Greenwich Hospital, London
Greenwich Hospital was a permanent home for retired sailors of the Royal Navy, which operated from 1692 to 1869. Its buildings were used by the Royal Naval College and the University of Greenwich, are now known as the Old Royal Naval College; the word "hospital" was used in its original sense of a place providing hospitality for those in need of it, did not refer to medical care, although the buildings included an infirmary which, after Greenwich Hospital closed, operated as Dreadnought Seaman's Hospital until 1986. The foundation which operated the hospital still exists, for the benefit of former Royal Navy personnel and their dependants, it now provides sheltered housing on other sites. The hospital was created as the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich on the instructions of Queen Mary II, inspired by the sight of wounded sailors returning from the Battle of La Hogue in 1692, she ordered the King Charles wing of the palace—originally designed by architect John Webb for King Charles II in 1664—to be remodelled as a naval hospital to provide a counterpart for the Chelsea Hospital for soldiers.
Sir Christopher Wren and his assistant Nicholas Hawksmoor gave their services free of charge as architects of the new Royal Hospital. Sir John Vanbrugh succeeded Wren as architect. An early controversy arose when it emerged that the original plans for the hospital would have blocked the riverside view from the Queen's House. Queen Mary II therefore ordered that the buildings be split, providing an avenue leading from the river through the hospital grounds up to the Queen's House and Greenwich Hill beyond; this gave the hospital its distinctive look, with its buildings arranged in a number of quadrants. Its four main buildings are bisected north-south by a Grand Square and processional route, east-west by an internal road from the East Gate to the West Gate by Greenwich Market in Greenwich town centre; the Grand Square and processional route running north-south maintained access to, a river view from, the Queen's House and Greenwich Park beyond. Construction was financed through an endowment, financed through the transfer of ₤19,500 in fines paid by merchants convicted of smuggling in 1695, a public fundraising appeal which brought in ₤9,000, a ₤2,000 annual contribution from Treasury.
Parliament passed etc.. Act 1695, long titled An Act for the Increase and Encouragement of Seamen, which established the basic rules of use and benefits for seamen, amended it the following year by the Greenwich Hospital, etc. Act 1696. In 1705 an additional ₤6,472 was paid into the fund, comprising the liquidated value of estates belonging to the hanged pirate Captain William Kidd; the first of the principal buildings constructed was the King Charles Court, completed in 1705. The first governor, Sir William Gifford, took up office in 1708; the other principal buildings constructed included Queen Mary Court, completed in 1742, Queen Anne Court, King William Court. Queen Mary Court houses the hospital's chapel, its present appearance dates from 1779–89, when it was rebuilt to a design by James "Athenian" Stuart after a devastating fire. King William Court is famous for its baroque Painted Hall, painted by Sir James Thornhill in honour of King William III and Queen Mary II, of Queen Anne and her husband, Prince George of Denmark and George I.
The Painted Hall was deemed too magnificent for the pensioned seamen's refectory and was never used as such. It became a tourist destination, opened for viewing. On 5 January 1806, Lord Nelson's body lay in state in the Painted Hall of the Greenwich Hospital before being taken up the river Thames to St Paul's Cathedral for a state funeral. In 1824 a National Gallery of Naval Art was created in the Painted Hall, where it remained until 1936, when the collection was transferred to the National Maritime Museum, newly established in the Queen's House and adjacent buildings. On the riverside front of the north-east corner of King Charles Court is an obelisk, designed by Philip Hardwick and unveiled in 1855, erected in memory of the Arctic explorer Joseph René Bellot, who died in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue the members of John Franklin's ill-fated expedition to open a Northwest Passage in northern Canada. A Royal Hospital School opened on the site in 1712 to provide assistance and education to the orphans of seafarers in the Royal and Merchant Navies.
