Virginia Elizabeth "Geena" Davis is an American actress and activist. One of the most popular actresses of the 1980s and 1990s, she has received numerous accolades for her acting work in both film and television, is noted for her portrayals of strong and authentic female characters as well as her involvement in advocacy for women in the industry. Having graduated with a bachelor's degree in drama from Boston University in 1979, Davis signed with New York's Zoli modeling agency and started her career as a model, she made her acting debut in the film Tootsie, starred in the thriller The Fly, which proved to be one of her first box office hits. While the fantasy comedy Beetlejuice brought her to international prominence, the drama The Accidental Tourist earned her the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, she cemented her leading actress status with her performance in the road film Thelma & Louise, receiving a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Davis's roles in the box office failures Cutthroat Island and The Long Kiss Goodnight, both directed by then-husband Renny Harlin, were followed by a lengthy break and downturn in her career.
Davis starred as the adoptive mother of the titular character in the Stuart Little franchise and as the first female president of the United States in the television series Commander in Chief, winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama for her role in the latter. Her films include Accidents Happen and Marjorie Prime, she has portrayed the recurring role of Dr. Nicole Herman in Grey's Anatomy, starred as Regan MacNeil-Angela Rance in the first season of the horror television series The Exorcist. In 2004, Davis launched the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media, which works collaboratively with the entertainment industry to increase the presence of female characters in media. Through the organization, she launched the annual Bentonville Film Festival in 2015, executive produced the documentary This Changes Everything in 2018. Davis was born January 1956, in Wareham, Massachusetts, her mother, was a teacher's assistant, her father, William F. Davis, was a civil engineer and church deacon.
She has an older brother named Danforth. At an early age, she became interested in music, she learned piano and flute and played organ well enough as a teenager to serve as an organist at her Congregationalist church in Wareham. Davis attended Wareham High School and was an exchange student in Sandviken, becoming fluent in Swedish. Enrolling at New England College, she graduated with a bachelor's degree in drama from Boston University in 1979. Following her education, Davis served as a window mannequin for Ann Taylor until signing with New York's Zoli modeling agency. Davis was working as a model when she was cast by director Sydney Pollack in his film Tootsie as a soap opera actress who she described as "someone who's going to be in their underwear a lot of times"; the film was the second most profitable screen production of 1982, received ten Academy Awards nominations and is considered a cult classic. She next obtained the regular part of Wendy Killian in the television series Buffalo Bill, which aired from June 1983 to March 1984.
Despite the series' eleven Emmy Awards nominations, the lukewarm ratings lead to its cancellation after two seasons. At the time, Davis guest-starred in Knight Rider, Family Ties and Remington Steele, followed with a series of her own, which lasted 13 episodes. In Fletch, an action comedy, Davis appeared as the colleague of a Los Angeles Times undercover reporter trying to expose a drug trafficking on the beaches of Los Angeles, opposite Chevy Chase. In 1985, she starred in the horror comedy Transylvania 6-5000, as a nymphomaniac vampire alongside future husband Jeff Goldblum, they would reunite professionally in the sci-fi thriller The Fly, loosely based on George Langelaan's 1957 short story of the same name and in which Davis portrayed a science journalist and the love interest of an eccentric scientist. Caryn James, of The New York Times, found her to be "stiff" in The Fly, a film she considered "intense, all right, but not scary or sad, or intentionally funny", it was commercial success and helped to establish her as an actress.
Director Tim Burton cast Davis in his film Beetlejuice, as one half of a deceased young couple who become ghosts haunting their former house, alongside Alec Baldwin, Michael Keaton and Winona Ryder. The film made $73.7 million from a budget of $15 million, Davis's performance and the overall film received positive reviews from critics. Davis took on the role of an animal hospital employee and dog trainer with a sickly son in the drama The Accidental Tourist, opposite William Hurt and Kathleen Turner. Critic Roger Ebert, who gave the film four stars out of four, wrote: "Davis, as Muriel, brings an unforced wackiness to her role in scenes like the one where she belts out a song while she's doing the dishes, but she is not as simple as she sometimes seems ". The film was a critical and commercial success, she received an Oscar as Best Supporting Actress for her appearance in it, she would work again with Jeff Goldblum in the sci-fi film Earth Girls Are Easy, in which she was cast as a valley girl and manicurist.
