In international human rights law, a forced disappearance occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization, or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law. According to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which came into force on 1 July 2002, when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed at any civilian population, a "forced disappearance" qualifies as a crime against humanity and, thus, is not subject to a statute of limitations. On 20 December 2006, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance. Forced disappearance implies murder; the victim in such a case is abducted, illegally detained and tortured during interrogation, killed, their body concealed after the fact by the individuals or organization responsible for their death.
A murder will be surreptitious, with the corpse disposed of to escape discovery so that the person vanishes. The party committing the murder has plausible deniability, as nobody can provide evidence of the victim's death. "Disappearing" political rivals is a way for regimes to engender feelings of complicity in populations. The difficulty of publicly fighting a government that murders in secret can result in widespread pretense that everything is normal, as it did in the Dirty War in Argentina. In international human rights law, disappearances at the hands of the state have been codified as "enforced" or "forced disappearances" since the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. For example, the Rome Statute establishing the International Criminal Court defines enforced disappearance as a crime against humanity, the practice is addressed by the OAS's Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons. There is some authority indicating that enforced disappearances occurring during armed conflict, such as the Third Reich's Night and Fog program, may constitute war crimes.
In February 1980 the United Nations established the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, "the first United Nations human rights thematic mechanism to be established with a universal mandate". Its main task "is to assist families in determining the fate or whereabouts of their family members who are disappeared". In August 2014, the Working Group reported 43,250 unresolved cases of disappearances in 88 different States; the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, adopted by the UN General Assembly on 20 December 2006 states that the widespread or systematic practice of enforced disappearances constitutes a crime against humanity. It gives victims' families the right to seek reparations, to demand the truth about the disappearance of their loved ones; the Convention provides for the right not to be subjected to enforced disappearance, as well as the right for the relatives of the disappeared person to know the truth. The Convention contains several provisions concerning prevention and sanctioning of this crime, as well as the rights of victims and their relatives, the wrongful removal of children born during their captivity.
The Convention further sets forth the obligation of international co-operation, both in the suppression of the practice, in dealing with humanitarian aspects related to the crime. The Convention establishes a Committee on Enforced Disappearances, which will be charged with important and innovative functions of monitoring and protection at international level. An international campaign of the International Coalition against Enforced Disappearances is working towards universal ratification of the Convention. Disappearances work on two levels: not only do they silence opponents and critics who have disappeared, but they create uncertainty and fear in the wider community, silencing others who would oppose and criticise. Disappearances entail the violation of many fundamental human rights. For the disappeared person, these include the right to liberty, the right to personal security and humane treatment, the right to a fair trial, to legal counsel and to equal protection under the law, the right of presumption of innocence among others.
Their families, who spend the rest of their lives searching for information on the disappeared, are victims. The evocation of the crime of forced disappearance begins with the history of the rights in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, formulated on 26 August 1789 in France by the authorities that came out of the French Revolution, where it was stated in Articles 7 and 12: art. 7. No person may be charged, detained or imprisoned except in cases determined by law and in the manner prescribed therein; those requesting, executing or executing arbitrary orders must be punished...... art. 12. The guarantee of the rights of man and of the citizen needs a public force; this force is therefore instituted for the benefit of all, not for the particular utility of those who are in charge of it. (La garantie des droits de l'homme et du citoyen nécessite une force publique.
Li Yuanhong was a Chinese politician during the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China. He was the President of the Republic of China between 1916 and 1917, between 1922 and 1923. A native of Huangpi, Hubei, he was the son of a Qing veteran of the Taiping Rebellion named Li Chaoxiang, he graduated from the Tianjin naval academy in 1889 and served as an engineer in the First Sino-Japanese war. His cruiser was sunk and he survived because of his life belt, since he could not swim, he joined the Hubei New Army and became senior military officer in Hankou. In 1910, he attempted to break up revolutionary rings, he did not arrest anyone caught in subversive activities, but dismissed them. When the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 broke out, the Wuchang mutineers needed a visible high-ranking officer to be their figurehead. Li was well respected, had supported the Railway Protection Movement, knew English, which would be useful in dealing with foreign concerns, he was dragged from hiding under his wife's bed and forced at gunpoint to be the provisional military governor of Hubei despite killing several of the rebels.
