In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is the distance between the steering axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles; the wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on each pair of tires by the following formula: F f = d r L m g F r = d f L m g where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, L is the wheelbase, d r is the distance from the center of mass to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the center of gravity to the front wheels, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the gravity constant. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward and the force on the rear tires increases.
The vehicle will ride lower. The amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces, like the size of the tires, tire pressure, the spring rate of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively; the equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, the force on each pair of tires becomes: F f = d r L m g − h c m L m a F r = d f L m g + h c m L m a where F f is the force on the front tires, F r is the force on the rear tires, d r is the distance from the CM to the rear wheels, d f is the distance from the CM to the front wheels, L is the wheelbase, m is the mass of the vehicle, g is the acceleration of gravity, h c m is the height of the CM above the ground, a is the acceleration. So, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension; when braking the front noses down and the rear rises.:Because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering.
For example, a car with a much greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires and therefore the grip from them. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, to distribute the caravan's weight so that down-thrust on the tow-hook is about 100 pounds force. A car may oversteer or "spin out" if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires; when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the tire distances from the CM. Thus, in a car with a short wheelbase, the short lever arm from the CM to the rear wheel will result in a greater lateral force on the rear tire which means greater acceleration and less time for the driver to adjust and prevent a spin out or worse. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems; some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle.
This practice can be found on full-size cars like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, but ultra-luxury vehicles such as the Rolls-Royce Phantom and large family cars like the Rover 75 came with'limousine' versions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a long-wheelbase version of the Rover 75 for official use, and some SUVs like the VW Tiguan and Jeep Wrangler come in LWB models In contrast, coupé varieties of some vehicles such as the Honda Accord are built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from. The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, that they are able to perform stoppies and wheelies. In skateboarding the word'wheelbase' is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck; this is different from the distance between the rotational centers
A car platform is a shared set of common design and production efforts, as well as major components over a number of outwardly distinct models and types of cars from different, but somewhat related marques. It is practiced in the automotive industry to reduce the costs associated with the development of products by basing those products on a smaller number of platforms; this further allows companies to create distinct models from a design perspective on similar underpinnings. A basic definition of a platform in cars, from a technical point of view, includes: underbody and suspensions — where the underbody is made of front floor, engine compartment and frame. Key mechanical components that define an automobile platform include: The floorpan, which serves as a foundation for the chassis and other structural and mechanical components Front and rear axles and the distance between them - wheelbase Steering mechanism and type of power steering Type of front and rear suspensions Placement and choice of engine and other powertrain componentsPlatform sharing is a product development method where different products and the brand attached share the same components.
The purpose with platform sharing is to reduce the cost and have a more efficient product development process. The companies gain on reduced procurement cost by taking advantage of the commonality of the components. However, this limits their ability to differentiate the products and imposes a risk of losing the tangible uniqueness of the product; the companies have to make a trade-off between reducing their development costs and the degree of differentiation of the products. One of the first car companies to use this product development approach was General Motors for in 1908. General Motors used a single chassis for certain class of model across most of its brands like Chevrolet, Buick and Oldsmobile. Chrysler Corporation would use the same for Plymouth and DeSoto and Dodge cars. Ford followed the same principle for Mercury in US markets; the chassis unit was common with many shared mechanical components while the Exterior styling and Interior trims were designed according to its individual brand and category.
In recent years for Monocoque chassis, the Vehicle platform-sharing combined with advanced and flexible-manufacturing technology enable automakers to reduce product development and changeover times, while modular design and assembly allow building a greater variety of vehicles from one basic set of engineered components.. Shown below is the Nissan MS platform where vehicles ranging from 5-door hatchback, sedan to compact SUV and Minivan were built on common floor panel and many shared various functional assemblies such as engine and chassis components. Many vendors refer to this as vehicle architecture; the concept of product architecture is the scheme by which the function of a product is allocated to physical components. The use of a platform strategy provides several benefits: Greater flexibility between plants, Cost reduction achieved through using resources on a global scale, Increased utilization of plants, Reduction of the number of platforms as a result of their localization on a worldwide basis.
