering fire to each other, or they may be placed to guard strategic structures such as bridges and jetties. The French Maginot Line built between the world wars consisted of a massive bunker and tunnel complex, but as most of it was below ground little could be seen from the ground level; the exception were the concrete blockhouses, gun turrets and cupolas which were placed above ground to allow the garrison of the Maginot line to engage an attacking enemy.
Between the Abyssinian Crisis of 1936 and World War II, the British built about 200 pillboxes on the island of Malta for defence in case of an Italian invasion. Fewer than 100 pillboxes still exist, most are found on the northeastern part of the island. A few of them have been restored and are cared for; some pillboxes are still being destroyed nowadays as the authorities do not consider them to have any architectural or historic value, despite heritage NGOs calling to preserve them. About 28,000 pillboxes and other hardened field fortifications were constructed in England in 1940 as part of the British anti-invasion preparations of World War II. About 6,500 of these structures still survive. Pillboxes for the Czechoslovak border fortifications were built before World War II in Czechoslovakia in defence against a German attack. None of these were used against their intended enemy during the German invasion, but some were used against the advancing Soviet armies in 1945; the Japanese made use of pillboxes in their fortifications of Iwo Jima.
Pillboxes required artillery, anti-tank weapons or grenades to overcome. Notes Bibliography CBA staff, A Review Of The Defence of Britain Project, Council for British Archaeology, retrieved 30 May 2006 Hellis, John. "Why the name Pillbox?". Pillbox Study Group. Retrieved 10 September 2009. "pillbox, n.". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. September 2005. Oldham, Peter. Pill Boxes on the Western Front: A Guide to the Design and Use of Concrete Pill Boxes, 1914–1918. Pen & Sword. ISBN 9781473817227. Oldham, Peter. "'Pill box','pillbox' or'pill-box'? What's in a name?". Stand To! The Journal of the Western Front Association. 112: 15–21. Schneider, Richard Harold.