Though reluctant at first, he embraced the revolution after its growing momentum and was named military governor of China on 30 November. Qing Premier Yuan Shikai negotiated a truce with him on 4 December. While Li commanded the rebel army, Sun Yat-sen of the Revolutionary Alliance became the first provisional president in Nanjing on 1 January 1912. Li was made vice president as a compromise and he formed People's Society to campaign for the presidency. Meanwhile, the north was still under the control of the Qing. A negotiation made Sun step down in favor of Yuan Shikai as president with Li keeping his vice-presidency; this reunified north and south China. People's Society merged with the pro-Yuan Republican Party. In 1913, he combined the Republicans with Liang Qichao's Democratic Party to form the Progressive Party; the Progressives became the biggest rivals to the opposition Nationalists led by Sun. He supported Yuan against Sun during the Second Revolution which earned him the enmity of his former comrades.
When Yuan pulled off his presidential coup, Li was viewed as a potential threat and confined in Beijing where he became a passive bystander under Yuan's grip. Yuan could never trust Li because he wasn't a protégé within the Beiyang Army's inner circle and because of his past association with the revolutionaries. Yuan married his son to Li's daughter to strengthen their ties. Li had no power; some factions called on Li to claim the presidency when Yuan crowned himself emperor in 1916. He refused for fear of his life but he declined the aristocratic title of Prince granted by Yuan in the Empire of China, a decision which would help his standing on. Li remained in self-imposed isolation at his residence during the monarchic period, until the death of Yuan. Li served as president from 7 June 1916 to 17 July 1917; when Yuan died, he left a will containing Li's name along with Premier Duan Xu Shichang. The will was an imperial tradition started by the Kangxi Emperor, was not constitutional in the republic.
The Beiyang generals pressed Li into office, since he was acceptable to the rebellious southern provinces. Li tried to return to the 1912 constitutional arrangement; the National Assembly of the Republic of China reconvened on 1 August 1916, after having been disbanded over two and a half years earlier. Duan was eager to pull China into World War I but Li was more hesitant, they conflicted over Duan's decision to cut ties with Germany. Li forced Duan to resign on 23 May 1917. Duan fled to Tianjin to muster his forces, most generals abandoned the government. In response, Li asked General Zhang Xun for assistance. In exchange, Zhang asked for the dissolution of parliament, granted on 13 June. Zhang, secretly pro-German, unexpectedly occupied Beijing from 14 June to 12 July 1917 and kept the president prisoner. Zhang proceeded with a move that would undermine most of his support when he attempted to restore Emperor Puyi and the Qing dynasty on 1 July. Li was released to the Japanese legation where he asked for Duan's assistance in saving the republic.
Duan overthrew Zhang within two weeks, restored the republic by 12 July. Vice President Feng Guozhang was made acting president in Nanjing. On 17 July, distraught from recent events, Li resigned from office and moved to Tianjin in retirement, he served again as president of China between 11 June 1922 and 13 June 1923 after Cao Kun forced out President Xu Shichang. Li was chosen because he was hoped to reunify the country, he accepted only with the private assurances. Like his first term, he called back the original National Assembly but he was more powerless than before, he organized the "Able Men Cabinet" consisting of prestigious experts but it became undone when he arrested the finance minister for graft after examining rumours and circumstantial evidence. Cao soon orchestrated strikes to force Li out of office. Cao went as far as trying to bribe the assembly into impeaching him; when Li was vacating the capital, he attempted to take the presidential seal with him but was intercepted. He fled to Japan for medical
On June 1, 2017, United States President Donald Trump announced that the U. S. would cease all participation in the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change mitigation. Trump stated that "The Paris accord will undermine economy," and "puts at a permanent disadvantage." During the presidential campaign, Trump had pledged to withdraw from the pact, saying a withdrawal would help American businesses and workers. Trump stated. In accordance with Article 28 of the Paris Agreement, a country cannot give notice of withdrawal from the agreement before three years of its start date in the relevant country, on November 4, 2016 in the case of the United States. On November 4, 2019, the administration gave a formal notice of intention to withdraw, which takes 12 months to take effect. So, the earliest possible effective withdrawal date by the United States cannot be before November 4, 2020, four years after the Agreement came into effect in the United States and one day after the 2020 U. S. presidential election.
