BikeMi is a public bicycle sharing system in Milan, Italy. It was launched on 8 December 2008 and is contracted to, the scheme encompasses 4,650 bicycles and 280 stations. The service is every day from 7am to midnight and had a daily ridership of about 15,890 in 2013. The operating hours are extended for special events. The system is based on 1-day, 1-week or 1-year subscriptions, rentals are free for the first 30 minutes. After that time, in not to pay more, the bike has to be returned in a station. However, unlimited number of rentals are allowed in a day, the scheme is similar to the Vélib one. There are at present 43,213 users with an annual subscription, prices range from €4.50 for a 1-day subscription to €36 for the annual one. An additional fare of €0.50 per half-hour is charged for rentals exceeding 30 minutes, after that time a €2.00 per hour fine applies. List of bicycle sharing systems Official website
An electric bicycle, known as an e-bike or booster bike, is a bicycle with an integrated electric motor which can be used for propulsion. E-bikes can be defined separately and treated as a vehicle type in many areas of legal jurisdiction. E-bikes are the electric motor-powered versions of motorized bicycles, which have been around since the late 19th century, in the 1890s, electric bicycles were documented within various U. S. patents. For example, on 31 December 1895, Ogden Bolton Jr. was granted U. S. Patent 552,271 for a bicycle with “6-pole brush-and-commutator direct current hub motor mounted in the rear wheel. ”There were no gears. Two years later, in 1897, Hosea W. Libbey of Boston invented an electric bicycle that was propelled by a “double electric motor”, the motor was designed within the hub of the crankset axle. This model was re-invented and imitated in the late 1990s by Giant Lafree e-bikes, by 1898 a rear-wheel drive electric bicycle, which used a driving belt along the outside edge of the wheel, was patented by Mathew J.
Steffens. Patent 627,066 by John Schnepf depicted a rear-wheel friction “roller-wheel” style drive electric bicycle, schnepfs invention was re-examined and expanded in 1969 by G. A. Wood’s device used 4 fractional horsepower motors, connected through a series of gears, torque sensors and power controls were developed in the late 1990s. For example, Takada Yutky of Japan filed a patent in 1997 for such a device, in 1992 Vector Services Limited offered and sold an e-bike dubbed Zike. The bicycle included NiCd batteries that were built into a frame member, despite the Zike, in 1992 hardly any commercial e-bikes were available. Production grew from 1993 to 2004 by an estimated 35%, by contrast, according to Gardner, in 1995 regular bicycle production decreased from its peak 107 million units. Some of the less expensive e-bikes used bulky lead acid batteries, whereas newer models generally used NiMH, NiCd, and/or Li-ion batteries, performance varies, however, in general there is an increase in range and speed with the latter battery types.
By 2001 the terms e-bike, power bike, pedal-assisted, the terms electric motorbike or e-motorbike refer to more powerful models that attain up to 80 km/h. In a parallel hybrid motorized bicycle, such as the aforementioned 1897 invention by Hosea W, in an series hybrid cycle, human power is converted into electricity and is fed directly into the motor and mostly additional electricity is supplied from a battery. By 2007 e-bikes were thought to make up 10 to 20 percent of all two-wheeled vehicles on the streets of many major Chinese cities. A typical unit requires 8 hours to charge the battery, which provides the range of 25 to 30 miles, as of 2017, electric bicycles sales in the United States have slowed. This is due primarily to lower gas prices, E-bikes are classed according to the power that their electric motor can deliver and the control system, i. e. when and how the power from the motor is applied
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
The Pacific Gas and Electric Company is an investor-owned electric utility with publicly traded stock that is headquartered in the Pacific Gas & Electric Building in San Francisco. PG&E provides natural gas and electricity to most of the northern two-thirds of California, PG&E is overseen by the California Public Utilities Commission. It is the subsidiary of the holding company PG&E Corporation which has a market capitalization of $29.37 billion. It was founded by George H. Roe during the period after Californias Gold Rush, PG&E is one of three regulated, investor-owned utilities s in California—the other two being Southern California Edison and Sempra Energys San Diego Gas & Electric. In the 1850s, manufactured gas was introduced in the United States as a means of lighting, gasworks were built in the larger eastern American cities, but there was no gas industry in the West, however. In San Francisco, street lighting was available only on Merchant Street, Joseph G. Eastland, an engineer and clerk at the foundry, joined them in gathering as much information on gas making as they could find.
The council specified that gas should be supplied to households at such rates as will make it to their interest to use it in preference to any other material. The Donahue brothers and Eastland incorporated the San Francisco Gas Company on August 31,1852, the company became the first gas utility in the West. Its official seal bore the inscription Fiat Lux—let there be light—the same slogan adopted by the University of California, there were 11 original stockholders, and the three Donahue brothers subscribed for 610 of the 1,500 shares. The original location for the gas works was bounded by First, Fremont and Natoma streets south of Market, work on the plant started in November,1852, and it was ready for operation only a few months later. On the night of February 11,1854, the streets of San Francisco were for the first time lighted by gas, to celebrate the event, the company held a gala banquet at the Oriental Hotel. Gas lighting quickly gained public favor, in the first year of operation, there were 237 customers.