Davis appeared as the girlfriend of a man who, dressed as a clown, robs a bank in midtown Manhattan, in the comedy Quick Change, based on a book of the
The Ford Foundation is an American private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare. Created in 1936 by Edsel Ford and Henry Ford, it was funded by a US$25,000 gift from Edsel Ford. By 1947, after the death of the two founders, the foundation owned 90% of the non-voting shares of the Ford Motor Company. Between 1955 and 1974, the foundation sold its Ford Motor Company holdings and now plays no role in the automobile company. Ahead of the foundation selling its Ford Motor Company holdings, in 1949 Henry Ford II created the Ford Motor Company Fund, a separate corporate foundation which to this day serves as the philanthropic arm of the Ford Motor Company and is not associated with the foundation. For years it was the largest, one of the most influential foundations in the world, with global reach and special interests in economic empowerment, human rights, the creative arts, Third World development; the foundation makes grants through ten international field offices. For fiscal year 2014, it approved US$507.9 million in grants.
After its establishment in 1936, Ford Foundation shifted its focus from Michigan philanthropic support to four areas of action. In the 1950 Report of the Study of the Ford Foundation on Policy and Program, the trustees set forth five "areas of action," according to Richard Magat: economic improvements, education and democracy, human behaviour, world peace. Since the middle of the 20th century, many of the Ford Foundation's programs have focused on increased under-represented or "minority" group representation in education and policy-making. For over eight decades their mission decisively advocates and supports the reduction of poverty and injustice among other values including the maintenance of democratic values, promoting engagement with other nations, sustaining human progress and achievement at home and abroad; the Ford Foundation is one of the primary foundations offering grants that support and maintain diversity in higher education with fellowships for pre-doctoral and post-doctoral scholarship to increase diverse representation among Native Americans, African Americans, Latinos/Latinas and other under-represented Asian and Latino sub-groups throughout the U.
S. academic labor market. The outcomes of scholarship by its grantees from the late 20th century through the 21st century have contributed to substantial data and scholarship including national surveys such as the Nelson Diversity Surveys in STEM; the foundation was established January 15, 1936, in Michigan by Edsel Ford and two other executives "to receive and administer funds for scientific and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare." During its early years, the foundation operated in Michigan under the leadership of Ford family members and their associates and supported the Henry Ford Hospital and the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village, among other organizations. After the deaths of Edsel Ford in 1943 and Henry Ford in 1947, the presidency of the foundation fell to Edsel's eldest son, Henry Ford II, it became clear that the foundation would become the largest philanthropic organisation in the world. The board of trustees commissioned the Gaither Study Committee to chart the foundation's future.
The committee, headed by California attorney H. Rowan Gaither, recommended that the foundation become an international philanthropic organisation dedicated to the advancement of human welfare and "urged the foundation to focus on solving humankind's most pressing problems, whatever they might be, rather than work in any particular field...." The board embraced the recommendations in 1949. The board of directors decided to diversify the foundation's portfolio and divested itself of its substantial Ford Motor Company stock between 1955 and 1974; this divestiture allowed Ford Motor to become a public company. Henry Ford II resigned from his trustee's role in a surprise move in December 1976. In his resignation letter, he cited his dissatisfaction with the foundation holding on to their old programs, large staff and what he saw as anti-capitalist undertones in the foundation's work. In February 2019, Henry Ford III was elected to the Foundation's Board of Trustees, becoming the first Ford family member to serve on the board since his grandfather resigned in 1976.
In 2012, stating that it is not a research library, the foundation transferred its archives from New York City to the Rockefeller Archive Center in Sleepy Hollow, New York. Based on recommendations made by the Gaither Study Committee and embraced by the foundation's board of trustees in 1949, the foundation expanded its grant making to include support for higher education, the arts, economic development, civil rights, the environment, among other areas. In 1951, the foundation made its first grant to support the development of the public broadcasting system known as National Educational Television, which went on the air in 1952; these grants continued, in 1969 the foundation gave US$1 million to the Children's Television Workshop to help create and launch Sesame Street. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting replaced NET with the Public Broadcasting Service on October 5, 1970; the foundation underwrote the Fund for the Republic in the 1950s. The foundation's first international field office opened in 1952 in India.
