Henry Charles Bukowski was a German-born American poet and short story writer. His writing was influenced by the social and economic ambiance of his home city of Los Angeles, his work addresses the ordinary lives of poor Americans, the act of writing, relationships with women, the drudgery of work. Bukowski wrote thousands of poems, hundreds of short stories and six novels publishing over 60 books; the FBI kept a file on him as a result of his column, Notes of a Dirty Old Man, in the LA underground newspaper Open City. Bukowski published extensively in small literary magazines and with small presses beginning in the early 1940s and continuing on through the early 1990s; as noted by one reviewer, "Bukowski continued to be, thanks to his antics and deliberate clownish performances, the king of the underground and the epitome of the littles in the ensuing decades, stressing his loyalty to those small press editors who had first championed his work and consolidating his presence in new ventures such as the New York Quarterly, Chiron Review, or Slipstream."
Some of these works include his Poems Written Before Jumping Out of an 8 Story Window, published by his friend and fellow poet Charles Potts, better known works such as Burning in Water, Drowning in Flame. These poems and stories were republished by John Martin's Black Sparrow Press as collected volumes of his work. In 1986 Time called Bukowski a "laureate of American lowlife". Regarding Bukowski's enduring popular appeal, Adam Kirsch of The New Yorker wrote, "the secret of Bukowski's appeal... he combines the confessional poet's promise of intimacy with the larger-than-life aplomb of a pulp-fiction hero."Since his death in 1994, Bukowski has been the subject of a number of critical articles and books about both his life and writings, despite his work having received little attention from academic critics during his lifetime. In contrast, Bukowski enjoyed extraordinary fame in Europe in Germany, the place of his birth. Bukowski was born Heinrich Karl Bukowski in Andernach, Rhine Province, Weimar Republic to Heinrich Bukowski, a German-American in the U.
S. army of occupation after World War I who remained in Germany after his army service, Katharina. His paternal grandfather Leonard Bukowski had moved to the United States from the German Empire in the 1880s. In Cleveland, Leonard met an ethnic German, who had emigrated from Danzig, Prussia, they settled in Pasadena. He worked as a successful carpenter; the couple had four children, including Charles Bukowski's father. Katharina Bukowski was the daughter of Nannette Israel. Bukowski assumed his paternal ancestor had moved from Poland to Germany around 1780 as "Bukowski" is a Polish last name; as far back as Bukowski could trace his whole family was German. Bukowski's parents met in Andernach in Germany following World War I; the poet's father was German-American and a sergeant in the United States Army serving in Germany following Germany's defeat in 1918. He had an affair with Katharina, a German friend's sister, she became pregnant. Charles Bukowski claimed to be born out of wedlock, but Andernach marital records indicate that his parents married one month before his birth.
Afterwards, Henry Bukowski became a building contractor, set to make great financial gains in the aftermath of the war, after two years moved the family to Pfaffendorf. However, given the crippling reparations being required of Germany, which led to a stagnant economy and high levels of inflation, Henry Bukowski was unable to make a living, so he decided to move the family to the United States. On April 23, 1923, they sailed from Bremerhaven to Baltimore, where they settled; the family moved to South Central Los Angeles in 1930, the city where Charles Bukowski's father and grandfather had worked and lived. Young Charles spoke English with a strong German accent and was taunted by his childhood playmates with the epithet "Heini," German diminutive of Heinrich, in his early youth. In the 1930s the poet's father was unemployed. In the autobiographical Ham on Rye Charles Bukowski says that, with his mother's acquiescence, his father was abusive, both physically and mentally, beating his son for the smallest imagined offense.