That number more than doubled the year, to 563. By the end of 1855, the company had more than 6 ½ miles of pipe and 154 street lamps were in operation. The growing popularity of gas light led to the establishment of competing gas companies, including Aubin Patent Gas Company and these smaller companies were quickly acquired by the San Francisco Gas Company. However, one rival provided serious competition, the City Gas Company was founded in April 1870 by the Bank of California to compete with the gas monopoly held by the Donahue brothers operation. City Gas began operation in 1872 and initiated a war with the San Francisco Gas Company. In 1873, the companies negotiated their consolidation as a compromise, on April 1,1873, the San Francisco Gas Light Company was formed, representing a merger of the San Francisco Gas Company, the City Gas Company, and the Metropolitan Gas Company
ANI Technologies Pvt. Ltd. operating under the trade name Ola, is an Indian online transportation network company. Ola was founded as an online cab aggregator in Mumbai, but is now based in Bangalore, as of September 2015, Ola was valued at $5 billion. It was founded on 3rd December 2010 by Bhavish Aggarwal and Ankit Bhati, as of 2014, the company had expanded to a network of more than 200,000 cars across 100 cities. In November 2014, Ola expanded to incorporate autos on-trial basis in Bangalore, post the trial phase, Ola Auto expanded to other cities like Delhi, Pune and Hyderabad and Kolkata starting December 2014. In December 2015, Ola expanded its services in Chandigarh, Indore and Guwahati. Ola is valued at $5 billion as of September 2015, in March 2015, OlaCabs acquired Bangalore based cab service TaxiForSure for about $200 million. From the 25th of June 2015, Ola users have gained access to TFS cabs via the Ola mobile application, by November 2015, Ola had acquired Geotagg, a trip-planning applications company, for an undisclosed sum to strengthen its new bus-shuttle service.
Ola provides different types of cab service ranging from economic to luxury travel, the cabs are reserved through a mobile app. This cab service supports both cash and cashless payment options with Ola money and it claims to clock an average of more than 150,000 bookings per day and commands 60 percent of the market share in India. November 2014 Ola started on-demand auto rickshaw service on its app in Bangalore, Pune. OlaCabs technology came under criticism regarding the security of its mobile app, the API calls could be replayed to top up its wallet. In August 2015, a breach had occurred when intended customers details such as names, phone numbers and addresses. Although these unanticipated messages were reported to Ola, the company had chosen to ignore them, the issue was reportedly fixed three weeks after receiving considerable media coverage and social media attention. The refund policy of OlaCabs has been criticised because of billing errors caused by technical glitches in their system, hackers have claimed that they have been able to hack OlaCabs system and access customer data including credit card/debit card information.
The inquiry has revealed that approximately 80% of drivers amongst all services did not possess permits to ply commercial transport services in Delhi, the cab drivers protested outside the Kukatapally, Hyderabad branch office of Ola demanding more transparency over payments
Dublinbikes is a public bicycle rental scheme which has operated in the city of Dublin since 2009. At its launch, the scheme, which is sponsored by JCDecaux, by 2011 this had expanded to 550 bicycles and 44 stations, and in 2013 it was announced that a major expansion of the scheme would add a further 950 bikes and another 58 hire points. Currently the scheme loses €376,000 a year, leading to expansion of Dublin Bikes being put on hold. The scheme was announced by Dubin City Council in 2006 when JCDecaux received 72 free advertising spaces around Dublin in a 15-year deal in return for the companys funding of the project. Critics argued that the deal was an expensive one when compared to Copenhagen where companies pay to have their logos attached to the bicycle,450 bicycle stands were installed in groups of ten and twenty in forty locations around Dublin from June 2009. The scheme was opposed by An Taisce who said it was misuse of legislation by an authority to facilitate a private development.
It was announced on 18 June 2014 that Coca-Cola Zero would become a partner with Dublinbikes for three years. Starting at the end of June 2014, the brand was renamed Coca-Cola Zero Dublinbikes, the scheme proved to be a great success, much exceeding predictions. Approximately 1,000 people used the bicycles in the first six hours, more than 25,000 people had applied to take part in the scheme by March 2010. Minister for the Environment and Local Government John Gormley said after the launch this level of uptake indicated the new approach to cycling in Ireland. In the first ten months of the scheme, it was reported there were over 37,000 users, over 828,000 journeys, no accidents, no vandalism. On 10 May 2010, city councillors in Dublin voted for more advertising hoardings to be used to help with payments, on 14 August 2010, it was announced that the scheme had reached its one millionth trip. By May 2011, two million journeys had been made and the scheme had expanded to 550 bicycles and 44 stations, in 2013 it was announced that a major expansion of the scheme would add a further 950 bikes and another 58 hire points.