Throughout the 1950s, the foundation provided arts and humanities fellowships that supported the work of figures like Josef Albers, James Baldwin, Saul Bellow, Herbert Blau, E. E. Cummings, Flannery O'Connor, Jacob Lawrence, Maurice Valency, Robert Lowell, Margaret Mead. In 1961, Kofi Annan received an educati
Ada Louise Huxtable
Ada Louise Huxtable was an architecture critic and writer on architecture. In 1970 she was awarded the first Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. Architecture critic Paul Goldberger a Pulitzer Prize-winner for architectural criticism, said in 1996: "Before Ada Louise Huxtable, architecture was not a part of the public dialogue." "She was a great lover of cities, a great preservationist and the central planet around which every other critic revolved," said architect Robert A. M. Stern, dean of the Yale University School of Architecture. Huxtable was died in New York City, she went to Hunter College in 1941 and after her graduation she studied architectural history at New York University's Institute of Fine Arts. Her father, the physician Michael Landman, was co-author of the play A Man of Honor. Ada Louise Landman received an A. B. from Hunter College, CUNY in 1941. In 1942, she married industrial designer L. Garth Huxtable, continued graduate study at New York University from 1942 to 1950. From 1950 to 1951 she spent one year in Italy on a scholarship of the U.
S.-Italy Fulbright Commission. She served as Curatorial Assistant for Architecture and Design at the Museum of Modern Art in New York from 1946 to 1950, she received a Fulbright Scholarship which gave her the opportunity to travel Italy and do research about Italian architecture and engineering. Giving this opportunity, she left MoMa. In 1958, she received a Guggenheim Fellowship to research on the structural and design advances of American architecture, she was a contributing editor to Progressive Architecture and Art in America from 1950 to 1963 before being named the first architecture critic at The New York Times, a post she held from 1963 to 1982. Her architectural writings were about the humanistic meaning and artistic power that involved her displeasure for projects that were missing civic engagement, she made architecture a more prevalent part of the public dialogue by appearing on the front page of New York Times. During the years 1968 to 1971, her public opinion was found so successful that her it was commemorated in New Yorker cartoons.
She received grants from the Graham Foundation for a number of projects, including the book Will They Ever Finish Bruckner Boulevard?. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1974, she was the architecture critic for The Wall Street Journal, a position she took up in 1997 until 2012. John Costonis, writing of how public aesthetics is shaped, used her as a prime example of an influential media critic, remarking that "the continuing barrage fired from Sunday column... had New York developers and bureaucrats, ducking for years." He reproduces a cartoon in which construction workers, at the base of a building site with a foundation and a few girders lament that "Ada Louise Huxtable doesn't like it!"Carter Wiseman wrote, "Huxtable's insistence on intellectual rigor and high design standards made her the conscience of the national architectural community."She wrote over ten books on architecture, including a 2004 biography of Frank Lloyd Wright for the Penguin Lives series.
She was credited as one of the main forces behind the founding of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1965. At the same time, she was a severe critic of fakery in addressing the city's past, writing in 1968: "Nothing beats keeping the old city where it belongs and where its ghosts are at home. Please, gentlemen, no horse-drawn cars, no costumes, no wigs, no stage sets, no cute-old stores, no're-creations' that never were, no phony little-old-New York.... That is perversion, not preservation."Ada Louise Huxtable's oral biography is included in "Particular Passions: Talk With Women Who Shaped Our Times."."Throughout the years, she became a important figure for the architecture world that she was invited to be involved in numerous juries and committees. For example, she served as a juror the Pritzker Architecture Preamium Imperiale of Japan, she was a member on the Architectural Selection and Building Design Committees for the Getty Center, Getty Villa and more. In 2013, the Getty Research Institute announced its acquisition of the Ada Louise Huxtable archive, which spans 1921 through 2013 and includes 93 boxes and 19 file drawers of Huxtable's manuscripts and typescripts, reports and documents, as well as research files full of notes, photocopies, most notably, original photographs of architecture and design by contemporary photographers.