The car platform strategy has become important in new product development and in the innovation process. The finished products have to be responsive to market needs and to demonstrate distinctiveness while — at the same time — they must be developed and produced at low cost. Adopting such a strategy affects the development process and has an important impact on an automaker's organizational structure. A platform strategy offers advantages for the globalization process of automobile firms; because the majority of time and money by an automaker is spent on the development of platforms, platform sharing affords manufacturers the ability to cut costs on research and development by spreading the cost of the R&D over several product lines. Manufacturers are able to offer products at a lower cost to consumers. Additionally, economies of scale are increased. A "platform" was a shared chassis from a previously-engineered vehicle, as in the case for the Citroën 2CV platform chassis used by the Citroën Ami and Citroën Dyane, Volkswagen Beetle frame under the Volkswagen Karmann Ghia.
But these two manufacturers made vastly different category of vehicles under using the same chassis design at different years though the primary vehicle was still in production. In the USA platform sharing has been a common practice since the 1960s, when GM used the same platform in the development of the Pontiac LeMans, the Buick Skylark, the Chevrolet Chevelle, the Oldsmobile Cutlass. In the 1980s, Chrysler's K-cars all wore a badge with the letter "K" to indicate their shared platform. In stages, the "K" platform was extended in wheelbase, as well as use for several of the Corporation's different models. GM used similar strategies with its "J" platform. Subsequently GM introduced its "A" bodies for the same four divisions using the same tread width/wheelbase of the "X" body platform, but with larger body work to make the cars seem larger, with larger trunk compartments, they were popular through the 1980s, primarily. Cadillac started offering a "J" body model called the Cimarron, a much gussied up version of the other four brands' platform siblings.
A similar strategy applied to what is known as the N-J-L platform, arguably the most prolific of GM's efforts on one platform. Once more, GM's four lower level divis
The Ford C-Max is a compact multi-purpose vehicle produced by the Ford Motor Company since 2003. The Ford Grand C-Max has a longer wheelbase. Ford introduced the C-Max in the United States as its first hybrid-only line of vehicles, which includes the C-Max Hybrid, released in September 2012, the C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid, launched in October 2012. Although the C-Max was available only in Europe, the first generation was available in New Zealand. With the introduction of the new large MPVs S-Max and Galaxy, the C-Max is now the mid-sized multi-purpose vehicle in Ford's lineup, above the now discontinued B-Max. C-Max Mk I was the first product to use the Ford C1 platform used by the Ford Focus Mk II and the compact MPV Premacy/Mazda5, its internal code name is C214. It seats five passengers and has a large amount of cargo space, which can be increased by folding the rear seats flat; some models feature diagonally sliding outer rear seats. It shares the control blade independent rear suspension from the Focus.
The available four-cylinder engines are the same as the Focus.1.6 L Duratec was the basic engine for C-Max, 1.6 L Ti-VCT Duratec was available.1.8/2.0 L Duratec HE are the rest of available petrol engines1.6/2.0 L Duratorq Ford/PSA made diesels were available along with Ford's 1.8 L Endura engine, upgraded and named Duratorq *Overboost Transmissions mated with engines are Ford IB5, Ford Durashift, MTX-75 manual and Ford Powershift double-clutch transmission available with 2.0 Duratorq. The 4F27E mated with the 2.0 Duratec engine. A CVT automatic was available In December 2006, the facelifted version of the C-Max was revealed at the 2006 Bologna Motor Show and went on sale in late spring 2007; the pre-facelift version of the car was called the Ford Focus C-Max. The name change to C-Max is attributable to Ford's MPV strategy of creating a'Max' branded line of MPVs, starting with the Ford S-Max, launched in 2006; the facelift brought the car in line with Ford's'Kinetic Design' design language, evidenced through its twin trapezoidal grilles, large wheel arches and angular headlights.