During his youth, Bukowski was shy and withdrawn, a condition exacerbated during his teen years by an extreme case of acne. Neighborhood children ridiculed his German accent and the clothing his parents made. In Bukowski: Born Into This, a 2003 film, Bukowski states that his father beat him with a razor strap three times a week from the ages of six to 11 years, he says. The depression bolstered his rage as he grew, gave him much of his voice and material for his writings. In his early teen years, Bukowski had an epiphany when he was introduced to alcohol by his loyal friend William "Baldy" Mullinax, depicted as "Eli LaCrosse" in Ham on Rye, son of an alcoholic surgeon. "This is going to help me for a long time," he wrote, describing a method he could use to come to more amicable terms with his own life. After graduating from Los Angeles High School, Bukowski attended Los Angeles City College for two years, taking courses in art and literature, before quitting at the start of World War II, he moved to New York to begin a career as a financially pinched blue-collar worker with dreams of becoming a writer.
On July 22, 1944, with World War
Mission of Burma
Mission of Burma is an American post-punk band formed in Boston, Massachusetts in 1979. The band was formed by Clint Conley, Peter Prescott and Martin Swope. Miller and Prescott share singing and songwriting duties. In early years the band's recordings were all released on the small Boston-based record label Ace of Hearts. Despite initial success, Mission of Burma disbanded in 1983 due to Miller's development of tinnitus caused by the volume of the band's live performances. In its original lineup, the band released only two singles, an EP, one LP, Vs. Mission of Burma reformed in 2002, with Bob Weston replacing Swope, has since recorded four more albums, ONoffON, The Obliterati, The Sound The Speed The Light and Unsound. Mission of Burma's history began with a short-lived Boston rock group called Moving Parts; the band included Roger Miller, who had moved to Boston from Ann Arbor and Clint Conley, who came from Darien, Connecticut. When Moving Parts broke up amicably in December 1978, Miller and Conley began practicing.
Auditioning new drummers was accomplished, as Michael Azzerad puts it, "by playing'out' music, such as Sun Ra and James Brown, until the applicant left." They recruited ex-Molls drummer Peter Prescott, who had admired the music of Moving Parts. They took their name from a "Mission of Burma" plaque Conley saw on a New York City diplomatic building. Mission of Burma made their debut on April 1979 as a trio, performing at The Modern Theater; that month Miller wrote a song, "Nu Disco", that he felt would be improved by a tape loop. Miller contacted Martin Swope, with whom he had earlier written some John Cage and Karlheinz Stockhausen-inspired pieces for piano and tape. Swope was enlisted as the group's live audio engineer and occasional tape-effects artist, his latter role grew until by 1981 he was adding tape work to most of the group's songs, was regarded as an integral part of the group, appearing in group photographs and receiving equal credit on recordings. From the start, Mission of Burma received support from local music magazine Boston Rock, which printed a lengthy interview with the band before they released their first record, MIT community radio station WMBR.
The station played Conley's "Peking Spring" and it became the station's most-played song of 1979. Mission of Burma wanted to release the song as a single, but by the time they had found a label, they felt the song had run its course. By 1981, the band signed a record deal with the Boston-based record label Ace of Hearts, their debut single was Conley's "Academy Fight Song", with Miller's "Max Ernst" as the B-side. Rick Harte's layered production was far more refined than the band's ragged live performances, the band objected to the single. However, the first pressing of the single sold out and the band thereafter trusted Harte's judgment, their debut release, the EP Signals and Marches, was released in 1981. By the end of that year, the EP had sold out its initial pressing of 10,000 copies. In 1982, Mission of Burma released their first full-length album, Vs.. The album has since seen wide praise. In 1983, after the release of Vs. the group disbanded due to Miller's worsening tinnitus, attributed in large part to their notoriously loud live performances—during their farewell tour, Miller took to augmenting his usual small foam earplugs with rifle-range earphones onstage.
