click links in text for more info

Ford Model A (1927–31)

The Ford Model A was the Ford Motor Company's second market success after its predecessor, the Model T. First produced on October 20, 1927, but not introduced until December 2, it replaced the venerable Model T, produced for 18 years; this new Model A was available in four standard colors. By February 4, 1929, one million Model As had been sold, by July 24, two million; the range of body styles ran from the Tudor at US$500 to the Town Car with a dual cowl at US$1200. In March 1930, Model A sales hit three million, there were nine body styles available. Model A production ended in March 1932, after 4,858,644 had been made in all body styles, its successor was the Model B, which featured an updated inline four-cylinder engine, as well as the Model 18, which introduced Ford's new flathead V8 engine. Prices for the Model A ranged from US$385 for a roadster to US$1400 for the top-of-the-line Town Car; the engine was a water-cooled L-head inline. This engine provided 40 hp. Top speed was around 65 mph.

The Model A had a 103.5 in wheelbase with a final drive ratio of 3.77:1. The transmission was a conventional unsynchronized three-speed sliding gear manual with a single speed reverse; the Model A had four-wheel mechanical drum brakes. The 1930 and 1931 models were available with stainless steel radiator headlamp housings; the Model A came in a wide variety of styles including a Coupe, Business Coupe, Sport Coupe, Roadster Coupe, Convertible Cabriolet, Convertible Sedan, Tudor Sedan, Town Car, Victoria, Town Sedan, Station Wagon, Taxicab and Commercial. The rare Special Coupe started production around March 1928 and ended mid-1929; the Model A was the first Ford to use the standard set of driver controls with conventional clutch and brake pedals and gearshift. Previous Fords used controls; the Model A's fuel tank was situated in the cowl, between the engine compartment's fire wall and the dash panel. It had a visual fuel gauge, the fuel flowed to the carburetor by gravity. A rear-view mirror was optional.

In cooler climates, owners could purchase an aftermarket cast iron unit to place over the exhaust manifold to provide heat to the cab. A small door provided adjustment of the amount of hot air entering the cab; the Model A was the first car to have safety glass in the windshield. The Soviet company GAZ, which started as a joint venture between Ford and the Soviet Union, made a licensed version from 1932–1936; this served as the basis for the FAI and BA-20 armored cars which saw use as Soviet scout vehicles in the early stages of World War II. In addition to the United States, Ford made the Model A in plants in Argentina, Denmark, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. In Europe, where in some countries cars were taxed according to engine size, Ford in the UK manufactured the Model A with a smaller displacement engine of 2,043 cc, providing a claimed output of 28 hp. However, this equated to a British fiscal horsepower of 14.9 hp and attracted a punitive annual car tax levy of £1 per fiscal hp in the UK.

It therefore was expensive to own and too heavy and uneconomical to achieve volume sales, so unable to compete in the newly developing mass market, while too crude to compete as a luxury product. European manufactured Model As failed to achieve the sales success in Europe that would greet their smaller successor in Britain and Germany. From the mid 1910s through the early 1920s, Ford dominated the automotive market with its Model T. However, during the mid-1920s, this dominance eroded as competitors the various General Motors divisions, caught up with Ford's mass production system and began to better Ford in some areas by offering more powerful engines, new convenience features, or cosmetic customization. Features Henry Ford considered to be unnecessary, such as electric starters, were shifting in the public's perception from luxuries to essentials. Ford's sales force advised Henry to respond to it, he resisted, but the T's sagging market share forced him to admit a replacement was needed. When he agreed to begin development of this new model, he focused on the mechanical aspects and on what today is called design for manufacturability, which he had always embraced and for which the Model T production system was famous.