However, as the car does not have a bodyshell designed for'Kinetic Design,' Ford states that the car contains only'elements' of the design language. Alongside the third generation Ford Focus Mk III, the second generation C-Max is built on Ford's new Global C platform; the appearance is inspired by the Iosis Max concept, shown at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. In addition, Ford added a long wheelbase, seven-seat minivan variant of the C-Max, the Ford Grand C-MaxThe vehicle was unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. Early European models include 5 seats, 7-seat models entered the market at the end of 2010. At the 2011 North American International Auto Show, Ford announced a 7-seat C-MAX for the North American market. However, this model was cancelled prior to launch. Ford unveiled the Ford C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid and the C-Max Hybrid at the 2011 North American International Auto Show. Like the conventional C-Max, the C-Max Energi and Hybrid are five-seat only, they replace the Ford Escape Hybrid and Mercury Mariner Hybrid since Ford discontinued the Mercury brand after the 2011 model year and the Escape Hybrid after the 2012 year model.
The C-Max is Ford's first hybrid-only line of vehicles. Both the plug-in and hybrid version designs are based on the European gasoline- and diesel-powered versions; the C-Max Hybrid was released in the United States in September 2012 as a 2013 model year, followed by the release of the plug-in Energi version by mid October 2012. Production of the C-Max Energi in the United States ended in September 2017, while Hybrid production ended in 2018; the new Mk III platform is the first in its class to support Torque Vectoring Control. The redesigned C-Max features flat folding third row seats, a hands free power lift gate, rear view camera, park assist, panoramic sunroof. HD Radio, Sirius XM, dual-zone climate control system, navigation system come as standard or as available options on the different trim lines; the aerodynamics of the car has been improved, being 0,30 for the 5 seater and 0,32 for the Grand C-Max. Like the previous C-Max, the new C-Max comes with a range of petrol and diesel four-cylinder engines which are shared with the Focus: 1.0 L Ecoboost comes available in two states of tune, alongside the 1.6 - 100 hp and 125 hp guises.
1.6 L Duratec Ti-VCT is available in three spec, 85PS, 105 hp and 125PS 1.6 L EcoBoost comes with 150 hp or 182 hp variant, same as in Focus 1.6/2.0 L Duratorq TDCi Ford/PSA made diesels are upgraded, Ford's 1.8 L Endura engine is not available any more. They come in 110 hp and 140 hp for the 1.6 and 2.0 respectively.*Overboost Transmissions mated with engines are Ford IB5, B6, Durashift MMT6 manual and Ford Powershift double-clutch transmission available with the 2.0 Duratorq engine. The Ford C-MAX was facelifted in 2015 and the 1.6 ecoboost changed from 1.6 ECOBOOST 125 PS to the 1.0 ECOBOOST 125PS along with the 1.6 TDCI 115PS DUROTORQ changing to the 1.5 TDCI 120 PS DUROTORQ Single Over head cam unit. Ford developed the C-Max Hybrid with the aim to become "America’s most affordable hybrid utility vehicle." The gasoline-electric hybrid model base pricing starts at US$24,995, including destination and delivery. The front-wheel drive hybrid has a 2-liter four-cylinder Atkinson cycle engine mated to an electric motor and a 1.4 kWh lithium-ion battery for total power output of 188 hp.
The top speed in all-e
Ford Duratorq engine
The Ford Duratorq engine referred to as Duratorq, is the marketing name of a range of Ford diesel engines first introduced in 2000 for the Ford Mondeo range of cars. The larger capacity 5-cylinder units use the Power Stroke branding when installed in North American-market vehicles; the first design, codenamed "Puma" during its development, replaced the older Endura-D unit, around since 1984. Commercial versions of the Puma unit replaced Ford's older "York" type unit used in the Transit, many other manufacturers' vehicles - most notably the London Taxi. Other unrelated units in this range have been developed by Ford and PSA; the TDCi Duratorq engines are available in vehicles from Ford, Land Rover and Mazda vehicles. A new EcoBlue diesel engine range codenamed "Panther" and planned to be available in 2.0- and 1.5-litre variants, will progressively replace the Duratorq engines from 2016. The inline-four engines are sold under the Duratorq TDCi name by Ford, as the HDi by Citroën and Peugeot; these are part of the DLD family.
