United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
Lloyd Winnecke is an American politician and businessman serving as the 34th and current mayor of Evansville, Indiana. He was elected in November 2011 and his four-year term began January 1, 2012. In November 2015, Winnecke was re-elected for a second term, he served as news director at WEHT-TV News 25 in Kentucky. Winnecke served as president of the Vanderburgh County Commission and was senior vice president and marketing director for Fifth Third Bank. Lloyd Winnecke was born in Evansville to Ralph and Shirley W, who were lab technicians at Mead Johnson. Winnecke graduated from Central High School in 1978 and attended the University of Evansville where he received a Bachelor's degree in communications. For thirteen years prior to running for mayor, he worked as Senior Vice President and Marketing Director for Fifth Third Bank. Prior to joining the bank, Lloyd spent 17 years in television news, most as News Director at WEHT News 25. Winnecke lives in downtown Evansville, he has one daughter, Danielle.
A Roman Catholic, Winnecke attends St. Mary's Catholic Church in Evansville. Winnecke has held office continuously since shortly after the 1999 city campaign, when he was selected in a GOP caucus to succeed then-newly elected Mayor Russ Lloyd Jr. on the Vanderburgh County Council. In 2002, in a County Council re-election campaign, Winnecke defeated Democrat Chris Walsh by 61-39 percent. Winnecke had a GOP primary opponent in his 2006 council campaign but no Democratic opponent; as a county councilman, he spent three years as one year as finance chairman. In 2008 Winnecke was unopposed, he went on to serve as President of that body. As a county official on both the council and the commissioners he balanced budgets for 11 straight years and held per capita spending to 43% below the state average. Winnecke's first term as Evansville Mayor began on January 1, 2012, he is only the third Republican to head the City of Evansville since 1955. In his first year in office he fought for, secured, a state-funded full cloverleaf at one of the city's busiest intersections at the Lloyd Expressway and U.
S. Route 41. Winnecke sought to improve city hall's responsiveness through the use of a smartphone app that gives Evansville residents a way to report non-emergency issues to city government. In an effort to boost downtown development and conventions Winnecke spearheaded a number of related projects, he championed a downtown location for a new interdisciplinary academic health science education and research campus affiliated with the Indiana University School of Medicine - Evansville. In 2013 he proposed a new 253 room convention hotel adjacent to the Ford Center and Old National Events Plaza; the project included a $7 million subsidy for the hotel and an additional $13 million in public funds for a new parking garage, bridges connecting the hotel, Old National Events Plaza and the Ford Center, improvements to the Events Plaza. However, in December 2014 Old National withdrew from the project and it was delayed until a revised plan with 240 rooms was approved in 2015. Winnecke opposed the state's proposed constitutional ban on same-sex marriage and expressed concern over Indiana Senate Bill 101 known as the Indiana "religious objections" bill, as sending the "wrong message" about the state.
On January 9th 2019, Winnecke filed for re-election to seek a third term as mayor
Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating counter-clockwise around a track. Roller derby is played by 1,250 amateur leagues worldwide inside the United States. Game play consists of a series of short match-ups; the jammer scores points by lapping members of the opposing team. The teams attempt to hinder the opposing jammer while assisting their own jammer—in effect, playing both offense and defense simultaneously. While the sport has its origins in the banked-track roller-skating marathons of the 1930s, Leo Seltzer and Damon Runyon are credited with evolving the sport to its competitive form. Professional roller derby became popular. In the ensuing decades, however, it predominantly became a form of sports entertainment, where theatrical elements overshadowed athleticism. Gratuitous showmanship ended with the sport's grassroots revival in the first decade of the 21st century. Although roller derby retains some sports entertainment qualities such as player pseudonyms and colorful uniforms, it has abandoned scripted bouts with predetermined winners.
Modern roller derby is an international sport played by amateurs. Most teams are all-female teams, but there is a growing number of male and junior roller derby teams, it was under consideration as a roller sport for the 2020 Summer Olympics. FIRS, recognized by the International Olympic Committee as the official international governing body of roller sports, released its first set of Roller Derby Rules for the World Roller Games that took place September 2017 in Nanjing, China. Most modern leagues share a strong "do-it-yourself" ethic that combines athleticism with the styles of punk and camp; as of 2018, the Women's Flat Track Derby Association had 423 full member leagues and 46 apprentice leagues. Contemporary roller derby has a basic set of rules, with variations reflecting the interests of a governing body's member leagues; the summary below is based on the rules of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association. In March 2010, Derby News Network claimed that more than 98% of roller derby competitions were conducted under WFTDA rules.