In 1933 it moved to Suffolk. The Greenwich Hospital buildings included an infirmary, constructed in the 1760s to a design by James Stuart, where pensioners were attended by trained medical staff. After some adaptation and rebuilding this became the Dreadnought Seamen's Hospital in 1870; the treatment for tropical diseases moved in 1919 to the Seamen's Hospital Society hospital near Euston Square, in central London, to form the Hospital for Tropical Diseases. The Dreadnought Seaman's Hospital closed in 1986, with special services for seamen and their families provided by the Dreadnought Unit at St Thomas's Hospital in Lambeth. Greenwich Hospital closed in 1869; the remains of tho
George Abbot (bishop)
George Abbot was an English divine, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1611 to 1633. He served as the fourth Chancellor of Trinity College, from 1612 to 1633; the Chambers Biographical Dictionary describes him as " sincere but narrow-minded Calvinist". Among his five brothers, Robert became Bishop of Maurice became Lord Mayor of London, he was a translator of the King James Version. Born at Guildford in Surrey, where his father Maurice Abbot was a cloth-worker, he was taught at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford. According to an eighteenth century biographical dictionary, when Abbot's mother was pregnant with him she had a dream in which she was told that if she ate a pike her child would be a son and rise to great prominence; some time afterwards she accidentally caught a pike while fetching water from the River Wey and it "being reported to some gentlemen in the neighbourhood, they offered to stand sponsors for the child, afterwards shewed him many marks of favour." He studied, taught, at Balliol College, was chosen Master of University College in 1597, appointed Dean of Winchester in 1600.
He was three times Vice-Chancellor of the University, took a leading part in preparing the authorised version of the New Testament. In 1608, he went to Scotland with George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar to arrange for a union between the churches of England and Scotland, he so pleased King James in this affair that he was made Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in 1609 and was translated to the see of London a month afterwards. On 4 March 1611, Abbot was raised to the position of Canterbury; as archbishop, he defended the apostolic succession of the Anglican archbishops and bishops and the validity of the Church's priesthood in 1614. In consequence of the Nag's Head Fable, the archbishop invited certain Roman Catholics to inspect the register in the presence of six of his own episcopal colleagues, the details of which inspection were preserved, it was agreed by all parties that: "The register agrees in every particular with what we know of the history of the times, there exists not the semblance of a reason for pronouncing it a forgery."
In spite of his defence of the catholic nature of the priesthood, his Puritan instincts led him not only into harsh treatment of Roman Catholics, but into courageous resistance to the royal will, such as when he opposed the scandalous divorce suit of the Lady Frances Howard against the Earl of Essex, again in 1618 when, at Croydon, he forbade the reading of the Declaration of Sports listing the permitted Sunday recreations. He was therefore, a promoter of the match between the king's daughter, Princess Elizabeth, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, a firm opponent of the projected marriage of the new Prince of Wales and the Spanish Infanta, Maria Anna; this policy brought upon the archbishop the hatred of William Laud and the king's court, although the King himself never forsook Abbot. In July 1621, while hunting in Lord Zouch's park at Bramshill in Hampshire, a bolt from his cross-bow aimed at a deer happened to strike one of the keepers, who died within an hour, Abbot was so distressed by the event that he fell into a state of settled melancholia.
His enemies maintained that the fatal issue of this accident disqualified him for his office, argued that, though the homicide was involuntary, the sport of hunting which had led to it was one in which no clerical person could lawfully indulge. The King had to refer the matter to a commission of ten, though he said that "an angel might have miscarried after this sort." The commission was divided, the King gave a casting vote in the Archbishop's favour, though signing a formal pardon or dispensation. Gustavus Paine notes that Abbot was both the "only translator of the 1611 Bible and the only Archbishop of Canterbury to kill a human being." After this the Archbishop appeared at the Council, chiefly on account of his infirmities. In 1625 he attended the King however, in his last illness, performed the ceremony of the coronation of King Charles I as king of England, his refusal to license the assize sermon preached by Dr Robert Sibthorp at Northampton on 22 February 1627, in which cheerful obedience was urged to the king's demand for a general loan, the duty proclaimed of absolute non-resistance to the most arbitrary royal commands, led Charles to deprive him of his functions as primate, putting them in commission.
The need of summoning parliament, soon brought about a nominal restoration of the Archbishop's powers. His presence being unwelcome at court, he lived from that time in retirement, leaving Laud and his party in undisputed ascendancy, he died at Croydon on 5 August 1633, was buried at Guildford, his native place, where he had endowed a hospital with lands to the value of £300 a year. Abbot was a conscientious prelate, though narrow in view and harsh towards both separatists and Roman Catholics, he wrote a large number of works, the most interesting being his discursive Exposition on the Prophet Jonah, reprinted in 1845. His Geography, or a Brief Description of the Whole World, passed through numerous editions; the newest edition, edited by the current Master of the Abbot's Hospital, was published by Goldenford Publishers Ltd on 20 June 2011, to commemorate the 400th anniversary of his enthronement as Archbishop of Canterbury. Guildford remembers the Archbishop with his hospital, a statue in the High Street, a pub and a secondary school named after him.