To use the system, users need to take out a subscription, subscriptions can get a Long Term Hire Card costing €20, or a 3-day ticket costing €5. Prices effective from 6 December 2013, users authorise Dublin Bikes to charge €150 from their credit card if the bike is not returned. The first half-hour of every journey is free, after that a service charge applies, see below for pricing structure, After 4 hours, every extra 30 minutes costs €2. In practice, the system is free to users as over 95% of journeys last less than 30 minutes. Dublinbikes only accepts Chip and PIN, and will not accept magnetic stripe cards such as used in the United States
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Continuously variable transmission
A continuously variable transmission is an automatic transmission that can change seamlessly through a continuous range of effective gear ratios. This contrasts with other mechanical transmissions that offer a number of gear ratios. The flexibility of a CVT allows the shaft to maintain a constant angular velocity. When power is more important than economy, the ratio of the CVT can be changed to allow the engine to turn at the RPM at which it produces greatest power and this is typically higher than the RPM that achieves peak efficiency. In low-mass low-torque applications a belt-driven CVT offers ease of use, a CVT does not strictly require the presence of a clutch. Nevertheless, in vehicles, a centrifugal clutch is added to facilitate a neutral stance. Simple rubber belt CVTs are commonly used in motorized vehicles. Nearly all snowmobiles, utility vehicles, golf carts and motor scooters use CVTs, many small tractors and self-propelled mowers for home and garden use simple rubber belt CVT, though hydrostatic systems are more common.
Hydrostatic CVTs are common in small to medium-sized agricultural and earthmoving equipment, Transmission output is varied to control both travel speed and direction. In mowing or harvesting operations a CVT allows the speed of the tractor or combine harvester to be adjusted independently of the engine speed. This allows the operator to slow or accelerate as needed to accommodate variations in thickness of the crop, CVTs have been used in aircraft electrical power generating systems since the 1950s and in Sports Car Club of America Formula 500 race cars since the early 1970s. CVTs were banned from Formula 1 in 1994 because of concerns that the teams would dominate if they managed to create a viable F1 CVT. More recently, CVT systems have developed for go-karts and have proven to increase performance. The Tomcar range of vehicles utilizes the CVT system. Some drill presses and milling machines contain a pulley-based CVT where the shaft has a pair of manually adjustable conical pulley halves through which a wide drive belt from the motor loops.
The pulley on the motor, however, is fixed in diameter. This gap width thus adjusts the gearing ratio between the motors fixed pulley and the output shafts variable pulley, changing speed of the chuck, a tensioner pulley is implemented in the belt transmission to take up or release the slack in the belt as the speed is altered. In most cases, the speed must be changed with the motor running, in this most common CVT system, there are two V-belt pulleys that are split perpendicular to their axes of rotation, with a V-belt running between them
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as one electrode material, the electrolyte, which allows for ionic movement, and the two electrodes are the constituent components of a lithium-ion battery cell. Lithium-ion batteries are common in home electronics and they are one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries for portable electronics, with a high energy density, tiny memory effect and low self-discharge. Beyond consumer electronics, LIBs are growing in popularity for military, battery electric vehicle, for example, lithium-ion batteries are becoming a common replacement for the lead–acid batteries that have been used historically for golf carts and utility vehicles. Chemistry, performance and safety characteristics vary across LIB types, handheld electronics mostly use LIBs based on lithium cobalt oxide, which offers high energy density, but presents safety risks, especially when damaged.
Lithium iron phosphate, lithium ion manganese oxide battery and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide offer lower energy density, such batteries are widely used for electric tools, medical equipment and other roles. NMC in particular is a contender for automotive applications. Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide and lithium titanate are specialty designs aimed at particular niche roles, the newer lithium–sulfur batteries promise the highest performance-to-weight ratio. Lithium-ion batteries can pose unique safety hazards since they contain a flammable electrolyte, an expert notes If a battery cell is charged too quickly, it can cause a short circuit, leading to explosions and fires. Because of these risks, testing standards are more stringent than those for acid-electrolyte batteries, there have been battery-related recalls by some companies, including the 2016 Samsung Note 7 recall for battery fires. This article covers just the topics and general principles of lithium-ion batteries. Nearly all facets have elements that are impacted by currently very active development or research, a cell is a basic electrochemical unit that contains the basic components, such as electrodes and electrolyte.
In the case of cells, this is the single cylindrical, prismatic or pouch unit. In this regard, the simplest battery is a cell with perhaps a small electronic circuit for protection. In many cases, distinguishing between cell and battery is not important, this should be done when dealing with specific applications, for example, battery electric vehicles, where battery may indicate a high voltage system of 400 V, and not a single cell. The term module is used as an intermediate topology, with the understanding that a battery pack is made of modules. In electrochemistry, the anode is the electrode where oxidation is taking place in the battery, i. e. electrons get free, this happens on opposite electrodes during charge vs. discharge. Historically, for lithium cells, which started as single use discharge cells and this is true on discharge, but with a rechargeable system, the negative electrode chemically becomes the cathode while charging