For example, members of the United Kingdom Roller Derby Association are required to play by WFTDA rules, while members of the former Canadian Women's Roller Derby Association were encouraged to join the WFTDA. Roller derby is played in two periods of 30 minutes. Two teams of up to 15 players each field up to five members for episodes called "jams." Jams last two minutes. Each team designates a scoring player. One blocker can be designated as a "pivot"—a blocker, allowed to become a jammer in the course of play; the next jam may involve different players of the 15 roster players, different selections for jammer and pivot. During each jam, players skate counterclockwise on a circuit track. Points are scored only by a team's jammer. After breaking through the pack and skating one lap to begin another "trip" through the pack, the jammer scores one point for passing any opposing blocker; the rules describe an "earned" pass. The jammer's first earned pass scores a point for passing that blocker and a point for each opponent blocker not on the track.
If the jammer passes the entire pack, it is a four-point scoring trip called a "grand slam."Each team's blockers use body contact, changing positions, other tactics to help their jammer score while hindering the opposing team's jammer. Play begins by blockers lining up on the track anywhere between the "jammer line" and the "pivot line" 30 feet in front; the jammers start behind the jammer line. Jams begin on a single short whistle blast, upon which both jammers and blockers may begin engaging immediately; the pack is the largest single group of blockers containing members of both teams skating in proximity, arranged such that each player is within 10 feet of the next. Blockers must maintain the pack, but can skate within 20 feet behind and ahead of it, an area known as the "engagement zone."The first jammer to break through the pack earns the status of "lead jammer." A designated referee blows the whistle twice, skates near, points at, the lead jammer. Once earned, lead jammer status cannot be transferred to other skaters, but certain actions can cause it to be lost.
The lead jammer can stop the jam at any time by placing both hands on their hips. If the jam is not stopped early, it ends after two minutes. If time remains in the period, teams have 30 seconds to get on the track and line up for the next jam. If the period expires, it does not halt a jam, underway. A skater may block an opponent to force them out of bounds; the blocker must be upright, skating counterclockwise, in bounds, within the engagement zone. Blocking with hands, elbows and feet is prohibited, as is contact above the shoulders or below mid-thigh, blocking from behind. Referees penalize rules violations. A player receiving a penalty is removed from play to sit in a penalty box for 30 seconds of jam time. If the jam ends during this interval, the player remains in the penalty box during the subsequent jam until the interval ends; the penalized player's team plays short-handed, as in ice hockey. However, the "power jam", derived from hockey's "power play", does not cover any short-handed situation but only the case where the jammer is penal
Reba Nell McEntire is an American country singer, songwriter and record producer. She began her career in the music industry as a high school student singing in the Kiowa High School band, on local radio shows with her siblings, at rodeos. While a sophomore in college, she performed the National Anthem at the National Rodeo in Oklahoma City and caught the attention of country artist Red Steagall who brought her to Nashville, Tennessee, she signed a contract with Mercury Records a year in 1975. She released her first solo album in 1977 and released five additional studio albums under the label until 1983. Signing with MCA Nashville Records, McEntire took creative control over her second MCA album, My Kind of Country, which had a more traditional country sound and produced two number one singles: "How Blue" and "Somebody Should Leave"; the album brought her breakthrough success, bringing her a series of successful albums and number one singles in the 1980s and 1990s. McEntire has since released 29 studio albums, acquired 42 number one singles, 16 number one albums, 28 albums have been certified gold, platinum or multi-platinum in sales by the Recording Industry Association of America.