A live compilation, The Horrible Truth About Burma, was assembled of recordings from the farewell tour and released on Ace of Hearts in 1985. In 1988, Rykodisc released a compilation album, Mission of Burma, the first compact disc to exceed 80 minutes of playing time. Miller and Swope turned their attention to their side project, the quieter Birdsongs Of The Mesozoic, which they both left in the 1990s, Miller to produce several solo efforts and film scores, Swope to semi-reclusion in Hawaii. Prescott remained active in the Boston music scene, forming Volcano Suns and Kustomized and The Peer Group. Other than producing Yo La Tengo's debut record, Conley dropped out of music. While disbanded, Mission of Burma accrued a larger fanbase. In the 1980s and 90s, Taang! Records and Rykodisc kept the band's music in print via reissues of the Ace of Hearts catalog as well as unreleased recordings. Mission of Burma was one of the 13 groups featured in Michael Azerrad's book Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground, 1981–1991, marking them as an iconic group in the American indie rock canon.
In 2002, Mission of Burma reunited and began playing reunion shows with Bob Weston of Shellac replacing Swope at the mixing board and tape manipulation. In an interview Miller relates that "when we approached Bob Weston to fill Martin's position, we told him he could use current digital technology which accomplishes Martin's antics in an easier fashion. However, Bob opted for maintaining the original integrity, uses a tape deck." Weston began using a digital looping box from Electro-Harmonix in 2007 during live performances, but still uses actual tape loops in the studio. Weston joins the band onstage during encores, playing bass while Conley plays second guitar; the band planned on playi
William S. Burroughs
William Seward Burroughs II was an American writer and visual artist. Burroughs was a primary figure of the Beat Generation and a major postmodernist author whose influence is considered to have affected a range of popular culture as well as literature. Burroughs wrote eighteen novels and novellas, six collections of short stories and four collections of essays. Five books have been published of his correspondences, he collaborated on projects and recordings with numerous performers and musicians, made many appearances in films. He was briefly known by the pen name William Lee. Burroughs created and exhibited thousands of paintings and other visual art works, including his celebrated'Gunshot Paintings', he was born into a wealthy family in St. Louis, grandson of the inventor and founder of the Burroughs Corporation, William Seward Burroughs I, nephew of public relations manager Ivy Lee. Burroughs began writing essays and journals in early adolescence, but did not begin publicizing his writing until his thirties.
He left home in 1932 to attend Harvard University, studied English, anthropology as a postgraduate, attended medical school in Vienna. In 1942 Burroughs enlisted in the U. S. Army to serve during World War II, but was turned down by the Office of Strategic Services and Navy, after which he picked up the drug addiction that affected him for the rest of his life, while working a variety of jobs. In 1943, while living in New York City, he befriended Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac, out of their mutual influence grew the foundation of the Beat Generation, a defining influence on the 1960s counterculture. Much of Burroughs' work is semiautobiographical drawn from his experiences as a heroin addict, as he lived throughout Mexico City, London and Tangier in Morocco, as well as from his travels in the South American Amazon, his work features frequent mystical, occult or otherwise magical themes – a constant preoccupation for Burroughs, both in fiction and in real life. Burroughs killed Joan Vollmer, in 1951 in Mexico City.
Burroughs claimed that he shot Vollmer while drunkenly attempting a "William Tell" stunt. He told investigators a different story: that he had been showing his pistol to friends, when it fell and hit the table, firing the bullet that killed Vollmer. After Burroughs returned to the United States, he was convicted of manslaughter in absentia, received a two-year suspended sentence. Burroughs found success with his confessional first novel, but he is best known for his third novel Naked Lunch, a controversial work, the subject of a court case after it was challenged as being in violation of the U. S. sodomy laws. With Brion Gysin, he popularized the literary cut-up technique in works such as The Nova Trilogy. In 1983, Burroughs was elected to the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, in 1984 he was awarded the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by France. Jack Kerouac called Burroughs the "greatest satirical writer since Jonathan Swift", a reputation he owes to his "lifelong subversion" of the moral and economic systems of modern American society, articulated in darkly humorous sardonicism.
