Louis III of Naples
Louis III was titular King of Naples from 1417 to 1426, Count of Provence, Forcalquier and Maine and Duke of Anjou from 1417 to 1434, and Duke of Calabria from 1426 to 1434. He was the eldest son and heir of Louis II of Anjou, the throne of Aragon fell vacant in 1410 when king Martin I of Aragon died. Louis mother Yolande was the daughter of sonless King John I of Aragon. They claimed the throne of Aragon for the young Louis, unclear though they were, the succession rules of Aragon and Barcelona at that time were understood to favor all male relatives before any female. Martin died without surviving issue in 1410, and after two years without a king, the Estates of Aragon by Compromise of Caspe in 1412 elected Infante Ferdinand of Castile as the next King of Aragon. Ferdinand was the son of Eleanor of Aragon and John I of Castile. The family however had secured some Aragonese lands in Montpellier and Roussillon and her sons regarded themselves as heirs of higher claim and began to use the title of Kings of Aragon.
From this inheritance forward and Yolande were called the King and Queen of Four Kingdoms, those four being Sicily, Aragon, of those, only the mainland part of Sicily was ever directly held by Louis, and only briefly. Louis had claims on the title Latin Emperor, which his grandfather Louis I had purchased in 1383, Pope Martin V invested Louis III on 4 December 1419 as King of Sicily. This was in contrast with the will of the childless and aged queen of the Italian kingdom, Joanna II, in 1420 Louis disembarked in Campania and besieged Naples, but had to flee at the arrive of an Aragonese fleet. Alfonso entered the city in 1421 and Louis lost the support of the Pope, when the relationships between Alfonso and queen suddenly worsened after the arrest of Joannas lover and prime minister, Gianni Caracciolo, the queen moved to Aversa where Louis joined her. He was adopted and named heir in lieu of Alfonso, giving him the title of Duke of Calabria, when Alfonso had to return to Aragon, the kingdom was pacified.
Louis moved to his possession in Calabria, where he lived with Margaret of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus VIII. Louis could never become king effectively, as he died of malaria at Cosenza in 1434, after Joannas death the following year, his brother René of Anjou was named King of Naples. The Good King, René of Anjou and Fifteenth Century Europe, amedeo Miceli di Serradileo, Una dichiarazione di Luigi III dAngiò dalla città di San Marco, Archivio Storico per la Calabria e la Lucania, Rome, XLIII,1976, pp. 69–83
Mane is a commune in Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France. It was the birthplace of Louis Feuillée and the 18th-century botanist Jean-Paul de Rome dArdène, a Minim convent was situated here. The ancient Pont sur Laye is close by the town, mane is twinned with, Italy Communes of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department INSEE
The Luberon is a massif in central Provence in the south of France. It has an altitude of 1,256 metres and an area of about 600 square kilometres. It is composed of three ranges, the Lesser Luberon, the Greater Luberon and the Eastern Luberon. The valleys north and south of them contain a number of towns, the total number of inhabitants varies greatly between winter and summer, due to a massive influx of tourists during the warm season. In the 1970s, people came from all over France to the Luberon in search of a communitarian ideal, the Force de frappe or French strategic nuclear arsenal used to be nearby, underground, on the Plateau dAlbion before being dismantled in the late 1980s. These are titled A Year in Provence, Toujours Provence, another of Mayles books, a novel set in the Luberon, was made into a film called A Good Year directed by Ridley Scott, starring Russell Crowe and filmed in the region. Luberon is particularly rich in biological diversity, among the 1,500 different species of plants, there are 700 species and sub-species of higher plants and 200 species of lichens.