His tomb can be seen in Holy Trinity Church. The best account of Abbot is in Samuel Rawson Gardiner's Histor
Tower of London
The Tower of London Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill, it was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite; the castle was used as a prison from 1100 until 1952, although, not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence; as a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion under Kings Richard I, Henry III, Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries; the general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite activity on the site.
The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history. It was besieged several times, controlling it has been important to controlling the country; the Tower has served variously as an armoury, a treasury, a menagerie, the home of the Royal Mint, a public record office, the home of the Crown Jewels of England. From the early 14th century until the reign of Charles II, a procession would be led from the Tower to Westminster Abbey on the coronation of a monarch. In the absence of the monarch, the Constable of the Tower is in charge of the castle; this was a trusted position in the medieval period. In the late 15th century, the castle was the prison of the Princes in the Tower. Under the Tudors, the Tower became used less as a royal residence, despite attempts to refortify and repair the castle, its defences lagged behind developments to deal with artillery; the peak period of the castle's use as a prison was the 16th and 17th centuries, when many figures who had fallen into disgrace, such as Elizabeth I before she became queen, Sir Walter Raleigh, Elizabeth Throckmorton, were held within its walls.
This use has led to the phrase "sent to the Tower". Despite its enduring reputation as a place of torture and death, popularised by 16th-century religious propagandists and 19th-century writers, only seven people were executed within the Tower before the World Wars of the 20th century. Executions were more held on the notorious Tower Hill to the north of the castle, with 112 occurring there over a 400-year period. In the latter half of the 19th century, institutions such as the Royal Mint moved out of the castle to other locations, leaving many buildings empty. Anthony Salvin and John Taylor took the opportunity to restore the Tower to what was felt to be its medieval appearance, clearing out many of the vacant post-medieval structures. In the First and Second World Wars, the Tower was again used as a prison and witnessed the executions of 12 men for espionage. After the Second World War, damage caused during the Blitz was repaired, the castle reopened to the public. Today, the Tower of London is one of the country's most popular tourist attractions.
Under the ceremonial charge of the Constable of the Tower, operated by the Resident Governor of the Tower of London and Keeper of the Jewel House, the property is cared for by the charity Historic Royal Palaces and is protected as a World Heritage Site. The Tower was orientated with its strongest and most impressive defences overlooking Saxon London, which archaeologist Alan Vince suggests was deliberate, it stood out to traffic on the River Thames. The castle enclosures; the innermost ward is the earliest phase of the castle. Encircling it to the north and west is the inner ward, built during the reign of Richard I. There is the outer ward which encompasses the castle and was built under Edward I. Although there were several phases of expansion after William the Conqueror founded the Tower of London, the general layout has remained the same since Edward I completed his rebuild in 1285; the castle encloses an area of 12 acres with a further 6 acres around the Tower of London constituting the Tower Liberties – land under the direct influence of the castle and cleared for military reasons.
The precursor of the Liberties was laid out in the 13th century when Henry III ordered that a strip of land adjacent to the castle be kept clear. Despite popular fiction, the Tower of London never had a permanent torture chamber, although the basement of the White Tower housed a rack in periods. Tower Wharf was built on the bank of the Thames under Edward I and was expanded to its current size during the reign of Richard II; the White Tower is a keep, the strongest structure in a medieval castle, contained lodgings suitable for the lord – in this case, the king or his representative. According to military historian Allen Brown, "The great tower was by virtue of its strength and lordly accommodation, the donjon par excellence"; as one of the largest keeps in the Christian world, the White Tower has been described as "the most complete eleventh-century palace in Europe". The White Tower, not including its projecting corner towers, measures 36 by 32 metres at the base, is 27 m high at the southern battlements.