J. G. Ballard considered Burroughs to be "the most important writer to emerge since the Second World War", while Norman Mailer declared him "the only American writer who may be conceivably possessed by genius". Burroughs created visual art throughout his lifetime, but never exhibited it until 1987, after the death of his friend and collaborator Brion Gysin. For the next and last 10 years of his life, he presented his paintings and drawings at museums and galleries worldwide. Burroughs had William S. Burroughs Jr. with his second wife Joan Vollmer. William Burroughs died at his home in Lawrence, after suffering a heart attack in 1997. Burroughs was born in 1914, the younger of two sons born to Mortimer Perry Burroughs and Laura Hammon Lee, his was a prominent family of English ancestry in Missouri. His grandfather, William Seward Burroughs I, founded the Burroughs Adding Machine company, which evolved into the Burroughs Corporation. Burroughs' mother was the daughter of a minister whose family claimed to be related to Robert E. Lee.
His maternal uncle, Ivy Lee, was an advertising pioneer employed as a publicist for the Rockefellers. His father ran Cobblestone Gardens in St. Louis, it was during his childhood that Burroughs' developed a lifelong interest in magic and the occult – topics which would find their way into his work across the years. Burroughs described how he saw an apparition of a green reindeer in the woods as a child, which he identified as a totem animal, as well as a vision of ghostly grey figures at play in his bedroom; as a boy, Burroughs lived on Pershing Ave. in St. Louis' Central West End, he attended John Burroughs School in St. Louis where his first published essay, "Personal Magnetism" – which revolved around telepathic mind-control – was printed in the John Burroughs Review in 1929, he attended the Los Alamos Ranch School in New Mexico, stressful for him. The school was a boarding school for the wealthy, "where the spindly sons of the rich could be transformed into manly specimens". Burroughs kept journals documenting an erotic attachment to another boy.
According to his own account, he destroyed these ashamed of their content. He kept his sexual orientation concealed from his family well into adulthood, due to the context in which he grew up and from which he f
Nick Zedd is an American filmmaker and author based in Mexico City. He coined the term Cinema of Transgression in 1985 to describe a loose-knit group of like-minded filmmakers and artists using shock value and black humor in their work; these filmmakers and artistic collaborators included Richard Kern, Tessa Hughes Freeland, Lung Leg and Lydia Lunch. Under numerous pen names, Zedd edited and wrote the Underground Film Bulletin which publicized the work of these filmmakers; the Cinema of Transgression was explored in Jack Sargeant's book Deathtripping. Nick Zedd has directed several super-low-budget feature-length movies, including the They Eat Scum and Geek Maggot Bingo, as well as numerous short films. With Rev. Jen Miller, he is the co-creator of the public access series Electra Elf, featuring Miller, Andrew J. Lederer and a "who's who" of New York downtown artists and performers, he served. Additionally, Zedd has acted in such super-low-budget films as the Super-8 film The Manhattan Love Suicides, What About Me, Jonas in the Desert, Troma Films' Terror Firmer and Thus Spake Zarathustra.
He appeared in the documentaries Llik Your Idols and Blank City. He is the author of two autobiographical books and Totem of the Depraved, as well as the self-published novel From Entropy to Ecstasy. Additional writing by Zedd was featured in Up Is Up But So Is Down as well as in Captured and Low Rent. Zedd anonymously published Cinema of Transgression Manifesto, an essay outlining his philosophy, in the Underground Film Bulletin and The Theory of Xenomorphosis. In the early 1990s, Zedd toured with Lisa Crystal Carver's Suckdog Circus. Performing with experimental noise band Zyklon Beatles, Zedd released the "Consume and Die" 7" single on Rubric Records in 2000. After exhibiting oil paintings in 2010 at the ADA and Pendu galleries, Zedd presented a major retrospective of films and paintings at the Microscope Gallery in Bushwick, Brooklyn before moving to Mexico in March 2011. In 2012, he attended a retrospective of his films at the eighth Berlin International Directors Lounge and exhibited work at the Kunst-Werke Institute for Contemporary Art in the same city.