Although successful, the development of the Model A included many problems that had to be resolved. For example, the die stamping of parts from sheet steel, which the Ford company had led to new heights of development with the Model T production system, was something Henry had always been ambivalent about, he was determined that the Model A would rely more on drop forgings than the Model T, but his ideas to improve the DFM of forging did not prove practical. Ford's engineers persuaded him to relent, lest the Model A's production cost force up its retail price too much. Henry's disdain for cosmetic vanity as applied to automobiles led him to leave the Model A's styling to a team led by his son Edsel though he would take credit for it despite his son doing more of the work, it wa

Second Avenue (Manhattan)

Second Avenue is located on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan extending from Houston Street at its south end to the Harlem River Drive at 128th Street at its north end. A one-way street, vehicular traffic on Second Avenue runs southbound only, except for a one-block segment of the avenue in Harlem. South of Houston Street, the roadway continues as Chrystie Street south to Canal Street. A bicycle lane runs in the leftmost lane of Second Avenue from 125th to Houston Streets; the section from 55th to 34th Streets closes a gap in the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway. Second Avenue passes through a number of Manhattan neighborhoods including the Lower East Side, the East Village, Stuyvesant Square, Kips Bay, Tudor City, Turtle Bay, East Midtown, Lenox Hill and Spanish Harlem. Downtown Second Avenue in the Lower East Side was the home to many Yiddish theatre productions during the early part of the 20th century, Second Avenue came to be known as the "Yiddish Theater District", "Yiddish Broadway", or the "Jewish Rialto".

Although the theaters are gone, many traces of Jewish immigrant culture remain, such as kosher delicatessens and bakeries, the famous Second Avenue Deli. The Second Avenue Elevated train line ran above Second Avenue the full length of the avenue north of 23rd Street, stood from 1880 until service was ended on June 13, 1942. South of Second Avenue, it ran on First Avenue and Allen and Division Street; the elevated trains were noisy and dirty. This depressed land values along Second Avenue during the late early 20th centuries; because of the presence of the El, most buildings constructed during this era were working class tenements. The line was torn down in 1942 because it was deteriorated and obsolete, the cost of World War II made upkeep impossible. Second Avenue maintains its modest architectural character today, despite running through a number of high income areas. Second Avenue has carried one-way traffic since June 4, 1951, before which it carried traffic in both the northbound and southbound directions.

On March 26, 2015, a gas explosion and resulting fire in the East Village destroyed three buildings at 119, 121 and 123 Second Avenue, between East 7th Street and St. Mark's Place. At least twenty-two people were injured, four critically, two people were listed as missing. Two men were found dead in the debris of the explosion and were confirmed to be the ones listed as missing. There had been an illegal tap installed into the gas line feeding 121 Second Avenue. In the days before the explosion, work was ongoing in the building for the installation of a new 4-inch gas line to service the apartments in 121, some of the tenants had smelled gas an hour before the explosion. Eleven other buildings were evacuated as a result of the explosion, Con Ed turned off the gas to the area. Several days some residents were allowed to return to some of the vacated buildings; the M15 local serves the entirety of Second Avenue. The M15 Select Bus Service, the Select Bus Service equivalent of the local M15 bus, provides bus rapid transit service along Second Avenue southbound.

Additionally, the M34A Select Bus Service runs along Second Avenue between East 34th Street and East 23rd Street en route to Waterside Plaza. The Q train serves Second Avenue from 96th Street to 72nd Street before turning onto 63rd Street with a stop at Lexington Avenue, which has an exit at Third Avenue. A Second Avenue Subway line has been planned since 1919, with provisions to construct it as early as 1929. Two short sections of the line have been completed over the years, serving other subway services, others sitting vacant underground. Portions have been leased from time to time by New York Telephone to house equipment serving the company's principal north-south communication lines which run under the Avenue. Isolated 1970s-era segments of the line, built without any infrastructure, exist between Pell and Canal Streets, between 99th–105th and 110th–120th Streets. Construction on Phase 1, which will extend from 125th Street to the Financial District via the T service, began on April 12, 2007.