Frank Lloyd Wright: A Life ISBN 9780143114291 On Architecture: Collected Reflections on a Century of Change ISBN 9780802717078 The Unreal America: Architecture and Illusion ISBN 9781565840553 The Tall Building Artistically Reconsidered, a history of the skyscraper ISBN 9780394537733 Will They Ever Finish Bruckner Boulevard?, a collection of material appearing in The New York Times Kicked A Building Lately? ISBN 9780520062078 Architecture, Anyone? Cautionary Tales of the Building Art ISBN 9780394529097 Goodbye History, Hello Hamburger: An Anthology of Architectural Delights and Disasters ISBN 9780891331193 What the Critic Sees: Ada Louise Huxtable and Her Legacy on YouTube. Christopher Hawthorne, Los Angeles Times architecture critic, examines her legacy. Tribute to Ada Louise Huxtable, a speech by Paul Goldberger, architecture critic for The New Yorker. Ada Louise Huxtable interviewed on Charlie Rose Obituary in Berliner Zeitung by Nikolaus Bernau Finding aid for the Ada Louise Huxtable papers at the Getty Research Institute.
Finding aid for the L. Garth Huxtable papers, 1913-2012 at the Getty Research Institute
Tudor City is an apartment complex located on the southern edge of Turtle Bay on the East Side of Manhattan in New York City, near Turtle Bay's border with Kips Bay. Construction commenced in 1927, it is bordered by 40th Street to the south, First Avenue to the east, Second Avenue to the west, 43rd Street to the north. Tudor City takes its name from England's Tudor dynasty, which ruled from 1485 to 1603 and included King Henry VIII and Queen Elizabeth I. Before Tudor City was constructed and slums dominated the area, which bordered a power plant and slaughterhouses, along First Avenue on the East River; the area was known as "Goat Hill" and "Prospect Hill". The area developed into an Irish shanty town known as "Corcoran's Roost", founded by Jimmy Corcoran, in the 1850s, it became known for violent crime and as a haven for waterfront thieves, most notably the Rag Gang, during the late 19th century. In the 1920s, the real estate developer Fred F. French sought to lure tenants to Tudor City, his vision of an urban Utopia — a "human residential enclave" that boasted "tulip gardens, small golf courses, private parks."
The complex was built to bring in middle-class residents who had begun leaving Manhattan for the other boroughs and the suburbs. A 1994 feature in The New York Times reported: Inspired by East Side reclamation projects like Turtle Bay Gardens and Sutton Place, French... began construction on the largest single residential project New York had yet seen. By 1932 he had finished nine big apartment houses and a hotel with a total of 2,800 units that soon accommodated 4,500 residents; the historicist architecture of the buildings can be classified as neo-Gothic rather than Tudor or the related English revival styles Tudorbethan and Jacobethan. An earlier 1920s residential development in Manhattan, Hudson View Gardens built for suburban appeal, made explicit use of such Tudorbethan features as half-timbering. Two gardens flanked 42nd Street, with the south garden featuring a "miniaturized" 18-hole golf course; the area where the Tudor Gardens building stands today was the site of legendary tennis courts where the likes of Pancho Segura, Bobby Riggs, Rudy Vallée, Welby Van Horn played exhibition matches.
On at least one cold winter, the courts were flooded to create an ice skating rink for the community. In May 1948, Claude Marchant, a "well-known dancer and teacher in the Katherine Dunham School of Dance," won a $1,000 judgement against the owners of Tudor City. Marchant, an African American, had been refused entry into the passenger elevator of one of the buildings, on the basis of race. In the 1960s, the Fred F. French Company sold Tudor City to the Rabinowitz Corporation, which in turn sold it to the Helmsley Corporation in the 1970s. In May 1985, Harry Helmsley and Alvin Schwartz sold their remaining properties in Tudor City to Philip Pilevsky of Philips International and Francis J. Greenburger of Time Equities; the new owners set about converting Tudor City into co-op apartments, as was happening across the city. Conversions were completed with little problem but when the real estate market and economy slowed in 1989-1994, some co-op prices dropped as owners and investors were concerned that the co-ops themselves would become insolvent.