In 2013, Zedd published "The Extremist Manifesto", an essay denouncing contemporary art and the class structure that promotes it while announcing the emergence of the "extremism" covert art movement in Mexico City subverting the edicts of established art institutions and curatorial ideologues. This manifesto, first released online in a self-published Hatred of Capitalism magazine issued in Mexico City, sent shock waves through the art world and was reprinted a year by the Chopo Museum, along with two more issues as part of the Fanzinoteka exhibition. At a screening in the New Museum in New York, Zedd was presented with the Acker Award for Lifetime Achievement, a tribute given to "members of the avant garde arts community who have made outstanding contributions in their discipline in defiance of convention, or else served their fellow writers and artists in outstanding ways". In 2014, Zedd exhibited three motion pictures at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City as part of a retrospective of films by Christoph Schlingensief, prior to his death, had cited Zedd as a major influence on his work.
In 2014, Zedd presented his first public exhibition of paintings in Mexico City, in a group show curated by Aldo Flores at Salon des Aztecas Gallery in Coyoacán. In 2015, Zedd presented his first one-man show of paintings at the V&S Galery in Mexico City. Zedd shot an 8mm short entitled Paradise Lost with a borrowed Russian camera for inclusion in a feature length compilation with contributions from underground filmmakers from many countries. Zedd's movie documents the contents of his apartment and his family in Condesa during an eviction proceeding that resulted in the complete destruction of the building along with the forced exile of all of the tenants, they Eat Scum The Bogus Man Geek Maggot Bingo The Wild World of Lydia Lunch Thrust in Me "School of Shame" Kiss Me Goodbye Go to Hell Police State Whoregasm War Is Menstrual Envy Smiling Faces Tell Lies Why Do You Exist Tom Thumb in the Land of the Giants Ecstasy in Entropy I of K9 Elf Panties: The Movie Lord of the Cockrings Thus Spake Zarathustra I Was a Quality of Life Violation Electra Elf: Dance With the Devil Electra Elf: Maggot on a Hot Tin Roof Electra Elf: Old Man & the Sea Monkey Electra Elf: Great Shrunken Expectations Electra Elf: Roof Party Electra Elf: I, Nauseous Electra Elf: Hellbound Heiresses Electra Elf: Deadly Little Trees Electra Elf: Triumph of the Ill Electra Elf: Of Lice and Men Electra Elf: The Beginning Parts One & Two Electra Elf: Don't Worry Bee Happy Electra Elf: Vile Buddies Electra Elf: Battle of the Bands Electra Elf: No Plague Like Home Filthy Rich Electra Elf: We All Scream for Ice Cream Electra Elf: Behind the Scenes Mistakes Hapen Electra Elf: Hollow Be Thy Name Electra Elf: Goin to the Chapel Electra Elf: Gone with the Mind NYC/MEXICO The Birth of Zerak Paintings 2009-11 Frustration/Dr.
Shinto Cockfight El Manifiesto Extremista Demonic Sweaters: Love Always Love Paradise Lost The Death of Muffinhead Atta
Philip K. Dick
Philip Kindred Dick was an American writer known for his work in science fiction. His work explored philosophical and political themes, with stories dominated by monopolistic corporations, alternative universes, authoritarian governments, altered states of consciousness, his writing reflected his interest in metaphysics and theology, drew upon his life experiences in addressing the nature of reality, drug abuse and transcendental experiences. Born in Illinois, he moved to California and began publishing science fiction stories in the 1950s, his stories found little commercial success. His 1962 alternative history novel The Man in the High Castle earned Dick early acclaim, including a Hugo Award for Best Novel, he followed with science fiction novels such as Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Ubik. His 1974 novel Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said won the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for best novel. Following a series of religious experiences in February 1974, Dick's work engaged more explicitly with issues of theology and the nature of reality, as in such novels as A Scanner Darkly and VALIS.