The White House clarified that the U. S. will abide by the four-year exit process. Until the withdrawal takes effect, the United States may be obligated to maintain its commitments under the Agreement, such as the requirement to continue reporting its emissions to the United Nations. While celebrated by some members of the Republican Party, international reactions to the withdrawal were overwhelmingly negative from across the political spectrum, the decision received substantial criticism from religious organizations, political leaders of all parties, environmentalists, scientists and citizens from the United States and internationally. Following Trump's announcement, the governors of several U. S. states formed the United States Climate Alliance to continue to advance the objectives of the Paris Agreement at the state level despite the federal withdrawal. As of July 1, 2019, 24 states and Puerto Rico have joined the alliance, similar commitments have been expressed by other state governors and businesses.
The Paris Agreement was an addition to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to by all 195 countries present at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in December of that year, including the United States under the presidency of Barack Obama. Due to the status of the United States and China as the greatest emitters of carbon dioxide, Obama's support and his cooperation with China were seen as major factors leading to the convention's early success; the main aim of the Agreement is to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels", predominantly by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The agreement differs from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the last adopted amendment to the UNFCCC, in that no annexes are established to lessen responsibility of developing nations. Rather, emissions targets for each nation were separately negotiated and are to be voluntarily enforced, leading United States officials to regard the Paris Agreement as an executive agreement rather than a binding treaty.
This removed the requirement for the United States Congress to ratify the agreement. In April 2016, the United States became a signatory to the Paris Agreement, accepted it by executive order in September 2016. President Obama committed the United States to contributing US$3 billion to the Green Climate Fund; the Fund has set itself a goal of raising $100 billion a year by 2020. Article 28 of the agreement enables parties to withdraw from the agreement after sending a withdrawal notification to the depositary, but notice can be given no earlier than three years after the agreement goes into force for the country. Withdrawal is effective one year. Alternatively, the Agreement stipulates that withdrawal from the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, would withdraw the state from the Paris Agreement; the conditions for withdrawal from the UNFCCC are the same as for the Paris Agreement. On November 8, 2016, four days after the Paris Agreement entered into force in the United States, Donald Trump of the Republican Party was elected President of the United States.
Many conservative Republicans dispute the level of human involvement in climate change. Trump is a climate change skeptic, who in 2012 tweeted that he believed the concept of global warming was created by China in order to impair American competitiveness. During Trump's 2016 election campaign, Trump promised to revitalize the coal industry, which he claimed has been hampered by environmental regulations, it has been argued. His opposition to climate change mitigation was unchanged in the first months of his presidency, in which he issued an executive order to reverse Obama's Clean Power Plan and other environmental regulations. In April 2017, a group of 20 members of the European Parliament from the right-wing Alternative for Germany, UK Independence Party, other parties sent a letter to Trump on urging him to withdraw from the Paris Agreement. On May 25, 2017, 22 Republican Senators, including Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, sent a two-page letter to Trump urging him to withdraw the U.
S. from the Paris agreement. The letter was drafted by Senator John Barrasso, the chairman of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Senator Jim Inhofe, known for his longtime climate change denial. Most of signatories to the letter were elected from states reliant on the burning of fossil fuels.
Stephen Ray Perry is an American singer and songwriter. He is best known as the lead singer of the rock band Journey during their most commercially successful periods from 1977 to 1987, again from 1995 to 1998. Perry has a successful solo career -- first between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s, making sporadic appearances in the 2000s and returning to music full-time in 2018. Perry's singing voice has garnered acclaim from publications. Ranked no. 76 on Rolling Stone's "100 Greatest Singers of All Time", Perry was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Journey on April 7, 2017. Stephen Ray Perry was born in California, to Portuguese parents, he is an only child. Perry grew up interested in music, as his father, Raymond Perry, was a vocalist and co-owner of radio station KNGS. Perry's parents ended their relationship when he was eight years of age, he and his mother moved to his grandparents' farm. In a September 2018 interview, Perry said, "Things happened to me as a child that I still can't talk about – nothing to do with my parents, but things did happen.