Mazda uses the DLD engine in the Mazda2 and the Mazda3, calling it the MZ-CD or CiTD. The Ford/PSA joint-venture for the production of the DLD was announced in September, 1998. There are two families of engines in the range: The 1.4L is non-intercooled The 1.5L derived from the 1.6L The 1.6 L always intercooledFord added their unrelated 1.8 L DLD-418 engine to the DLD family, though it is properly part of the Ford Endura engine family. The Duratorq DLD-414 is a 1.4 L. Output is 160 N ⋅ m at 2000 rpm; this engine was developed in Trémery by Peugeot, as described in the joint-venture agreement with Ford. This engine is built in UK and India; the DV4 is available in two versions: One, an 8-valve design, uses a BorgWarner KP35 turbocharger, but no intercooler. This is the same turbocharger as the Renault K9K Diesel, it is Euro III compliant, but received a diesel particulate filter in 2006 to make it Euro IV compliant. A second version uses a DOHC 16-valve design, with an intercooled variable-geometry turbocharger.
This derivation will no longer be built from 2006, as it will not be able to comply with the Euro IV regulations. It uses Delphi Automotive's DCR1400 common-rail injection system. In 2012, Ford added the 1.5-litre derived from the 1.6-litre engine. Bore was reduced from 75 to 73.5 mm. The DLD-416 is a 1.6 L. This particular engine was designed by Peugeot engineers on behalf of Ford; the Duratorq DLD-418 is a 1.8 L intercooled common rail diesel engine. It is unrelated to the 1.4/1.6 units, is a development of Ford's 1.8 8v Endura-D engine that saw service through the 1980s and 1990s. However, Ford considers it part of the DLD family; the Endura-D was revised and updated with a variable-vane turbocharger and a Delphi high-pressure common rail injection system and relaunched in 2001 as the'DuraTorq TDCi', with the original engine being rebadged'DuraTorq TDDi'. Codenamed Puma during development, these Ford 2.0 L, 2.2 L, 2.4 L engines are called ZSD. They are produced at the company's Dagenham plant in east London.
Note: the 2.5 and 3.0L "W" engines in above table are NOT Puma engines. They are Mazda designed commercial Diesel engines with no commonality to Puma; the "W" engine family is used in the Asia Pacific Ranger and Everest models running out. Released in 2000, to coincide with the launch of the Mk3 Ford Mondeo, the Duratorq ZSD-420 was available as a 2.0 L direct injection turbodiesel. Producing 115 PS and 280 N⋅m it was a vast improvement over the 1.8 Endura-D powering the Mk2 Mondeo. It featured a 16-valve cylinder head with twin chain driven camshafts and utilised a variable-geometry turbocharger with overboost function. In late 2001 the engine was fitted with Delphi common rail fuel injection and called the Duratorq TDCi, with the original unit being renamed the Duratorq TDDi. Although identical to the original engine, the addition of the common rail system meant power was increased to 130 PS, with torque rising to 330 N⋅m. In 2002 the Duratorq TDDi was replaced by a detuned version of the Duratorq TDCi.
Producing 115 PS and 285 N⋅m, this unit used a fixed geometry turbocharger in place of the variable geometry unit used in the TDDi and 130 PS TDCi. With 2005 came another detuned version of the TDCi for the Mondeo. Producing 90 PS and 280 N⋅m, this engine was cheaper than other versions and was targeted at fleet buyers. Applications: Ford Transit 2.0 TDDi & TDCi 75, 85, 100 PS 125 2000–2002 Ford Mondeo 2.0 TD & TDDi, 115 PS and 280 N⋅m 2001–2007 Ford Mondeo 2.0 TDCi 130, 130 PS and 330 N⋅m 2002–2007 Ford Mondeo 2.0 TDCi 115, 115 PS and 285 N⋅m 2005–2007 Ford Mondeo 2.0 TDCi 90, 90 PS and 245 N⋅m 2003–2009 Jaguar X-Type 2.0d, 130 PS and 330 N⋅m DSWDD In 2004, Ford introduced the Duratorq ZSD-422, a 2.2 L turbodiesel for top-of-the-range versions of the Mondeo and Jaguar X-Type which prod
The Ford Galaxy is a large multi-purpose vehicle produced by Ford Europe since June 1995. The first MPV marketed by Ford outside of North America, three generations of the Galaxy have been produced. Since 2006, the Galaxy has been developed alongside the Ford S-MAX, sharing its platform architecture with the Ford Mondeo. In contrast to the Ford Aerostar and Chrysler Voyager, the Galaxy was configured with forward-hinged rear doors in place of sliding doors; the first Galaxy was designed as a joint venture product between the Volkswagen Group. Produced at the joint-venture AutoEuropa plant in Palmela, the vehicle was badge-engineered to create three vehicles: the Ford Galaxy; the Galaxy used predominantly Volkswagen Group mechanicals, most notably the 2.8 litre VR6 petrol engine from the top versions of the Volkswagen Golf, as well as Volkswagen Group's 1.9 litre Turbocharged Direct Injection turbodiesel unit. Only the 2.0 litre inline-four petrol version used a Ford powerplant – this derived from the Ford I4 DOHC engine.