The structure was three storeys high, comprising a basement floor, an entrance level, an upper floor. The entrance, as is usual in Norman keeps, was above ground
Chillingham Castle is a medieval castle in the village of Chillingham, Northumberland in the northern part of Northumberland, England. It was the seat of the Grey and Bennett families from the 15th century until the 1980s when it became the home of Sir Edward Humphry Tyrrell Wakefield, 2nd Baronet, married to a member of the original Grey family. A large enclosed park in the castle grounds is home to the Chillingham Cattle, a rare breed, consisting of about 90 head of cattle; the castle is a Grade I listed building. The castle was a monastery in the late 12th century. In 1298, King Edward I stayed at the castle on his way to Scotland to battle a Scottish army led by William Wallace. A glazed window in a frame was specially installed for the king, a rarity in such buildings at the time; the castle occupied a strategically important location in medieval times: it was located on the border between two feuding nations. It was used as a staging post for English armies entering Scotland, but was repeatedly attacked and besieged by Scottish armies and raiding parties heading south.
The site contained a moat, in some locations the fortifications were 12 feet thick. The building underwent a harsh series of enhancements, in 1344 a Licence to crenellate was issued by King Edward III to allow battlements to be built upgrading the stronghold to a fortified castle, of quadrangular form. In 1617, James I, the first king of both England and Scotland, stayed at the castle on a journey between his two kingdoms; as relations between the two countries became peaceful following the union of the crowns, the need for a military stronghold in the area declined. The castle was transformed. A banquet hall and a library were built. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the grounds underwent landscaping, including work carried out by Sir Jeffry Wyattville; the once extensive park is now under a separate ownership from the castle. During the Second World War, the castle was used as an army barracks. During this time, much of the decorative wood is said to have been stripped out and burned by the soldiers billeted there.
After the war, the castle began to fall into disrepair. Lead had been removed from the roof, resulting in extensive weather damage to large parts of the building. In 1982, the castle was purchased by Sir Humphry Wakefield, 2nd Baronet, whose wife Catherine is descended from the Greys of Chillingham, Wakefield set about a painstaking restoration of the castle. Sections of the castle are open to the public, holiday apartments are available for hire, its current owners market the castle as being the most haunted castle in Britain. It has been investigated on television and YouTube, The ParaPod, ‘'Ghost Hunters International, A Blood Red Sky; some of these ghosts are written about are referred to in a 1925 pamphlet by Leonora, Countess of Tankerville. Others, such as John Sage, are of more recent invention; the most famous ghost of the castle is the "blue boy", who according to the owners used to haunt the Pink Room in the castle. Guests reported seeing blue flashes and a blue "halo" of light above their beds after a loud wail.
It is claimed that the hauntings ceased after renovation work revealed a man and a young boy inside a 10-foot-thick wall. Documents dating back to the Spanish Armada were found within the wall. In the novel The Bride of Lammermoor by Sir Walter Scott, Chillingham Castle is singled out as a last refuge for an ancient breed of Scottish cattle; the castle and cattle served as inspiration for Eva Ibbotson's 2005 children's book, The Beasts of Clawstone Castle. Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Chillingham Cattle Bibliography of sources relating to Chillingham Castle Chillingham Castle website The medieval Castle of Chillingham: the most haunted castle in Britain
The Monmouth Rebellion known as The Pitchfork Rebellion, The Revolt of the West or The West Country rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow James II. Prince James, Duke of York, had become King of England and Ireland upon the death of his elder brother Charles II on 6 February 1685. James II was some Protestants under his rule opposed his kingship. James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II, claimed to be rightful heir to the throne and attempted to displace James II. Plans were discussed to overthrow the monarch, following the failure of the Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II and James in 1683, while Monmouth was in self-imposed exile in the Dutch Republic; the Monmouth rebellion was coordinated with Argyll's Rising a rebellion in Scotland, where Archibald Campbell, the Earl of Argyll, landed with a small force. The Duke of Monmouth had been popular in the South West of England, so he planned to recruit troops locally and take control of the area before marching on London.