It happened to a lot of kids, as I find out... was nowhere to talk it out, so I got to sing it out instead." On Perry's 12th birthday, his mother, Mary Quaresma, presented her son with a gold eighth note pendant. At age 12, Perry heard Sam Cooke's song "Cupid" on his mother's car radio, it inspired him to become a singer. Perry's family moved to Lemoore, during Perry's teen years, he attended high school there. After graduation he attended College of the Sequoias, in Visalia, where he sang first tenor in the choir. Perry's mother continued to encourage his musical growth during that time. In his early 20s, Perry moved to Sacramento to start a band with 16-year-old future music producer Scott Mathews, who co-wrote, played drums and guitar and sang; that band, wrote original material and were poised to "make it" in the music business. During the day in 1972 they recorded at the Record Plant studios in Los Angeles while Stevie Wonder recorded his Talking Book album by night. Upon returning to Sacramento, Ice disbanded as the band had no management, Mathews was still in high school, the recordings went unheard.
In 1975, Perry moved to Thousand Oaks, where he formed a progressive rock band called Pieces with Tim Bogert, Denver Cross, Eddie Tuduri. After a year and a half, the group disbanded. Perry ended up in Banta, outside of Tracy, where he fronted the band Alien Project in his mid-20s, he nearly gave up music when the bassist of that band, Richard Michaels, was killed in an automobile accident. Perry returned to Lemoore and decided not to continue his singing career, but at the urging of his mother, Perry answered a call from Walter "Herbie" Herbert, manager of struggling San Francisco-based band Journey. Original Journey organizer/manager Walter "Herbie" Herbert had been given a demo of an Alien Project song, "If You Need Me, Call Me", was told by producer Scott Mathews that the young singer would be a great replacement for current frontman Robert Fleischman. Fleischman had never signed with Herbert's company, preferring his previous manager and he had not coalesced with the band's progressive rock style.
Perry was brought on tour and to avoid alarming Fleischman, Perry was clandestinely included as roadie "John Villanueva's Portuguese cousin" and on the tour during a sound check in Long Beach surreptitiously performed a song with Journey while Fleischman was away from the stage, after that Herbert informed the band members of the lineup change. Perry brought a radically new, more pop-influenced style sense to the band's music, despite some grumblings from his new bandmates and fans of Journey's former progressive rock sound, he made his public debut on October 1977 in San Francisco to a mixed reception. Perry won over new fans on his first album with the group, which included a song he wrote called "Lights." The band's style had changed but as Journey began to garner radio airplay and media buzz over Infinity, Perry's arrival was accepted. Perry provided lead vocals on nine of Journey's albums: Infinity, Departure, After Dream, Escape, Raised on Radio, Trial By Fire; the single "Open Arms" from Escape was their biggest hit single, charting at No. 2 for six weeks on the Billboard Hot 100.
During his Journey tenure, Perry sang backing vocals on several Sammy Hagar songs, including the 1980 tracks "The Iceman" and "Run For Your Life", duetting with Kenny Loggins on the 1982 No. 17 hit single "Don't Fight It". In 1984, following the release of Frontiers and the tour supporting this effort, Perry released his first solo album, Street Talk; the record sold more than 2 million units, scoring the hit singles No. 3 "Oh Sherrie", written for his then-girlfriend Sherrie Swafford, No. 18 "Foolish Heart". The music video for "Oh Sherrie" saw heavy rotation on MTV. "She's Mine" and "Strung Out" were released as singles from this project, which featured former Alien Project drummer Craig Krampf on a few tracks, guitarist Michael Landau, future American Idol judge Randy Jackson
Not to be confused with Katherine Crawford, a film and TV actress of the 1960s and 70s best known for co-starring in the series Gemini Man. Kathryn Crawford spelled Katherine, was an American film and theatre actress of the 1920s and 1930s, she was known as Kitty Moran. Born in Wellsboro, Crawford was the daughter of Michael Moran and Ann Scott Moran, her father worked in a glass factory. Her parents divorced when Crawford was 5 years old, she did not see her mother again for nearly four decades. Soon after Crawford's mother fell ill, her father moved the family to California, she didn't get along with her stepmother, at the age of 15, Crawford eloped with her sister's boyfriend to get out of the house. After a year and a half of marriage, the two separated, her mother, who remarried and was working as a hotelmaid, searched 12 years for her daughters and found them after she saw Kathryn in a movie magazine in 1929. Crawford first ventured into singing when she joined the choir at St. Stephen's Episcopal Church of Huntington Park while she was a high school student.