In years, this unit was supplemented by a 2.3 litre 16 valve version first seen in the facelifted Ford Scorpio. This engine was transversely mounted as opposed to longitudinal mounting like in the Ford Scorpio; the 2.8 litre VR6 model was available with an optional four-wheel-drive system, however this did not reappear on the second generation. All of the VW Group sourced engines were supplied with "Ford" badges on the rocker covers, despite being VW Group designs. All automatic transmissions were VW Group AG4 boxes, but manual gearboxes on all engines were VXT75 five speeds; the original interior used a mix of both Ford and VW Group components, using a Golf-derived instrument pack, most of the switchgear, while the curved fascia moulding was of Ford design reminiscent of that used in the Ford Mondeo. There were three trim levels. However, in 1999, Ford introduced the new LX and Zetec trim styles which replaced the Aspen and GLX models. In August 2000, the Galaxy was replaced by the MkII version.
In 1999, the MkI Ford Galaxy was rated in a Top Gear magazine survey as the least satisfying car in the United Kingdom in, though 12,233 people bought a Galaxy in the previous year, twice the market share of its nearest rival, according to a Ford's spokesman. The third generation Galaxy was introduced at the 2006 Geneva Motor Show, went on sale alongside the Ford S-Max in June 2006; the new Galaxy is larger than its predecessor, is a four pillar vehicle of Ford design, with no Volkswagen Group content. No longer produced at the AutoEuropa plant in Portugal, Europe's replacement Galaxy is assembled at a newly re equipped plant alongside the Mondeo in Genk, Belgium. With the S-Max catering to customers who require a sport oriented multi-purpose vehicle, Ford was able to expand the Galaxy in every dimension without losing sales in size conscious Europe. Due to its size, Ford was unable to design the Galaxy using a full Kinetic Design format. However, Ford states that the Mk III Galaxy has'elements' of Kinetic Design, such as its trapezoidal grille, large wheelarches and angular headlights.
The vehicle has no spare wheel. Only Ford's own engines are used, all diesels being from the Duratorq family of engines in 100 PS and 125 PS 1.8-litre format, 130 PS and 140 PS 2.0 TDCi versions, with 2.2 TDCi for more power. Two Petrol engines are now offered, there is the "1.6T 160PS EcoBoost Start/Stop" and the "2.0 203 PS EcoBoost However the 1.6l Ecoboost engine has been criticized by the Independent writer Jamie Merrill. He should have been left in the smaller cars. In the United Kingdom, the Mk II Galaxy was available in Edge and Ghia trim levels. In February 2008, Ford added the Titanium high level trim in common with the Focus, C-MAX, Mondeo and S-MAX ranges; the Titanium model adds a ` techno' feel. At the same time, the availability of a 175 PS 2.2 TDCi engine option was announced. The current trim levels available in the United Kingdom are Zetec and Titanium X; the Ford Galaxy comes with lots of features such as Home Safe Lighting, Quickclear heated windscreen and a cooled passenger glove box.