Phase 1 connects the BMT 63rd Street Line with the new line north to stations at 72nd, 86th, 96th Streets, serving the Q train. Phase 1 opened on January 1, 2017. Phase 2, which would extend the line to East Harlem at 125th Street and Lexington Avenue, is expected to be completed between 2027 and 2029; when the whole Second Avenue subway line is completed, it is projected to serve about 560,000 daily riders. There are bike lanes along the avenue south of 125th Street. New York Songlines: Second Avenue, a virtual walking tour

Panhandle Bridge

The Panhandle Bridge carries two rail lines of the Port Authority "T" line across the Monongahela River in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The name comes from Pennsylvania Railroad subsidiary Pittsburgh, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad known as the Panhandle Route, which operated over the bridge; the basic structure was built in 1903, was the third railroad bridge on the site since 1863. It was raised in 1912-14 as part of a grade separation project; the bridge's function was to carry Panhandle Route passenger and express trains from Pennsylvania Station in Pittsburgh, with a tunnel in between the station and the bridge. Pennsy Panhandle freight trains utilized the Ohio Connecting Bridge downstream on the Ohio River, or went the long way around the West Virginia Panhandle via Conway, Pennsylvania. Rail traffic over the Panhandle Bridge declined as passenger trains were discontinued, Amtrak became the only regular user of the bridge from 1971 to 1979, when the New York-St. Louis-Kansas City National Limited was discontinued on October 1 of that year.

As PRR successor Conrail had no use for the bridge and the restrictive downtown tunnel, it was sold to the Port Authority, who rebuilt the bridge beginning in 1982 as part of the downtown light rail subway project, which removed trolleys from downtown streets and the Smithfield Street Bridge. PAT light rail cars began using the bridge on July 7, 1985. List of crossings of the Monongahela River Pittsburgh & Steubenville Extension Railroad Tunnel Pittsburgh, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad Panhandle Bridge on Panhandle at Structurae

R. Tyrrell Rockafellar

Ralph Tyrrell Rockafellar is an American mathematician and one of the leading scholars in optimization theory and related fields of analysis and combinatorics. He is professor emeritus at the departments of mathematics and applied mathematics at the University of Washington, Seattle, he was born in Wisconsin. Rockafellar received the John von Neumann Theory Prize from the Institute for Operations Research and Management Science and delivered the 1993 John von Neumann Lecture for the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Rockafellar and his coauthor Roger J-B Wets were awarded the Frederick W. Lanchester Prize for 1997 by Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, he was elected to the 2002 class of Fellows of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences. The Institute for Scientific Information lists Rockafellar as a cited researcher. Rockafellar, R. Tyrrell. Convex analysis. Princeton landmarks in mathematics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Pp. xviii+451. ISBN 978-0-691-01586-6. MR 1451876. Rockafellar, R. Tyrrell. Conjugate duality and optimization. Lectures given at Baltimore, Md.. June, 1973. Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences Regional Conference Series in Applied Mathematics, No. 16. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa. 1974. Vi+74 pp. Rockafellar, Ralph T; the theory of subgradients and its applications to problems of optimization. Convex and nonconvex functions. Heldermann Verlag, Berlin, 1981. Vii+107 pp. ISBN 3-88538-201-6 R. T. Rockafellar. 1984. Network Flows and Monotropic Optimization. Wiley. Rockafellar, R. Tyrrell. Variational analysis. Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften. 317. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Pp. xiv+733. Doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02431-3. ISBN 978-3-540-62772-2. MR 1491362. Retrieved 12 March 2012. Dontchev, Asen L. and Rockafellar, R. Tyrrell. Implicit functions and solution mappings. A view from variational analysis. Springer Monographs in Mathematics. Springer, Dordrecht, 2009. Xii+375 pp. ISBN 978-0-387-87820-1.

Rockafellar, R. T.. "On the maximal monotonicity of subdifferential mappings". Pacific J. Math. 33: 209–216. Doi:10.2140/pjm.1970.33.209. Rockafellar, R. T.. "The multiplier method of Hestenes and Powell applied to convex programming". J. Optimization Theory Appl. 12: 555–562. Doi:10.1007/bf00934777. Rockafellar, R. T.. "Augmented Lagrange multiplier functions and duality in nonconvex programming". SIAM J. Control. 12: 268–285. Doi:10.1137/0312021. Rockafellar, R. T.. "Augmented Lagrangians and applications of the proximal point algorithm in convex programming". Math. Oper. Res. 1: 97–116. CiteSeerX Doi:10.1287/moor.1.2.97. Rockafellar, R. T.. "Lagrange multipliers and optimality". SIAM Rev. 35: 183–238. Doi:10.1137/1035044. Rockafellar, R. T.. "The Elementary Vectors of a Subspace of R N "". In R. C. Bose and T. A. Dowling. Combinatorial Mathematics and its Applications; the University of North Carolina Monograph Series in Probability and Statistics. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press.