The choir director gave her vocal lessons to improve her singing. Crawford worked as a shop assistant for some time but was determined to make use of her singing voice and decided to pursue musical comedy, her first acting opportunity came in Lillian Albertson's production of The Love Call. She began performing in summer stock jobs across the Pacific Coast until she got her big break, as the ingenue in the play Hit the Deck; the play was successful and she attracted the attention of director Wesley Ruggles, who gave her a screen test that won her a contract with Universal Pictures. Crawford starred in her first film in 1929, when she appeared opposite Hoot Gibson in King of the Rodeo, she would star in seven films that year, in 1930 she appeared in another six films, including Safety in Numbers alongside Carole Lombard and up and coming actress and "WAMPAS Baby Star" Josephine Dunn. Her only starring role on Broadway was in the Cole Porter musical The New Yorkers in which she was the original singer of "Love for Sale".
The song was controversial because it was "sung from the perspective of a Prohibition-era prostitute." Ted Gioia wrote in the book The Jazz Standards: A Guide to the Repertoire, "audience outrage subsided after the Broadway production shifted the setting of the song to Harlem, in front of the Cotton Club, assigned the number to African-American vocalist Elizabeth Welch instead of Kathryn Crawford, a white singer." However, by 1931 her career had cooled. She would star in only one film that year, only three between 1932 and 1933, only one of which would be a starring lead role. Crawford's final acting part came in 1941, when she was credited under the name "Katherine Crawford" in City of Missing Girls, which starred H. B. Warner and John Archer, she retired from acting after that film, moved to Pasadena, California. Crawford's initial marriage, when she eloped, was to Max Rogers, a student at UCLA, they were married by a justice of the peace in Riverside, set up housekeeping, continued their high school and college educations.
Crawford said, "He didn't trust me and I didn't trust him." Crawford had the marriage annulled when she was 18. On November 10, 1934, she married James Edgar, Jr. in Detroit and retired from the screen. They divorced on June 16, 1936. Crawford married Ralph M. Parson, with whom she would remain married until his death in 1974. In her years, Crawford was an interior decorator for 40 years, her clients included Baron Hilton, Douglas MacArthur, Herbert Hoover, Mary Pickford's Pickfair estate. Civic activities in which Crawford was active included Friends of Harvey Mudd College, Los Angeles Music Center, the Blue Ribbon 400, the Society for Preservation of Variety Arts, the Los Angeles County Museum, the Society of American Interior Designers. Crawford died of cancer at the Las Encinas Hospital in Pasadena, California, on December 7, 1980, she was 72 years old. St Joseph Gazette: 12 year search for girls ends, June 3, 1929 Los Angeles Times: Actress' Mother in Court Today, February 2, 1931. Kathryn Crawford on IMDb Kathryn Crawford at the Internet Broadway Database
The 2020 season in Football Victoria refers to the competitions contested under the organisation of Football Victoria in 2020. The 2020 National Premier Leagues Victoria is the seventh season of the National Premier Leagues Victoria, the top tier of Victorian soccer, since its establishment in 2014. Bentleigh Greens are the defending champions from the 2019 season. Fourteen teams compete in the league – the top twelve teams from the previous season and the two teams promoted from the National Premier Leagues Victoria 2; the promoted teams are Eastern Lions and St Albans Saints. As of 14 February 2020 Most yellow cards: 111 playersMost red cards: 1 Stefan Zinni Most yellow cards: 3 Heidelberg United Oakleigh Cannons South MelbourneMost red cards: 1 Avondale Fourteen teams compete in the league – the top twelve teams from the previous season and the two teams promoted from the National Premier Leagues Victoria 2; the promoted teams are Eastern Lions and St Albans Saints. The following teams have changed division since the 2019 season.
Note: Table lists in alphabetical order. Most yellow cards: 0Most red cards: 0 Most yellow cards: 0Most red cards: 0 The 2020 National Premier Leagues Victoria 3 will be the first season of the National Premier Leagues Victoria 3, the third-tier of Victorian soccer, since its establishment in 2020. With the new competition announced, eight teams from two divisions were demoted to the competition. Note: Table lists in alphabetical order. Most yellow cards: 0Most red cards: 0 Most yellow cards: 0Most red cards: 0