Rich fossil deposits are preserved here, documenting for example ancient species related to songbirds. Encore Provence, New Adventures in the South of France, discover the Luberon on Notreprovence. fr in English Aerial photos Luberon Guide to Luberon Hilltop villages Ochres of the Luberon Photo essay - Experience the Luberon
The Society of the Friends of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, mainly known as Cordeliers Club, was a populist club during the French Revolution. The club had its origins in the Cordeliers district, a famously radical area of Paris called, by Camille Desmoulins, the only sanctuary where liberty has not been violated. In May and June 1790, the division of Paris into sixty districts was, by decree of the National Assembly. This restructuring abolished the Cordeliers district and this society held its meetings in the Cordeliers Convent, and quickly became known as the Club des Cordeliers. It took as its motto the phrase, Liberté, égalité, fraternité, the membership fees of this society were fixed low, and thus affordable to a more diverse range of citizens than those of many other political clubs at the time, including the Jacobin Club. There were no restrictions on membership. The Cordeliers presented themselves as exceptionally populist, they prided themselves on counting working men and women among their members, the Declaration of the Rights of Man was stuck on the wall, crowned by crossed daggers.
Plaster busts of Brutus and William Tell were placed on each side, behind the tribune, as supporters, there appeared busts of Mirabeau and Helvétius, with Jean-Jacques Rousseau in the middle. However, the preponderance of Cordeliers were members of the bourgeoisie, the Cordeliers actively moved against the majority interests in this case. Large demonstrations in support of this and similar petitions led to civil unrest, the National Guard, led by the Marquis de Lafayette, fired on the protestors, resulting in the deaths of at least dozen of them. Subsequent action taken against the Cordeliers included the closing of the Cordeliers Convent to them, despite these measures, the society remained a highly influential force in Parisian politics. The Cordeliers participated significantly in the planning and execution of the August 10,1792 insurrection, in the seven numbers of the journal, Desmoulins attacked the Hébertists and called for an end to the Terror, comparing revolutionary Paris to Rome under the tyrants.
The papers emanating from the Cordeliers are enumerated in Jean Maurice Tourneux, Bibliographie de lhistoire de Paris pendant la Révolution, i. See A. Bougeart Les Cordeliers, documents pour servir a lhistoire de la Révolution, G. Lenotre, Paris révolutionnaire, G. Tridon, Les Hébertistes, the last-named author was condemned to four months prison, his work was reprinted in 1871. The inventory of the found in 1790 in the Cordeliers Convent was published by J. Guiffrey in Nouvelles archives de l’art français. New York, Charles Scribners Sons,1899, le Grand Dictionnaire dHistoire de la France. Paris, Éditions Fayard,1979 Hammersley, French Revolutionaries and English Republicans, The Cordeliers Club 1790–1794. Rochester, Boydell & Brewer Inc.2005
Raoul Dufy was a French Fauvist painter, brother of Jean Dufy. He developed a colorful, decorative style that became fashionable for designs of ceramics and textiles and he is noted for scenes of open-air social events. He was a draftsman, book illustrator, scenic designer, a designer of furniture, Raoul Dufy was born into a large family at Le Havre, in Normandy. He left school at the age of fourteen to work in a coffee-importing company, in 1895, when he was 18, he started taking evening classes in art at Le Havres École des Beaux-Arts. The classes were taught by Charles Lhuillier, who had been, forty years earlier, Dufy met Raimond Lecourt and Othon Friesz with whom he shared a studio in Montmartre and to whom he remained a lifelong friend. During this period, Dufy painted mostly Norman landscapes in watercolors, in 1900, after a year of military service, Dufy won a scholarship to the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where again he crossed paths with Othon Friesz. He concentrated on improving his drawing skills, the impressionist landscape painters, such as Claude Monet and Camille Pissarro, influenced Dufy profoundly.
His first exhibition took place in 1901, introduced to Berthe Weill in 1902, Dufy showed his work in her gallery. Then he exhibited again in 1903 at the Salon des Indépendants, a boost to his confidence, the painter, Maurice Denis, bought one of his paintings. Dufy continued to paint, often in the vicinity of Le Havre, in 1904, with his friend, Albert Marquet, he worked in Fecamp on the English Channel. Henri Matisses Luxe, Calme et Volupté, which Dufy saw at the Salon des Indépendants in 1905, was a revelation to the young artist, les Fauves emphasized bright color and bold contours in their work. Dufys painting reflected this aesthetic until about 1909, when contact with the work of Paul Cézanne led him to adopt a somewhat subtler technique. It was not until 1920, after he had flirted briefly with yet another style, cubism and it involved skeletal structures, arranged with foreshortened perspective, and the use of thin washes of color applied quickly, in a manner that came to be known as stenographic.