In April 2008, New York Magazine recalled the 1989 slump:...at Tudor City, owner Time Equities couldn't cover the complex's underlying mortgage and taxes, ended up giving it away, unit by occupied unit, in a jaw-dropping fire sale: In 1992, if the new owner were willing to assume the accrued debts, a Tudor City one-bedroom could be had for $3,500. In 1988, Tudor City was named a New York City historic district. Preservation efforts leading up to the designation had started 10 years earlier when Harry Helmsley proposed building towers atop two parks within the complex; the natural topography of the area features a granite cliff. Nearby East-west streets slope downward from Second Avenue to First Avenue, but East 41st and 43rd Streets slope upward to the clifftop and end at Tudor City Place. East 42nd Street slopes under Tudor City Place and down to First Avenue through a late 19th-century cut through the cliff, expanded in the mid-20th century to provide better access to the newly renovated headquarters of the United Nations.
With the cliff separating Tudor City from First Avenue below, it is accessible to vehicular traffic only via Second Avenue. A service entrance to 5 Tudor City Place is available at 40th Street and First Avenue, accessible by residents as well as building service staff. A viaduct connects the two halves of Tudor City bisected by East 42nd Street, with staircases providing pedestrian access between 42nd Street and the complex. A separate staircase, known as the Sharansky Steps, connects Tudor City with Ralph Bunche Park and First Avenue. Directly across First Avenue is the headquarters of the United Nations. Only a few apartments face the United Nations because when the area was completed in 1928 there were slaughterhouses to the east. In the 1940s, the slaughterhouses were demolished and the United Nations Headquarters was built in their place; as of the early 21st century, the majority of apartments face the Midtown skyline. Many apartments have good views of the Chrysler Empire State Building.
Tudor City's 13 buildings, comprising 11 co-op apartment buildings, one all-rental building, a transient hotel, are home to mo
Roche-Dinkeloo, otherwise known as Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates LLC, is an architectural firm based in Hamden, Connecticut founded in 1966. The principal designer is 1982 Pritzker Prize laureate Kevin Roche, with John Dinkeloo — a graduate of the University of Michigan — as the expert in construction and technology. Roche and Dinkeloo both worked with Eero Saarinen. All buildings built by Roche are with this firm, they exhibit his particular architecture and aesthetic, although it has changed wildly throughout the past 40 years. Earlier buildings were characterized by massive facades and experimentation with exposed steel and concrete, while more recent buildings emphasize a clean, glassy look suggesting futuristic and green architecture; the firm built in postmodern and historicist styles during the early 1990s. "KRJDA is engaged in major projects throughout the United States and Asia and provides complete master planning, architectural design, interior design, working drawings and construction administration services.
The firm has designed a variety of institutional and corporate projects including 38 corporate headquarters, three hotel/apartment buildings, eight museums, numerous research facilities, schools, performing arts centers and the Central Park Zoo in New York. For the past 42 years, he has been the architect for the master plan and expansion of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, designing all of its new wings and installing many of its collections." The firm received the American Institute of Architects 1974 Architectural Firm Award and in 1995 the firm was the recipient of the American Institute of Architect’s 25-Year Award for the Ford Foundation Headquarters in New York City. In 1982, Kevin Roche received the Pritzker Prize and in 1993, he received the AIA Gold Medal. In 2015 Kevin Roche received the George M. White Award from the American Architectural Foundation. Kevin Roche has been referred to as the "first to see architecture and nature as one." KRJDA has completed over 200 projects in the internationally.