A collection of his non-fiction writing on these themes was published posthumously as The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick, he died at age 53, due to complications from a stroke. Dick's writing produced 44 published novels and 121 short stories, most of which appeared in science fiction magazines during his lifetime. A variety of popular films based on Dick's works has been produced, including Blade Runner, Total Recall, Minority Report, A Scanner Darkly, The Adjustment Bureau, Blade Runner 2049; the Man in the High Castle, was made into a multi-season television series. In 2005, Time named Ubik one of the hundred greatest English-language novels published since 1923. In 2007, Dick became the first science fiction writer to be included in The Library of America series. Philip Kindred Dick and his twin sister, Jane Charlotte Dick, were born six weeks prematurely on December 16, 1928, in Chicago, Illinois, to Dorothy and Joseph Edgar Dick, who worked for the United States Department of Agriculture, his paternal grandparents were Irish.
The death of Philip's twin Jane six weeks after their birth, on January 26, 1929, profoundly affected Philip's life, leading to the recurrent motif of the "phantom twin" in his books. His family moved to the San Francisco Bay Area; when Philip was five, his father was transferred to Nevada. Both parents fought for custody of Philip, awarded to the mother. Dorothy, determined to raise Philip alone, took a job in Washington, D. C. and moved there with her son. Philip was enrolled at John Eaton Elementary School, his lowest grade was a "C" in Written Composition, although a teacher remarked that he "shows interest and ability in story telling". He was educated in Quaker schools. In June 1938, Dorothy and Philip returned to California, it was around this time that he became interested in science fiction. Dick stated that he read his first science fiction magazine, Stirring Science Stories in 1940 at the age of 12. Dick attended Berkeley High School in California, he and fellow science fiction author Ursula K.
Le Guin did not know each other at the time. After graduation, he attended the University of California, with an honorable dismissal granted January 1, 1950. Dick did not declare a major and took classes in history, psychology and zoology. Through his studies in philosophy, he believed that existence is based on internal human perception, which does not correspond to external reality. After reading the works of Plato and pondering the possibilities of metaphysical realms, Dick came to the conclusion that, in a certain sense, the world is not real and there is no way to confirm whether it is there; this question from his early studies persisted as a theme in many of his novels. Dick dropped out according to his third wife Anne's memoir, she says he disliked the mandatory ROTC training. At Berkeley, Dick befriended poet Robert Duncan and poet and linguist Jack Spicer, who gave Dick ideas for a Martian language. Dick claimed to have hosted a classical music program on KSMO Radio in 1947. From 1948 to 1952, Dick worked at a record store on Telegraph Avenue.
Dick sold his first story in 1951, about “a dog who imagined that the garbagemen who came every Friday morning were stealing valuable food which the family had stored away in a safe metal container”, from on wrote full-time. During 1952, his first speculative fiction publications appeared in July and September numbers of Planet Stories, edited by Jack O'Sullivan, in If and The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction that year, his debut novel was Solar Lottery, published in 1955 as half of Ace Double #D-103 alongside The Big Jump by Leigh Brackett. The 1950s were a difficult and impoverished time for Dick, who once lamented, "We couldn't pay the late fees on a library book." He published exclusively within the science fiction genre, but dreamed of a career in mainstream fiction. During the 1950s, he produced a series of non-genre conventional novels. In 1960, he wrote that he was willing to "take twenty to thirty years to succ
Steven Albini is an American musician, record producer, audio engineer and music journalist. He was a member of Big Black and Flour, is a member of Shellac, he is the founder and principal engineer of Electrical Audio, a recording studio complex in Chicago. In 2018, Albini estimated, he has had major influence on the development of genres such as noise rock, post-hardcore and math rock. Albini is known for his outspoken views on the music industry, having stated that it financially exploits artists and homogenizes their sound. Nearly alone among well-known producers, Albini refuses to take ongoing royalties from album sales, feeling that a producer's job is to record the music to the band's desires, that paying a producer as if they had contributed artistically to an album is unethical. Albini was born in California, to Gina and Frank Addison Albini, his father is a wildlife researcher. He has two siblings. In his youth, Albini's family moved before settling in the college town of Missoula, Montana in 1974.