She is referred to as "The Queen of Country". and she is one of the best-selling artists of all time, having sold more than 75 million records worldwide. In the early 1990s, McEntire branched into film starting with 1990's Tremors, she has since starred in the Broadway revival of Annie Get Your Gun in 2001 and in her television sitcom, Reba for which she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Television Series–Musical or Comedy. Reba Nell McEntire was born March 28, 1955, in McAlester, Oklahoma, to Jacqueline and Clark Vincent McEntire, her father, her grandfather John Wesley McEntire were both champion steer ropers and her father was a World Champion steer roper three times. John McEntire was the son of Helen Florida McEntire. McEntire's mother had wished to become a country-music artist but instead became a schoolteacher, although she did teach her children how to sing well. Reba taught herself how to play the guitar. On drives home from their father's rodeos, the McEntire siblings learned songs and how to harmonize from their mother forming a vocal group called the "Singing McEntires" with her brother Pake and younger sister Susie.
Reba wrote all of the songs. The group sang at rodeos and recorded Reba's song "The Ballad of John McEntire". Released on the indie label Boss, one thousand copies of the early 45 rpm record were pressed, but the recording was not promoted in a full commercial radio-promoted release. In 1974, McEntire attended Southeastern Oklahoma State University planning to be an elementary school teacher. Between classes, she continued to sing at local venues. In 1974, Reba was hired to perform the national anthem at the National Rodeo in Oklahoma City. Country artist Red Steagall, performing that day, was impressed by her vocal ability and agreed to help her launch a country-music career in Nashville. After recording a demo tape, McEntire signed a recording contract with Mercury Records in 1975. McEntire made her first recordings for Mercury on January 22, 1976, when she released her debut single. Upon its release that year, "I Don't Want to Be a One Night Stand" failed to become a major hit on the Billboard country music chart, peaking at number 88 in May.
She completed her second recording session September 16, which included the production of her second single, " Between a Woman and Man", which reached only number 86 in March 1977. She recorded a third single that April, "Glad I Waited Just for You", which reached number 88 by August; that same month, Mercury issued her self-titled debut album. The album was a departure from any of McEntire's future releases, as it resembled the material of Tanya Tucker and Tammy Wynette, according to AllMusic reviewer Greg Adams; the album itself did not chart the Billboard Top Country Albums chart upon its release. After releasing two singles with Jacky Ward, Mercury issued her second studio album in 1979, Out of a Dream; the album's cover of Patsy Cline's "Sweet Dreams" became McEntire's first Top 20 hit, reaching No. 19 on the Billboard country chart in November 1979. In 1980, "You Lift Me Up" brought her to the Top 10 for the first time, her third studio album, Feel the Fire was released in October and spawned two additional Top 20 hit singles that year.
In September 1981, McEntire's fourth album, Heart to Heart was issued and became her first album to chart the Billboard Top Country Albums list, peaking at No. 2. Its lead single, "Today All Over Again" became; the album received negative reviews from critics. William Ruhlmann of AllMusic gave it two-and-a-half out of five stars, stating she did not get creative control of her music. Ruhlmann called "There Ain't No Love" "essentially a soft pop ballad". Most of the album's material consisted of country pop-styled ballads, not well liked by McEntire herself, her fifth album, Unlimited was issued in June 1982, spawned her first Billboard number one single in early 1983: "Can't Even Get the Blues" and "You're the First Time I've Thought About Leaving". The following y
Robert Clark Seger is an American singer-songwriter and pianist. As a locally successful Detroit-area artist, he performed and recorded as Bob Seger and the Last Heard and Bob Seger System throughout the 1960s, breaking through with his first national hit and album in 1968. By the early 1970s, he had dropped the'System' from his recordings and continued to strive for broader success with various other bands. In 1973, he put together the Silver Bullet Band, with a group of Detroit-area musicians, with whom he became most successful on the national level with the album Live Bullet, recorded live with the Silver Bullet Band in 1975 at Cobo Hall in Detroit, Michigan. In 1976, he achieved a national breakout with the studio album Night Moves. On his studio albums, he worked extensively with the Alabama-based Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section, which appeared on several of Seger's best-selling singles and albums. A roots rocker with a classic raspy, shouting voice, Seger wrote and recorded songs that deal with love and blue-collar themes and is an example of a heartland rock artist.