Dufys cheerful oils and watercolors depict events of the period, including yachting scenes, sparkling views of the French Riviera, chic parties. Dufy completed one of the largest paintings ever contemplated, a huge and immensely popular ode to electricity, Dufy acquired a reputation as an illustrator and as a commercial artist. He painted murals for buildings, he produced a huge number of tapestries. His plates appear in books by Guillaume Apollinaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, in 1909, Raoul Dufy was commissioned by Paul Poiret to design stationery for the house, and after 1912 designed textile patterns for Bianchini-Ferier used in Poirets and Charvets garments. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Dufy exhibited at the annual Salon des Tuileries in Paris, by 1950, his hands were struck with rheumatoid arthritis and his ability to paint diminished, as he has to fasten the brush to his hand
The Durance is a major river in south-eastern France. Its source is in the south-western Alps, in Montgenèvre ski resort near Briançon and it flows south-west through the departments and cities, Hautes-Alpes, Briançon. The Durances main tributaries are the Bléone and Verdon, the Durance itself is a tributary of the Rhône and flows into the Rhône near Avignon. The Durance is the second longest of the tributaries of the Rhône, the Durance is documented in Ancient Greek as drouentios potamos and in Latin as Druentia and Durentia. The traditional forms are probably derivatives of *Dūrantia, based on the Celtic dour, the Latin form drou changed into the proto-Occitan dur. Similar names are found in the names of rivers in the Western Alps, Dora in Italy, Dranse in Haute-Savoie. All these rivers have their sources in mountains, and are fast-running, the Durance retains its name rather than either the Clarée or Guisane, even though the latter two are longer than the Durance when they each merge. The Durance is better known than the two rivers because the Durance valley is an old and important trade route, whereas the valleys of the Clarée.
The Durance is 305 kilometres long from its source at the foot of Sommet des Anges, at 2,390 metres high, above Montgenèvre, however, a longer route is traced by the Clarée-Durance system with a length of 325 kilometres. Its descent is unusually rapid at 81 m/km in its first 12 km, 15 m/km to its confluence with the Gyronde, and still nearly 8 m/km to the confluence with the Ubaye. This descent stays relatively steep after this confluence, shallows to approximately 0. 33% in its middle course and it drops 1,847 metres from its source to Mirabeau and approximately 2,090 metres from its source to the confluence with the Rhône. The Durance catchment area extends to three departments, Var, Drôme and Alpes-Maritimes. The Durance is the longest river in Metropolitan France without a department named after it, the source of La Durance is on the northern slope of the Sommet des Anges, where the first small streams combine into a river. This runs near to Montgenèvre and flows into the larger Clarée river and it continues south combining with the Gyronde — the Écrins glacial stream — at LArgentière-la-Bessée.
The confluence with the Guil occurs below Guillestre and Mont-Dauphin, the Durance flows south-south-west and flows into the Lac de Serre-Ponçon just downstream of Embrun. The confluence with the Ubaye was flooded as the lake filled, the middle part of the Durance runs through a landscape that changes as the valley increasingly widens. The river itself becomes steeply banked by terraces, and carves a channel, sometimes a few metres deep, in its middle and lower reaches the Durance is affected by the Mediterranean climate, flooding after autumnal rains, with low water levels in summer. Just before the narrow gap in the mountains at Sisteron, the Durance joins Buëch, water flows in from the EDF Canal
Apt is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region in southeastern France. It lies on the bank of the Calavon,41 miles east of Avignon. It is the town of the Luberon mountains. Apt lies north of Aix-en-Provence and the river Durance, in the valley of the river Calavon, the original type locality is in the vicinity of Apt. The Aptian was introduced in literature by French palaeontologist Alcide dOrbigny in 1840. Early 5th-century bishop Saint Castor of Apt is mentioned in contemporary liturgical documents, the diocese appears in documents of the same century as a suffragan of Aix. No longer a residential bishopric, Apta is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see, important manuscripts were found in Apt concerning music in the 12th/13th centuries. They are known as the Apt Manuscript and the Ivrea Codex and they contain Motets and Mass Movements, all of which are polyphonic. Nine out of fourteen Motets by Philippe de Vitry are recorded in the Ivrea Codex and it is purported to have been derived from the repertoire used in the Papal Palace at Avignon, since it is so close and offers a sampling of music from the Ars Nova movement.