One major selling point of the Galaxy and S-MAX is the "FoldFlatSystem". This design allows the second and third row seats to fold flat into the floor, although this change in seating design reduces the load carrying capacity of the vehicle; this model of car is known as the main vehicle on the British television series Outnumbered, which replaces the Vauxhall Zafira the family had in the older series. After its sibling, the Ford S-Max, was presented at the 2014 Paris Motor Show, the all-new Galaxy went on sale in mid-2015; the Galaxy is available with the same range of engines as the S-Max, namely one diesel and two petrol variants. The petrol 1.5 SCTi Ecoboost has 160 hp, the larger 2.0 SCTi has 240 hp, but can only be mated to Ford's Powershift automatic gearbox. At launch, Ford expected only 2% of United Kingdom s
The Ford Mondeo is a mid-sized or large family car manufactured by Ford since 1993. The first Ford declared a "world car", the Mondeo was intended to consolidate several Ford model lines worldwide; the Mondeo nameplate is derived from Latin mundus, meaning "world". For its first two generations, the Ford Mondeo was produced using the Ford CDW27 platform, with the third generation shifting to the EUCD platform; the fourth generation uses the Ford CD4 platform. As of 2018, Ford has produced five versions of the Ford Mondeo across four generations. In 1996, the first-generation Mondeo underwent an extensive redesign, becoming the Mk II. In North America, the Mk I and Mk II Mondeo was produced and marketed as the Ford Contour and Mercury Mystique from 1995 to 2000; the 1999-2002 Mercury Cougar is a rebodied three-door hatchback variant of the Mk II, sold as the Ford Cougar in export markets. The Mk V Ford Mondeo is the second Mondeo designed as a "world car", as it adopts the Ford Fusion nameplate in the Americas, Middle East, South Korea.
In January 2016, Ford showcased a facelift in USA for model year 2017. As of June 2018, it's unknown whether this facelift will be brought to Europe and the Mondeo branded version; the current Mondeo is still the pre-facelift of the Ford Fusion. The Mondeo competed in the British Touring Car Championship between 1993 and 2000; the cars, prepared by former series champion Andy Rouse, did not enter the 1993 season until the 8th round at Pembrey in Wales. Rouse and Paul Radisich were the drivers in the Mondeo's first season. Radisich went on to win the FIA World Touring Car Cup in both 1994 driving a Mondeo. Ford ran a factory-sponsored team, called Ford Team Mondeo, for eight seasons; as mentioned above, Andy Rouse Engineering ran the cars from 1993 to 1995, when West Surrey Racing ran the works team from 1996 to 1998, with Prodrive taking over beginning 1999. In 2000, the team expanded from two cars to three when drivers Alain Menu and Anthony Reid were joined by 1998 series champion Rickard Rydell, recruited from the disbanded Volvo team.
The team dominated the season of 2000, finishing 1–2–3 in the drivers' standings and winning the manufacturers' championship by a staggering 104 points. A complete overhaul of the BTCC following the season of 2000 had the supertouring regulations scrapped as the series moved towards less expensive, but slower race cars. Ford withdrew from BTCC competition prior to 2001; the Touring Cars after their withdrawal went on sale to the public and are now in the hands of other drivers. Two of the 2000 series Mondeos have been spotted in the BRSCC series of LMA Euro saloons; the Mk I and Mk II Mondeo have followed many other previous Ford models into the world of banger racing in the United Kingdom, with plenty of older cars being available for little money, the Mondeo is now a popular and easy car to race. The Zetec engines are converted to run off a carb set up and the Mondeo bodyshell is tough, but they are proving rather rigid, with many drivers getting injured in high-speed impacts. Mondeos are proving more popular than the Mk III Granada.
In Argentina, the Mondeo is one of several cars to compete in the local Top Race racing category. The Mondeo is so far the most successful car in the category, with three championship titles in the TRV6 class and two championship titles in the Top Race series; the winning drivers in the TRV6 class were Omar Martínez, José María López, Guido Falaschi with the Mondeo II, in the TR Junior category, the championship was won by Gonzalo Perlo in 2008 and Humberto Krujoski in 2010. In 2009, the Mondeo III bodystyle was presented as an option within the category. In the United States, the Fusion/Mondeo Mk 5 bodywork began use for the sixth-generation body in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series starting in 2013, replacing the current Mazda6-based Fusion. Mondeo Man, stereotypical figure in the 1990s England Ford Mondeo UK - official website Ford Mondeo Australia - official website Ford Mondeo Sport Club - biggest fan club at Taiwan
Mazda Motor Corporation referred to as Mazda, is a Japanese multinational automaker based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. In 2015, Mazda produced 1.5 million vehicles for global sales, the majority of which were produced in the company's Japanese plants, with the remainder coming from a variety of other plants worldwide. In 2015, Mazda was the fifteenth biggest automaker by production worldwide; the name Mazda came into existence with the production of the company's first three-wheeled trucks. Other candidates for a model name included Tenshi-Go and more; the company states that The name was associated with Ahura Mazda, with the hope that it would brighten the image of these compact vehicles. The company website further notes that the name derives from the name of the company's founder, Jujiro Matsuda; the other proposed names mean "god" and "angel". The Mazda lettering was used in combination with the corporate emblem of Mitsubishi, responsible for sales, to produce the Toyo Kogyo three-wheeled truck registered trademark.