Pp. 104–127. MR 0278972. Rockafellar, R. T.. "Scenarios and policy aggregation in optimization under uncertainty". Math. Oper. Res. 16: 119–147. Doi:10.1287/moor.16.1.119. Rockafellar, R. Tyrrell Monotone processes of concave type. Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society, No. 77 American Mathematical Society, Providence, R. I. 1967 i+74 pp. Aardal, Karen. "Optima interview Roger J.-B. Wets". Optima: Mathematical Programming Society Newsletter: 3–5. "An Interview with R. Tyrrell Rockafellar". SIAG/Opt News and Views. 15. 2004. Wets, Roger J-B, Roger J-B, "Foreword", Special Issue on Variational Analysis and their Applications, Mathematical Programming and Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 104: 203–204, doi:10.1007/s10107-005-0612-5, ISSN 0025-5610 Homepage of R. Tyrrell Rockafellar at the University of Washington. R. Tyrrell Rockafellar at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Biography of R. Tyrrell Rockafellar from the Institute of Operations Research and the Management Sciences

Jaap de Hoop Scheffer

Jakob Gijsbert "Jaap" de Hoop Scheffer is a retired Dutch politician and diplomat of the Christian Democratic Appeal party and jurist. He served as Secretary General of NATO from 1 January 2004 until 1 August 2009 and was granted the honorary title of Minister of State on 22 June 2018. De Hoop Scheffer attended the Ignatius Gymnasium in Amsterdam from March 1961 until April 1966 and applied at the Leiden University in June 1968 majoring in Law and obtaining an Bachelor of Laws degree in June 1970 before graduating with an Master of Laws degree in July 1974. De Hoop Scheffer was conscripted in the Royal Netherlands Air Force serving as a Second lieutenant from August 1974 until September 1976. De Hoop Scheffer worked as a civil servant for the Diplomatic service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from October 1976 until June 1986 as an Attaché in Accra, Ghana from October 1976 until April 1978 and in Brussels, Belgium from April 1978 until December 1980 and as secretary to the Minister of Foreign Affairs from December 1980 until June 1986.

De Hoop Scheffer was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives after the election of 1986, taking office on 3 June 1986 serving as a frontbencher chairing the parliamentary committee for Development Cooperation and parliamentary committee for Foreign Affairs and spokesperson for Foreign Affairs, European Affairs, NATO, Development Cooperation and Development aid. After the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal and Parliamentary leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal in the House of Representatives Enneüs Heerma announced that he was stepping down as Leader and Parliamentary leader in the House of Representatives following increasing criticism on his leadership, the Christian Democratic Appeal leadership approached De Hoop Scheffer as a candidate to succeed him, De Hoop Scheffer accepted and became the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal and Parliamentary leader in the House of Representatives, taking office on 27 March 1997. For the election of 1998 De Hoop Scheffer served as Lijsttrekker.

The Christian Democratic Appeal suffered a loss, losing 5 seats and now had 29 seats in the House of Representatives. On 1 October 2001 De Hoop Scheffer announced that he was stepping down as Leader and Parliamentary leader Leader following an internal power struggle with the Chairman of the Christian Democratic Appeal Marnix van Rij and that he wouldn't stand for the election of 2002. Following the cabinet formation of 2002 De Hoop Scheffer was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Cabinet Balkenende I, taking office on 22 July 2002; the Cabinet Balkenende I fell just four months on 16 October 2002 and continued to serve in a demissionary capacity. In November 2002 De Hoop Scheffer announced that he wouldn't stand for the election of 2003. Following the cabinet formation of 2003 De Hoop Scheffer continued as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Cabinet Balkenende II, taking office on 27 May 2003. On 22 September 2003 De Hoop Scheffer was nominated as the next Secretary General of NATO, he resigned as Minister of Foreign Affairs on 3 December 2003 and was installed as Secretary General of NATO, serving from 1 January 2004 until 1 August 2009.