According to documentation, Jews lived in Apt as early as the half of the 14th century. The earliest documentation of Jews in Apt is dated back to the half of the 13th century. Columbia University Library owns a twelve documents collection of notarial written money lending transactions between Jews and Christians in Apt, one of them describes a transaction between a local Jew called Gartus Bonafossi and a Christian named Iohannes Raymundi. A synagogue was documented as soon as 1416, and around 15 Jewish families were listed by the tax register by 1420, by then, Apt became the fourth largest Jewish community of Provence. The Jewish quarter was situated by the nowadays Place du Postel, the council of Apt was held on 14 May 1365 in the cathedral of that city by the archbishops and bishops of the provinces of Arles and Aix-en-Provence, in the south of France. The town was surrounded by massive ancient walls, but these have now been for the most part replaced by boulevards, many of its streets are narrow.
Many Roman remains have been found in and near the town, a fine bridge, the Pont Julien, spanning the Coulon below the town, dates from 2 BC. A tribunal of first instance and a college are the chief public institutions. Côtes du Luberon AOC Communes of the Vaucluse department This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are roughly equivalent to civil townships incorporated municipalities in the United States or Gemeinden in Germany, the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and have received significant powers of governance to manage the populations, the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. A French commune may be a city of 2.2 million inhabitants like Paris, communes typically are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, a commune is a town, city, or municipality. Use of commune in English is a habit, and one that might be corrected. There is nothing in commune in French that is different from town in English.
The French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, as of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France,36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas. This is a higher total than that of any other European country. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes and this is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions, COM of Saint-Martin and it was previously a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007, COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. It was previously a commune inside the Guadeloupe region, the commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan Frances communes at the 1999 census was even smaller, the median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the area of communes is 22 km2, in Belgium it is 40 km2, in Spain it is 35 km2, and in Germany. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, and Thuringia in Germany were the places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France. The communes of Frances overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards and they usually group into the same commune several villages or towns, often with sizeable distances among them
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. There are 96 departments in metropolitan France and 5 overseas departments, each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, they were called general councils, the departments were created in 1791 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity, the title department is used to mean a part of a larger whole. Almost all of them were named after geographical features rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of dArgenson and they have inspired similar divisions in many countries, some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a number, the Official Geographical Code. Some overseas departments have a three-digit number, the number is used, for example, in the postal code, and was until recently used for all vehicle registration plates.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as the 45 and this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René dArgenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration, before the French Revolution, France gained territory gradually through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces, during the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved, partly in order to weaken old loyalties. Their boundaries served two purposes, Boundaries were chosen to break up Frances historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences, Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a days ride of the capital of the department. This was a security measure, intended to keep the national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of rural areas far from any centre of government.
The old nomenclature was carefully avoided in naming the new departments, most were named after an areas principal river or other physical features. Even Paris was in the department of Seine, the number of departments, initially 83, was increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleons defeats in 1814-1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size, in 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice, the 89 departments were given numbers based on their alphabetical order. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following Frances defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. For the political history of the brief Gallic Empire of the third century, the term Gallo-Roman describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman morals, the well-studied meld of cultures in Gaul gives historians a model against which to compare and contrast parallel developments of Romanization in other, less-studied Roman provinces. The barbarian invasions beginning in the fifth century forced upon Gallo-Roman culture fundamental changes in politics, in the economic underpinning. The Gothic settlement of 418 offered a double loyalty, as Western Roman authority disintegrated at Rome, the plight of the highly Romanized governing class is examined by R. W. Mathisen, the struggles of bishop Hilary of Arles by M. Heinzelmann. Into the seventh century, Gallo-Roman culture would persist particularly in the areas of Gallia Narbonensis that developed into Occitania, Cisalpine Gaul and to a lesser degree, the formerly Romanized north of Gaul, once it had been occupied by the Franks, would develop into Merovingian culture instead.