Seger has recorded many hits, including "Ramblin' Gamblin' Man", "Night Moves", "Turn the Page", "Still the Same", "We've Got Tonight", "Against the Wind", "You'll Accomp'ny Me", "Shame on the Moon", "Like a Rock", "Shakedown", written for Beverly Hills Cop II. Seger co-wrote the Eagles' number-one hit "Heartache Tonight", his recording of "Old Time Rock and Roll" was named one of the Songs of the Century in 2001. With a career spanning six decades, Seger has sold more than 75 million records worldwide, making him one of the world's best-selling artists of all time. Seger was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2004 and the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2012. Seger was named Billboard's 2015 Legend of Live honoree at the 12th annual Billboard Touring Conference & Awards, held November 18–19 at the Roosevelt Hotel in New York, he announced his farewell tour in September 2018. Seger was born at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, the son of Charlotte and Stewart Seger. At age five he moved with his family to Ann Arbor.
He has George. Seger's father, a medical technician for the Ford Motor Company, played several instruments and Seger was exposed to music from an early age. Seger was exposed to frequent arguments between his parents that disturbed the neighborhood at night. In 1956, when Seger was 10 years old, his father moved to California; the remaining family soon struggled financially. Seger attended Tappan Junior High School in Ann Arbor and graduated in 1963 from Pioneer High School, known at the time as Ann Arbor High School, he ran field in high school. Seger went to Lincoln Park High School for a time. Regarding his early musical inspirations, Seger has stated, "Little Richard – he was the first one that got to me. Little Richard and, of course, Elvis Presley." "Come Go with Me" by The Del-Vikings, a hit in 1957, was the first record. Bob Seger arrived on the Detroit music scene in 1961 fronting a three-piece band called the Decibels; the band included Seger on guitar, piano and vocals, Pete Stanger on guitar, H.
B. Hunter on drums. All of the members attended Ann Arbor High; the Decibels recorded an acetate demo of a song called "The Lonely One", at Del Shannon's studio in 1961. As well as being Seger's first original song, "The Lonely One" was Seger's first song to be played on the radio, airing only once on an Ann Arbor radio station. After the Decibels disbanded, Seger joined the Town Criers, a four-piece band with Seger on lead vocals, John Flis on bass, Pep Perrine on drums, Larry Mason on lead guitar; the Town Criers, covering songs like "Louie Louie", began gaining a steady following. Meanwhile, Seger was listening to James Brown and said that, for him and his friends, Live at the Apollo was their favorite record following its release in 1963. Seger was widely influenced by the music of The Beatles, once they hit American shores in 1964. In general, he and local musician friends such as future Eagle Glenn Frey bought into the premises of 1960s pop and rock radio, with its hook-driven hits; as the Town Criers began landing more gigs, Bob Seger met a man named Doug Brown, backed by a band called The Omens.
Seger joined Doug Brown & The Omens, who had a bigger following than the Town Criers. While Doug Brown was the primary lead vocalist for the group, Seger would take the lead on some songs—covering R&B numbers, it was with this group that Seger first appeared on an released recording: the 1965 single "TGIF" backed with "First Girl", credited to Doug Brown and The Omens. Seger appeared on Doug Brown and The Omens' parody of Barry Sadler's song "Ballad of the Green Berets", re-titled "Ballad of the Yellow Beret" and mocked draft evaders. Soon after its release and his record label threatened Brown and his band with a lawsuit and the recording was withdrawn from the market. While Bob was a member of The Omens, he met his longtime manager Edward "Punch" Andrews, who at the time was partnered with Dave Leone running the Hideout franchise, which consisted of four club locations from Clawson to Rochester Hills, where local acts would play, a small-scale record label. Seger began writing and producing for other acts that Punch was managing, such as the Mama Cats and the Mushrooms.
Seger and Doug Brown were approached by Punch and Leone to write a song for the Underdogs, another local band who had a hit with a song called "Man in the Glass". Seger contributed a
Chesapeake Energy Arena
Chesapeake Energy Arena known as the Ford Center from 2002 to 2010 and Oklahoma City Arena until 2011, is an arena located in Downtown Oklahoma City, United States. It opened in 2002 and since 2008 has served as the home venue for the National Basketball Association's Oklahoma City Thunder; the arena was home to the Oklahoma City Blazers of the Central Hockey League from 2002 until the team folded in July 2009, the Oklahoma City Yard Dawgz of AF2 from 2004 to 2009 when the team moved to the Cox Convention Center. In addition to its use as a sports venue, Chesapeake Energy Arena hosts concerts and social events, ice shows, civic events; the arena is owned by the city and operated by the SMG property management company and has 18,203 seats in the basketball configuration, 15,152 for hockey, can seat up to 16,591 for concerts. From 2005 to 2007 the arena served as the temporary home for the New Orleans Hornets of the NBA when the Hornets were forced to play games elsewhere following extensive damage to New Orleans Arena and the city of New Orleans from Hurricane Katrina.