De Hoop Scheffer retired after spending 23 years in national politics and became active in the private sector and public sector and occupies numerous seats as a corporate director and nonprofit director on several boards of directors and supervisory boards and serves on several state commissions and councils on behalf of the government and as an diplomat and lobbyist for several economic delegations on behalf of the government and the Military industry. De Hoop Scheffer served as a distinguished professor of International relations, Diplomatic Practice and Governmental Studies holding the Pieter Kooijmans Chair at the Leiden University from 1 September 2009 until 1 September 2014 and as a distinguished professor of International relations and Governmental Studies at the Leiden University College in The Hague since 1 September 2014. De Hoop Scheffer is known for his abilities as a manager. De Hoop Scheffer continues to comment on political affairs as an statesman as of 2020 and holds the distinction as the fourth longest-serving Secretary General of NATO with 5 years, 212 days.

Born in Amsterdam, De Hoop Scheffer graduated with an LL. M. degree at Leiden University in 1974. After completing military service in the air force, where he became a reserve officer, he worked for the ministry of foreign affairs from 1976 to 1986. During the first two years, he was stationed at the Dutch embassy in Ghana. Afterwards, he worked at the Dutch delegation at NATO headquarters in Brussels until 1980. Although he had been a member of the D66 party, he became a member of the Christen-Democratisch Appèl in 1982. At the elections of 1986, he was elected to the House of Representatives, he was a spokesman on foreign policy for his party. Between 1997 and 2001, he was the leader of the CDA delegation in the House of Representatives, at a time when the CDA was in opposition; this made him the party leader. When the list of candidates for the 2002 elections was chosen, his position as the party leader of the CDA became uncertain. After a power struggle with the party chairman Van Rij, De Hoop Scheffer resigned as party leader.

Jan Peter Balkenende succeeded him, had the top spot on the CDA list of candidates in the elections on 15 May 2002. The CDA won in those elections and played the leading role in the formation of a new coalition government; the new prime minister Balkenende appointed De Hoop Sche

Lab lit

Lab lit is a loosely defined genre of fiction, distinct from science fiction, that centers on realist portrayals of scientists and on science as a profession. Unlike science fiction, lab lit is set in some semblance of the real world, rather than a speculative or future one, it deals with established scientific knowledge or plausible hypotheses. In other words, lab lit novels are mainstream or literary stories about the practice of science as a profession, they may or may not center on the science or the workplaces of scientists, but all tend to feature scientists as central characters. According to an article in the New York Times, "Lab lit is not science fiction, in my opinion it’s not historical fiction about actual scientists. Instead, in the Web site’s words, it “depicts realistic scientists as central characters and portrays realistic scientific practice or concepts taking place in a realistic — as opposed to speculative or future — world.'"Prominent examples of lab lit include Flight Behavior by Barbara Kingsolver, Intuition by Allegra Goodman and Mendel's Dwarf by Simon Mawer, Richard Powers' The Echo Maker and Generosity.

Novels set in the past featuring fictionalized explorations of real-life scientists can be considered lab lit. Fiction that incorporates real science into works of fiction that are not science fiction has been referred to as "science in fiction." Frankenstein has been seen as an early precursor. But realistic portrayals of science in fiction were rare throughout most of the twentieth century. An example from the 1950s is Isaac Asimov's A Whiff of Death, examples from the beginning of the current upsurge include Cantor's Dilemma by Carl Djerassi and Carbon Dreams by Susan M. Gaines; the term "lab lit" was coined by Jennifer Rohn in an essay in 2005, along with the launch of the Lablit website. The term began to appear in the cultural pages of science magazines during the first decade of the 21st century and has been championed by such scientist novelists such as Carl Djerassi, Ann Lingard and Jennifer Rohn. An upturn in the publication of lab-lit novels occurred in the 1990s, with five to ten new titles appearing annually in the early two thousands.

The reasons for this increase are unclear, but may include factors such as an increased interest in and familiarity with science on the part of the general public and established authors. List of Lab lit novels at