Albini is Italian part of his family comes from the Piedmont region of Northern Italy. While recovering from a broken leg, Albini began playing bass guitar and participated in bass lessons in high school for one week. Albini was exposed to punk rock by a schoolmate on a field trip when he was 14 or 15, subsequently bought every Ramones recording available to him. Growing up in Montana, he became a fan of bands such as The Stooges, the Ramones, Suicide, The Fall, The Velvet Underground, Throbbing Gristle, The Birthday Party, Pere Ubu, Public Image Ltd, Rudimentary Peni, Killing Joke. After graduating from Hellgate High School, Albini moved to Evanston, Illinois, to attend college at the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University, where he attained a degree in Journalism. Albini said he studied painting in college with the late Ed Paschke, someone he calls a brilliant educator and "one of the only people in college who taught me anything."In the Chicago area, Albini was active as a writer in local zines such as Matter and Forced Exposure, covering the then-nascent punk rock scene, gained a reputation for the iconoclastic nature of his articles.
Around the same time, he began recording musicians and engineered his first album in 1981. He co-managed Ruthless Records with John Kezdy of The Effigies and Jon Babbin. According to Albini, he maintained a "straight job" for five years until 1987, working in a photography studio as a photograph retouch artist. During his teenage years, Albini played in bands such as the Montana punk band "Just Ducky", a Chicago band called "Small Irregular Pieces of Aluminum", "Stations", another band that record label Touch and Go/Quarterstick Records explained "he is paying us not to mention."Albini played for Flour c. 1988. In 1981, Albini formed Big Black while he was a student at NU, recorded Lungs, the band's debut EP, on Ruthless Records, a label he co-managed with Jon Babbin and John Kezdy. Albini played all of the instruments on Lungs except the saxophone, played by friend John Bohnen; the Bulldozer EP was released on both Ruthless and Fever Records. Jeff Pezzati and Santiago Durango, of Chicago band Naked Raygun, live drummer Pat Byrne joined shortly thereafter, the band—along with a drum machine credited as "Roland"—released the EP Racer-X in 1984, after touring and signing a new contract with the Homestead Records business.
Pezzati commenced recording the "Il Duce" 7-inch single with the band, but returned to his original band before it was completed. Pezzati was replaced on bass by Dave Riley, with whom the group recorded their debut full-length album, Atomizer; the "Il Duce" recording was finished with Riley as bassist. Big Black left the Homestead label for Touch and Go Records in late 1985/early 1986, recorded the Headache EP and the 7-inch single, Heartbeat between June and August 1986—both were released the following year. In 1986, a live album titled Sound of Impact was released on the Not/Blast First label; the accompanying booklet provides insight into the band's influences. S. Chaos, Gang Green, Tommi Stumpff and Bad Brains. In 1987, the band released their second studio album Songs About Fucking as well as the He's a Whore / The Model 7-inch single, both on Touch and Go. Big Black disbanded shortly after a period of extensive touring that year in support of Songs About Fucking. Durango was successful in becoming a practicing lawyer.
Touch and Go released a Big Black live album and video, Pigpile, in 1992. Pigpile was released in Japan and Germany. Touch and Go stated on its website in May 2014: "Someday, we might release the video on DVD; until please don't ask us about it." Albini went on to form the controversially named Rapeman in 1987—the band consisted of Albini, Rey Washam, David Wm. Sims; the band was named after a popular Japanese comic book that garnered Washam's interests. They broke up after the release of two 7-inch singles—"Hated Chinee b/w Marmoset" and "Inki's Butt Crack b/w Song Number One", one EP titled Budd and the Tw
Sonic Youth was an American rock band based in New York City, formed in 1981. Founding members Thurston Moore, Kim Gordon and Lee Ranaldo remained together for the entire history of the band, while Steve Shelley followed a series of short-term drummers in 1985, rounded out the core line-up. Sonic Youth emerged from the experimental no wave art and music scene in New York before evolving into a more conventional rock band and becoming the most prominent of the American noise rock groups. Sonic Youth have been praised for having "redefined what rock guitar could do" using a wide variety of unorthodox guitar tunings and preparing guitars with objects like drum sticks and screwdrivers to alter the instruments' timbre; the band is considered to be a pivotal influence on the indie rock movements. After gaining a large underground following and critical praise through releases with SST Records in the late 1980s, the band experienced mainstream success throughout the 1990s and 2000s after signing to major label DGC in 1990 and headlining the 1995 Lollapalooza festival.