These include 8 museums, 38 institutional and corporate headquarters, 7 research laboratories and performing arts centers and campus buildings for 6 separate universities. KRJDA maintains their office in Connecticut. A feature documentary about Kevin Roche and his work, called Kevin Roche: The Quiet Architect was released in 2017, it is directed by Irish filmmaker Mark Noonan whose 2015 debut feature You're Ugly Too starred Aidan Gillen and was met with critical acclaim. 1968 - The Ford Foundation, New York, NY 1969 - Oakland Museum of California, Oakland, CA 1969 - Administration, Student Union & Physical Education Buildings, RIT, Rochester, NY 1969 - The Knights of Columbus Building Headquarters, New Haven, CT 1969 - United States Post Office, Columbus, IN 1969 - Aetna Life and Casualty Company Computer Headquarters, Hartford, CT 1971 - Power Center for the Performing Arts, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 1973 - Center for the Arts, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 1974 - Fine Arts Center, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 1974 - The Pyramids College Life Insurance Company of America Headquarters, Indianapolis, IN 1974 - Worcester Plaza, Worcester, MA 1978 - John Deere World Headquarters West Office Building, Moline, IL 1979 - Denver Performing Arts Complex, Denver, CO 1982 - One Summit Square, Fort Wayne, IN 1982 - The Corporate Center, Danbury, CT 1982 - Moudy Visual Arts and Communication Building, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 1983 - ONE UN New York Hotel, New York, NY 1983 - General Foods Corporate Headquarters, Ryebrook, NY 1985 - Cummins Corporate Office Building, Columbus, IN 1985 - DeWitt Wallace Decorative Arts Museum, Williamsburg, VA 1986 - Conoco Inc.
Petroleum Headquarters, Houston, TX 1988 - Central Park Zoo, New York, NY 1988 - Bouygues World Headquarters, Saint-Quentin-Yvelines, France 1989 - Leo Burnett Building Company Headquarters, Chicago, IL 1990 - 750 7th Avenue, New York, NY 1990 - Metropolitano Office Building, Spain 1992 - J. P. Morgan Headquarters, New York, NY 1993 - Corning Incorporated Corporate Headquarters, Corning, NY 1993 - Merck & Co. Inc. Headquarters, Whitehouse Station, NJ 1993 - Bank of America Plaza GA 1993 - Borland International Corporate Headquarters, Scotts Valley, Ca 1993 - Tanjong and Binariang Headquarters/Menara Maxis, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1994 - Pontiac Marina Millenia Tower and The Ritz-Carlton Millenia Singapore 1995 - Dai-ichi Life Headquarters/ Norinchukin Bank Headquarters, DN Tower 21, Japan 1997 - Zesiger Sports and Fitness Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 1997 - Shiodome City Center,Tokyo, Japan 1997 - Helen and Martin Kimmel Center for University Life/ Skirball Center for the Performing Arts, New York University, New York, NY 1997 - Lucent Technologies, Lisle, IL/Naperville, IL 2000 - Ciudad Grupo Santander, Spain 2001 - Securities and Exchange Commission Headquarters, Washington, D.
C. 2002 - Bouygues S. A. Holding Company Headquarters, France 2003 - 1101 New York Avenue, Washington, D. C. 2005 - Lafayette Tower, Washington, D. C. 2009 - David S. Ingalls Rink Restoration and Addition, Yale University, New Haven, CT 2010 - Convention Centre Dublin, Ireland 2011 - New Galleries for the Art of the Arab Lands, Iran, Central Asia, Later South Asia at the Metropolitan Museum of Art 2012 - American Painting Galleries in the American Wing at the Metropolitan Museum of Art 2014 - Renovations to United Nations Development Corporation 2018 - 200/250 Massachusetts Ave Capitol Crossing 2020 - Expansion at Museum of Jewish Heritage Firm Website: Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associat
Oakland Museum of California
The Oakland Museum of California or OMCA is an interdisciplinary museum dedicated to the art and natural science of California, located adjacent to Oak Street, 10th Street, 11th Street in Oakland, California. The museum contains more than 1.8 million objects dedicated to "telling the extraordinary story of California." It was created in the mid-1960s out of the merger of three separate museums dating from the early 20th century, was opened in 1969. The museum building, designed by architect Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates LLC, with landscape design by Dan Kiley and gardens by Geraldine Knight Scott, is an important example of mid-century modernism and the integration of indoor and outdoor spaces; the concrete building includes three tiers, one each focusing on the art and natural science collections, along with temporary exhibition galleries, an auditorium, a restaurant, other ancillary spaces. Outdoor architectural features are terraced roof gardens, outdoor sculpture, a large lawn area, a koi pond.