Monmouth landed at Lyme Regis on 11 June 1685. In the following few weeks, his growing army of nonconformists and farm workers fought a series of skirmishes with local militias and regular soldiers commanded by Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham and John Churchill, who became the Duke of Marlborough. Monmouth's forces were unable to compete with the regular army and failed to capture the city of Bristol; the rebellion ended with the defeat of Monmouth's army at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685 by forces led by Feversham and Churchill. Monmouth was executed for treason on 15 July 1685. Many of his supporters were tried during the Bloody Assizes, led by Judge Jeffreys and were condemned to death or transportation. James II was able to consolidate his power and reigned until 1688, when he was overthrown in a coup d'état by William of Orange in the Glorious Revolution. Monmouth was an illegitimate son of Charles II. There had been rumours that Charles had married Monmouth's mother, Lucy Walter, but no evidence was forthcoming, Charles always said that he only had one wife, Catherine of Braganza.
Monmouth had been appointed Commander-in-Chief of the English Army by his father in 1672 and Captain general in 1678, enjoying some successes in the Netherlands in the Third Anglo-Dutch War, as commander of a British brigade in the French army. The English Civil War had left resentment among some of the population about the monarchy and the penalties, imposed on the supporters of the Commonwealth; the South West of England contained several towns. Fears of a potential Catholic monarch persisted, intensified by the failure of Charles II and his wife to produce any children. A defrocked Anglican clergyman, Titus Oates, spoke of a "Popish Plot" to kill Charles and to put the Duke of York on the throne; the Earl of Shaftesbury, a former government minister and a leading opponent of Catholicism, attempted to have James excluded from the line of succession. Some members of Parliament proposed that the crown go to Charles's illegitimate son, James Scott, who became the Duke of Monmouth. In 1679, with the Exclusion Bill - which would exclude the King's brother and heir presumptive, Duke of York, from the line of succession - in danger of passing, Charles II dissolved Parliament.
Two further Parliaments were dissolved for the same reason. After the Rye House Plot of 1683, an attempt to assassinate both Charles and James, Monmouth went into self-imposed exile in the Netherlands, gathered supporters in The Hague. Monmouth was a Protestant and had toured the South West of England in 1680, where he had been greeted amicably by crowds in towns such as Chard and Taunton. So long as Charles II remained on the throne, Monmouth was content to live a life of pleasure in Holland, while still hoping to accede peaceably to the throne; the accession of James II and coronation at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1685 put an end to these hopes. The Monmouth rebellion was planned in Holland and coordinated with another rebellion in Scotland led by Archibald Campbell, the Earl of Argyll. Several areas of England were considered as potential locations for rebellion, including Cheshire and Lancashire along with the South West, as these were seen as having the highest number of opponents of the monarchy.
Argyll and Monmouth both began their expeditions from Holland, where James's nephew and son-in-law, stadtholder William III of Orange, had not detained them or put a stop to their recruitment efforts. Argyll sailed to Scotland and, on arriving there, raised recruits from his own clan, the Campbells, as part of the Scottish revolt, he had been involved in the Rye House Plot of 1683. Another important member of the rebellion was Robert Ferguson, a fanatical Scottish Presbyterian minister, he was known as "the plotter". It was Ferguson who drew up Monmouth's proclamation, he, most in favour of Monmouth being crowned King. Thomas Hayward Dare was a goldsmith from Taunton and a Whig politician, a man of considerable wealth and influence, jailed during a political campaign calling for a new parliament, he was fined the huge sum of £5,000 for uttering "seditious" words. After his release from jail, he became the paymaster general to the Rebellion. To raise the funds for ships and weaponry, Monmouth pawned many of his belongings.
His wife Anne Scott, 1st Duchess of Buccleuch, her mother pawned their jewellery to hire the Dutch warship Helderenberg. On 30 May 1685 Monmouth set sail for South West England, a Protestant region, with three small ships, four light field guns, 1500 muskets, he landed on 11 June with 82 supporters, including Lord Grey of Warke, Nathaniel Wade, Andrew Fl
House of Stuart
The House of Stuart Stewart, was a European royal house of Scotland with Breton origin. They had held the office of High Steward of Scotland since Walter FitzAlan in around 1150; the royal Stewart line was founded by Robert II whose descendants were kings and queens of Scotland from 1371 until the union with England in 1707. Mary, Queen of Scots was brought up in France where she adopted the French spelling of the name Stuart. In 1503, James IV married Margaret Tudor, thus linking the royal houses of England. Elizabeth I of England died without issue in 1603, James IV's great grandson James VI of Scotland succeed the thrones of England and Ireland as James I in the Union of the Crowns; the Stuarts were monarchs of the British Isles and its growing empire until the death of Queen Anne in 1714, except for the period of the Commonwealth between 1649 and 1660. In total, nine Stewart/Stuart monarchs ruled Scotland alone from 1371 until 1603; the last ruler of Scotland alone was James VI, who became the first dual monarch of England and Scotland in 1603.