During the two seasons in Oklahoma City, the team was known as the New Orleans/Oklahoma City Hornets. The response from fans while the Hornets played in Oklahoma City was an impetus to the city being discussed prior to 2008 as a future NBA team, either by relocation or expansion; the arena is owned by Oklahoma City and was opened on June 8, 2002, three years after construction began. It is located adjacent to the Robinson Avenue exit of I-40 Crosstown Expressway in downtown Oklahoma City; the original Ford Center name came from a naming rights deal with the Oklahoma Ford Dealers group which represented the marketing efforts of the state's Ford dealerships, rather than the Ford Motor Company itself. The facility was the premier component of the city's 1993 Capital Improvement Program, known as Metropolitan Area Projects, which financed new and upgraded sports, entertainment and convention facilities in the downtown section with a temporary 1-cent sales tax assessed. Despite the "metropolitan" moniker of the improvement program, the tax was only assessed inside city limits.
Billed and marketed as a "state-of-the-art" facility, Oklahoma City Arena was constructed to minimum NBA and NHL specifications. The arena was built without luxury amenities because of local concerns on expenditures on an arena without a major-league tenant, with the ability to create "buildout" amenities and improvements to the arena if a professional sports team announced it would relocate to the city. A plan for such buildout improvements began in 2007 in the wake of acquisition of the Seattle SuperSonics by an Oklahoma-City based ownership group in October 2006. City officials had hoped to include Oklahoma City Arena buildout improvements as part of a planned 2009 "MAPS 3" initiative. However, given the impending relocation decision of the Sonics ownership group in late 2007, the City Council of Oklahoma City placed a sales tax initiative on the city election ballot on March 4, 2008; this initiative was passed by a 62% to 38% margin, extended a prior one-cent sales tax for a period of 15 months in order to fund $121 million in budgeted improvements to the arena, as well as fund a separate practice facility for a relocated franchise.
Subsequent to the ballot initiative, City officials and Sonics ownership announced a preliminary agreement to move the Sonics franchise to Oklahoma City and the Ford Center. The deal included a provision for $1.6 million in annual rents to the City for use of the Ford Center, a $409,000 annual supplemental payment in exchange for a transfer of arena naming rights and associated revenue to the Sonics franchise. The franchise move was approved by NBA ownership on April 18, 2008. Basketball seating capacity at the arena has adjusted with the venue configuration: On August 26, 2010, the franchise, by renamed the Oklahoma City Thunder, announced that they had begun negotiating naming rights to its home arena with new potential partners; the facility was called the Ford Center and signage throughout the building remained intact during the negotiation period. The Thunder had discussions with the Oklahoma Ford Dealers; as a result of the failed negotiation with the Oklahoma Ford Dealers, the Thunder decided to terminate the existing naming rights agreement, allowed under the original contract.
On October 21, 2010, because of the ongoing negotiation for the naming rights for the arena, because of its failed negotiation with the Oklahoma Ford Dealers, it was announced that the arena would be called the Oklahoma City Arena. The new name was used temporarily. On July 22, 2011, a 12-year naming rights partnership was announced, the partnership between the Oklahoma City Thunder and Chesapeake Energy Corporation to rename the arena Chesapeake Energy Arena; the agreement between Chesapeake and the Thunder has an initial annual cost of $3 million with a 3% annual escalation. Included in the agreement Chesapeake had its branding throughout the building, prominent premium placement on the high-definition scoreboard, on new state-of-the-art interior and exterior digital signs. Most of the new signs were in place before the start of the Thunder's 2011–12 season; the 581,000-square-foot facility seats up to 19,711 on three seating levels with a fourth added during concerts and features 3,380 club seats, seven party suites, 49 private suites.
It is located across the street from the Cox Convention Center, a marketing point used by city officials (since Cox Center itse