Between 2009 and 2013, the museum underwent a major renovation and expansion designed by Mark Cavagnero Associates. The art and history galleries were closed from August 2009 to May 2010, followed by closure of the natural science gallery and education facilities. Skidmore and Merrill designed the environmental graphics program for the renovation and re-branding of the museum. Core support for the capital improvements came from Measure G, a $23.6 million bond initiative passed by Oakland voters in 2002. The museum owns more than 70,000 examples of California art and design, created from the mid-1800s to the present. Painters represented in the art collection include Addie L. Ballou, Albert Bierstadt, George Henry Burgess, Richard Diebenkorn, Maynard Dixon, Childe Hassam, Thomas Hill, Amédée Joullin, William Keith, David Park, Mel Ramos, Granville Redmond, Jules Tavernier, Wayne Thiebaud, the "Society of Six"; the museum holds the personal archives of Dorothea Lange and images by many other noted photographers.
The Museum holds a notable collection of paintings and decorative objects associated with the American Craftsman movement, including a large collection of paintings and decorative art by Arthur Mathews and his wife Lucia Kleinhans Mathews. More than 1.8 million items represent California's history and cultures from the era before Europeans arrived, to the 21st century. The strongest collections are in photography; the collection of the Natural Sciences Department showcases California as a biodiversity hotspot and as the state containing the greatest biological diversity in the nation. It numbers more than 100,000 research specimens and other artifacts, including over 10,000 identified and pinned entomology specimens, over 5,000 specimens in the malacology collection, more than 2,000 bird and mammal study skins and mounts, several thousand bird eggs, more than 3,180 herbarium sheets, over 2,330 freeze-dried exhibit specimens, as well as collections of reptiles and amphibians, fishes and marine invertebrates, fungi.
The Oakland Public Museum opened in the nearby Camron-Stanford House in 1910. Its first curator, Charles P. Wilcomb, gathered a collection representing two aspects of California cultural history, Native Americans and settlers from the East Coast; the Oakland Art Gallery opened in the Oakland Municipal Auditorium in 1916 under the auspices of the Oakland Public Museum, whose director at the time, Robert B. Harshe, was an artist; the Snow Museum of Natural History opened in the Cutting mansion on the shore of Lake Merritt, in 1922. Although the merged Oakland Museum focuses on California art and nature, some "legacy" pieces from outside the state remain, such as a collection of snuff bottles and a carved jade pagoda. Official Oakland Museum of California website Great Buildings website - exterior and interior views
A lobby is a room in a building used for entry from the outside. Sometimes referred to as a foyer, reception or an entrance hall, it is a large, vast room or complex of rooms adjacent to the auditorium, it is a repose area for spectators and place of venues used before performance and during intermissions but as a place of celebrations or festivities after performance. Since the mid-1980s, there has been a growing trend to think of lobbies as more than just ways to get from the door to the elevator but instead as social spaces and places of commerce; some research has been done to develop scales to measure lobby atmosphere to improve hotel lobby design. Many office buildings and skyscrapers go to great lengths to decorate their lobbies to create the right impression and convey an image. Supertall skyscrapers can have one or more of what is known as a sky lobby, an intermediate floor where people can change from an express elevator that stops only at the sky lobby to a local elevator which stops at every floor within a segment of the building.
A foyer in a house is a small entry area or room by the front door. Other public rooms such as the living room, dining room, family room attach to it, along with any main stairway, it was intended as an "airlock", separating the fireplace-heated rooms from the front entrance, where cold air infiltration made for cold drafts and low temperatures. It is used for outer garment and umbrella storage for both residents and guests. Atrium Door Entryway The dictionary definition of foyer at Wiktionary Media related to Lobbies at Wikimedia Commons