In 2011, Ranaldo announced that the band was "ending for a while" following the separation of married couple Gordon and Moore. Thurston Moore updated and clarified the position in May 2014: "Sonic Youth is on hiatus; the band is a democracy of sorts, as long as Kim and I are working out our situation, the band can't function reasonably." Gordon refers several times in her 2015 autobiography Girl in a Band to the band having "split up". Shortly after guitarist Thurston Moore moved to New York City in early 1977, he formed a group, Room Tone, with his roommates, who changed their name to the Coachmen. After the breakup of the Coachmen, Moore began jamming with Stanton Miranda, whose band, CKM, featured Kim Gordon. Moore and Gordon formed a band, appearing under names like Male Bonding and Red Milk and the Arcadians, before settling on Sonic Youth just before June 1981; the name came from combining the nickname of MC5's Fred "Sonic" Smith with "Youth" from reggae artist Big Youth. Gordon recalled that "as soon as Thurston came up with the name Sonic Youth, a certain sound, more of what we wanted to do came about."
The band played Noise Fest in June 1981 at New York's White Columns gallery, where Lee Ranaldo was playing as a member of Glenn Branca's electric guitar ensemble. Their performance impressed Moore, who described them as "the most ferocious guitar band that I had seen in my life", he invited Ranaldo to join the band; the new threesome played three songs at the festival in the week without a drummer. Each band member took. Branca signed Sonic Youth as the first act on his record label Neutral Records. In December 1981 the group recorded five songs in a studio in New York's Radio City Music Hall; the material was released as the Sonic Youth that, while ignored, was sent to a few key members of the US press, who gave it uniformly favorable reviews. The album featured a conventional post-punk style, in contrast to their releases. After their first release, Edson was replaced by Bob Bert. During their early days as part of the New York music scene, Sonic Youth formed a friendship with fellow New York noise rock band Swans.
The bands came to share the same rehearsal space, Sonic Youth embarked on its first tour, a two-week journey through the southern United States starting in November 1982, supporting Swans. During a second tour with Swans of the Midwest the following month, tensions ran high and Moore criticized Bert's drumming, which he felt was not "in the pocket". Bert was fired afterwards and replaced by Jim Sclavunos, who played drums on the band's first studio album, 1983's Confusion Is Sex, which featured a louder and more dissonant sound than their debut EP. Sonic Youth set up a two-week tour of Europe for the summer of 1983. Sclavunos, quit after only a few months; the group asked Bert to rejoin, he agreed, on the condition that he would not be fired again after the tour's conclusion. Bert went on to play on the band's Kill Yr Idols EP. Sonic Youth found themselves well received in Europe, but the New York press ignored the local noise rock scene; as the press began to take notice of the genre, Sonic Youth was grouped along with bands like Big Black, the Butthole Surfers and Pussy Galore under the "pigfucker" label by Village Voice editor Robert Christgau.
After a substandard September concert in New York, another critic from The Village Voice panned it. Gordon wrote a scornful letter to the newspaper, criticizing it for not supporting its local music scene, to which Christgau responded by saying they are not obligated to support them. Moore retaliated by renaming the song "Kill Yr Idols" to "I Killed Christgau With My Big Fucking Dick", before the two sorted out their differences amicably. During another tour of Europe in 1984, Sonic Youth's disastrous London debut resulted in rave reviews in Sounds and the NME. By the time they returned to New York, they were so popular they played shows every week; that same year and Gordon were married, Sonic Youth released Bad Moon Rising, a self-described "Americana" album that served as a reaction to the state of the nation at the time. The album, recorded by Martin Bisi, was built around transitional pieces that Moore and Ranaldo had come up with in order to take up time onstage while the other guitarist was busy tuning his instrument.