Two Stuart queens ruled the isles following the Glorious Revolution in 1688: Anne. Both were the Protestant daughters of James VII and II by his first wife Anne Hyde and the great-grandchildren of James VI and I, their father had converted to Catholicism and his new wife gave birth to a son in 1688, brought up a Roman Catholic and preceded his half-sisters. But neither had any children who survived to adulthood, so the crown passed to the House of Hanover on the death of Queen Anne in 1714 under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Act of Security 1704; the name "Stewart" derives from the political position of office similar to a governor, known as a steward. It was adopted as the family surname by Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland, the third member of the family to hold the position. Prior to this, family names were not used, but instead they had patronyms defined through the father; the gallicised spelling was first borne by John Stewart of Darnley after his time in the French wars.
During the 16th century, the French spelling Stuart was adopted by Mary, Queen of Scots, when she was living in France. She sanctioned the change to ensure the correct pronunciation of the Scots version of the name Stewart, because retaining the letter "w" would have made it difficult for French speakers, who followed the Germans in rendering "w" as /v/; the spelling Stuart was used by her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. The ancestral origins of the Stuart family are obscure—their probable ancestry is traced back to Alan FitzFlaad, a Breton who came over to Great Britain not long after the Norman conquest. Alan had been the hereditary steward of the Bishop of Dol in the Duchy of Brittany; the FitzAlan family established themselves as a prominent Anglo-Norman noble house, with some of its members serving as High Sheriff of Shropshire. It was the great-grandson of Alan named Walter FitzAlan who became the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland, while his brother William's family went on to become Earls of Arundel.
When the civil war in the Kingdom of England, known as The Anarchy, broke out between legitimist claimant Matilda, Lady of the English and her cousin who had usurped her, King Stephen, Walter had sided with Matilda. Another supporter of Matilda was her uncle David I of Scotland from the House of Dunkeld. After Matilda was pushed out of England into the County of Anjou failing in her legitimist attempt for the throne, many of her supporters in England fled also, it was that Walter followed David up to the Kingdom of Scotland, where he was granted lands in Renfrewshire and the title for life of Lord High Steward. The next monarch of Scotland, Malcolm IV, made the High Steward title a hereditary arrangement. While High Stewards, the family were based at Dundonald, South Ayrshire between the 12th and 13th centuries; the sixth High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart, married Marjorie, daughter of Robert the Bruce, played an important part in the Battle of Bannockburn gaining further favour. Their son Robert was heir to the House of Bruce, the Lordship of Cunningham and the Bruce lands of Bourtreehill.
In 1503, James IV attempted to secure peace with England by marrying King Henry VII's daughter, Margaret Tudor. The birth of their son James V, brought the House of Stewart into the line of descent of the House of Tudor, the English throne. Margaret Tudor married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, their daughter, Margaret Douglas, was the mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. In 1565, Darnley married his half-cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, the daughter of James V. Darnley's father was Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, a member of the Stewart of Darnley branch of the House. Lennox was a descendant of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland descended from James II, being Mary's heir presumptive, thus Darnley was related to Mary on his father's side and because of this connection, Mary's heirs remained part of the House of Stuart. Following John Stewart of Darnley's ennoblement for his part at the Battle of Baugé in 1421 and the grant of lands to him at Aubigny and Concressault, the Darnley Stewarts' surname was gallicised to Stuart.
Both Mary, Queen of Scots, Lord Darnley had strong claims on the E
Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton
Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton was an important English aristocrat and courtier. He was suspect as a crypto-Catholic throughout his life, went through periods of royal disfavour, in which his reputation suffered greatly, he was distinguished for artistic culture and his public charities. He built Northumberland House in London and superintended the construction of the fine house of Audley End, he planned several hospitals. Francis Bacon included three of his sayings in his Apophthegms, chose him as "the learnedest councillor in the kingdom to present to the king his Advancement of Learning." After his death, it was discovered. He was born at Shottesham, Norfolk, on 25 February 1540, the second son of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, the poet, of his wife, the former Lady Frances de Vere, daughter of the 15th Earl of Oxford, he was the younger brother of the 4th Duke of Norfolk, uncle of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. On the death of his father in 1547 he and his brother and sisters were entrusted to the care of his aunt, Mary FitzRoy, Duchess of Richmond and Somerset, who employed John Foxe as their tutor.