Based on mutual intelligibility, David Dalby counts seven languages descended from Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Wallon, Franco-Provençal, Ladin, however, other definitions are far broader, variously encompassing the Rhaeto-Romance languages, Occitano-Romance languages, and Gallo-Italic languages. Over the course of the Roman period, a proportion of Gauls gained Roman citizenship. In 212 the Constitutio Antoniniana extended citizenship to all men in the Roman Empire. During the Crisis of the Third Century, from 260 to 274, in reaction to local problems the Gallo-Romans appointed their own emperor Postumus. The capital was Trier which was used as the northern capital of the Roman Empire by many emperors. The Gallic Empire ended when Aurelian decisively defeated Tetricus I at Chalons, assimilation was eased by interpreting indigenous gods in Roman terms, such as with Lenus Mars or Apollo Grannus. Otherwise, a Roman god might be paired with a goddess, as with Mercury. In at least one case – that of the equine goddess Epona – a native Gallic goddess was adopted by Rome, eastern mystery religions penetrated Gaul early on.
These included the cults of Orpheus, Cybele, some of the communities had origins that predated the third-century persecutions. The exhibition of Gallo-Roman silver highlighted specifically Gallo-Roman silver from the treasures found at Chaourse, Mâcon, Graincourt-lès-Havrincourt, Notre-Dame dAllençon, the two more Romanized of the three Gauls were bound together in a network of Roman roads that linked cities. Via Domitia, reached from Nîmes to the Pyrenees, where it joined the Via Augusta at the Col de Panissars, via Aquitania reached from Narbonne, where it connected to the Via Domitia, to the Atlantic Ocean through Toulouse to Bordeaux. Via Scarponensis connected Trier to Lyon through Metz, the capital of Roman Gaul, is now the site of the Gallo-Roman Museum of Lyon, associated with the remains of the theater and odeon of Roman Lugdunum
A lime kiln is a kiln used for the calcination of limestone to produce the form of lime called quicklime. The chemical equation for this reaction is CaCO3 + heat → CaO + CO2 This reaction takes place at 900 °C, excessive temperature is avoided because it produces unreactive, dead-burned lime. Slaked lime can be formed by mixing water with quicklime, the earliest descriptions of lime kilns differ little from those used for small-scale manufacture a century ago. Because land transportation of minerals like limestone and coal was difficult in the era, they were distributed by sea. Many preserved kilns are still to be seen on quaysides around the coasts of Britain, permanent lime kilns fall into two broad categories, flare kilns known as intermittent or periodic kilns, and draw kilns known as perpetual or running kilns. In a flare kiln, a layer of coal was built up. The fire was alight for several days, and the entire kiln was emptied of the lime, in a draw kiln, the chalk was layered with coke and lit.
As it burnt through, lime was extracted from the bottom of the kiln and further layers of chalk, the common feature of early kilns was an egg-cup shaped burning chamber, with an air inlet at the base, constructed of brick. Limestone was crushed to fairly uniform 20–60 mm lumps – fine stone was rejected, successive dome-shaped layers of limestone and wood or coal were built up in the kiln on grate bars across the eye. When loading was complete, the kiln was kindled at the bottom, when burnt through, the lime was cooled and raked out through the base. Fine ash dropped out and was rejected with the riddlings, only lump stone could be used, because the charge needed to breathe during firing. This limited the size of kilns and explains why kilns were all much the same size, above a certain diameter, the half-burned charge would be likely to collapse under its own weight, extinguishing the fire. So kilns always made 25–30 tonnes of lime in a batch, typically the kiln took a day to load, three days to fire, two days to cool and a day to unload, so a one-week turnaround was normal.
The degree of burning was controlled by trial and error from batch to batch by varying the amount of fuel used. Because there were large temperature differences between the center of the charge and the close to the wall, a mixture of underburned, well-burned and dead-burned lime was normally produced. Typical fuel efficiency was low, with 0.5 tonnes or more of coal being used per tonne of finished lime, lime production was sometimes carried out on an industrial scale. Sets of seven kilns were common, a loading gang and an unloading gang would work the kilns in rotation through the week. A rarely used kiln was known as a lazy kiln, the large kiln at Crindledykes near Haydon Bridge, was one of more than 300 in the county