With Foxe Howard remained at Reigate, a manor belonging to the Duke of Norfolk, throughout Edward VI's reign. On Mary's accession, the children's grandfather, the Duke of Norfolk, was released from prison, he dismissed Foxe. Afterwards Henry Howard studied with Bishop of Lincoln. While with White, Howard read in philosophy, civil law and history, seems to have acquired a strong sympathy with Roman Catholicism. On Mary's death and Queen Elizabeth's accession, White was deprived of his bishopric, Elizabeth undertook the charge of Howard's education, he was restored in blood 8 May 1559. At the queen's expense he proceeded to King's College, where he graduated M. A. in 1564. He afterwards joined Trinity Hall, read Latin lectures on rhetoric and civil law in public, applied to a friend in London for a master to teach him the lute. Subsequently, in 1568 he was incorporated M. A. at Oxford. He protested in 1568 to Lord Burghley that his religious views were needlessly suspected, wrote a treatise on natural and moral philosophy for his youngest sister, wife of Henry Berkeley, 7th Baron Berkeley, dated from Trinity Hall 6 August 1569.
It was rumoured that he contemplated taking holy orders in the vague hope of succeeding Thomas Young as Archbishop of York. He came to court about 1570 at a low ebb, but the intrigues of which his brother, the Duke of Norfolk, was suspected at the time further depressed his prospects; when in 1572 Norfolk was charged with conspiring to marry Mary, Queen of Scots, Norfolk's confidential agent, declared in his confession that Henry Howard was himself first proposed as husband. He was arrested, after repeated examinations, established his innocence to Elizabeth's satisfaction, was readmitted to court, was granted a yearly pension, it was reported, that he had by bad advice brought about his brother's ruin. After the execution of the Duke, his aforementioned sibling, Howard retired to Audley End, directed the education of his brother's children, he tried by frequent letters to Burghley and to Christopher Hatton to keep himself in favour with the queen's ministers, managed to offer satisfactory explanations when it was reported in 1574 that he was exchanging tokens with Mary, Queen of Scots.
He supplied her for many years with political information, according to his own account, gave her prudent advice. Howard sought to regain Elizabeth's favour by grossly flattering her in long petitions. About 1580 he circulated a manuscript tract in support of the scheme for the marriage of Elizabeth with François, Duke of Anjou, in answer to John Stubbe's Discoverie of a Gaping Gulf, at Burghley's request began a reply to a pamphlet denouncing female government, which he completed in 1589. In 1582 his cousin Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, quarrelled with him, revived the charges of heresy and of treasonable correspondence with Mary, he was again arrested, defended himself at length in a letter to Elizabeth, in which he admitted that he had taken part in Roman Catholic worship owing to conscientious difficulties on the sacramentary, but denied that he could win Mary Stuart's favour. He was soon set free, retiring to St. Albans, spent a year in writing his Preservative against the Poison of supposed Prophecies, a learned attack on judicial astrology, dedicated to Francis Walsingham, said to have been suggested by the astrological exploits of Richard Harvey.
The book was suspected of apparent heresies and concealed treason, in 1583, after the discovery of the Throckmorton Plot, Howard was sent to the Fleet Prison. He complained to Hatton of harsh treatment. Mary, had sent him a ring with a message. Burghley declined to intervene in his behalf, but by the favour of Burghley's son Robert Cecil he was sent on parole to the house of Sir Nicholas Bacon at Redgrave, Suffolk. On 19 July 1585 he wrote from there to Burghley, begging permission to visit the wells at Warwick for the benefit of his health, he was said visiting Florence and Rome. In 1587 his repeated requests to take an active part in resisting the threatened Spanish attack were refused, he was at the time except his irregularly-paid pension. He attached himself both to Lord Essex and to Robert Cecil, through the influence of the latter was in 1600 again received by Elizabeth. At the close of the Queen's reign he joined with Cecil in c