Mazda began as the Toyo Cork Kogyo Co. Ltd, founded in Hiroshima, Japan, 30 January 1920. Toyo Cork Kogyo renamed itself to Toyo Kogyo Co. Ltd. in 1927. In the late 1920s the company had to be saved from bankruptcy by Hiroshima Saving Bank and other business leaders in Hiroshima. In 1931 Toyo Kogyo moved from manufacturing machine tools to vehicles with the introduction of the Mazda-Go autorickshaw. Toyo Kogyo produced weapons for the Japanese military throughout the Second World War, most notably the series 30 through 35 Type 99 rifle; the company formally adopted the Mazda name in 1984, though every automobile sold from the beginning bore that name. The Mazda R360 was introduced in 1960, followed by the Mazda Carol in 1962. Beginning in the 1960s, Mazda was inspired by the NSU Ro 80 and decided to put a major engineering effort into development of the Wankel rotary engine as a way of differentiating itself from other Japanese auto companies; the company formed a business relationship with German company NSU and began with the limited-production Cosmo Sport of 1967, continuing to the present day with the Pro Mazda Championship, Mazda has become the sole manufacturer of Wankel-type engines for the automotive market by way of attrition This effort to bring attention to itself helped, as Mazda began to export its vehicles.
Both piston-powered and rotary-powered models made their way around the world. The rotary models became popular for their combination of good power and light weight when compared to piston-engined competitors that required heavier V6 or V8 engines to produce the same power; the R100 and the RX series led the company's export efforts. During 1968, Mazda started formal operations in Canada although Mazdas were seen in Canada as early as 1959. In 1970, Mazda formally entered the American market and was successful there, going so far as to create the Mazda Rotary Pickup for North American buyers. To this day, Mazda remains the only automaker to have produced a Wankel-powered pickup truck. Additionally, it is the only marque to have offered a rotary-powered bus or station wagon. After nine years of development, Mazda launched its new model in the U. S. in 1970. Mazda's rotary success continued until the onset of the 1973 oil crisis; as American buyers turned to vehicles with better fuel efficiency, the thirsty rotary-powered models began to fall out of favor.
Combined with being the least-efficient automaker in Japan, inability to adjust to excess inventory and over-reliance on the U. S. market, the company suffered a huge loss in 1975. An heavily indebted Toyo Kogyo was on the verge of bankruptcy and was only saved through the intervention of Sumitomo keiretsu group, namely Sumitomo Bank, the companies subcontractors and distributors. However, the company had not turned its back on piston engines, as it continued to produce a variety of four-cylinder models throughout the 1970s; the smaller Familia line in particular became important to Mazda's worldwide sales after 1973, as did the somewhat larger Capella series. Mazda refocused its efforts and made the rotary engine a choice for the sporting motorist rather than a mainstream powerplant. Starting with the lightweight RX-7 in 1978 and continuing with the modern RX-8, Mazda has continued its dedication to this unique powerplant; this switch in focus resulted in the development of another lightweight sports car, the piston-powered Mazda MX-5 Miata, inspired by the concept'jinba ittai'.
Introduced in 1989 to worldwide acclaim, the Roadster has been credited with reviving the concept of the small sports car after its decline in the late 1970s. From 1974 to 2015, Mazda had a partnership with the Ford Motor Company, which acquired a 24.5% stake in 1979, upped to a 33.4% ownership of Mazda in May 1995. Under the administration of Alan Mulally, Ford divested its stake in Mazda from 2008 to 2015, with Ford holding 2.1% of Mazda stock as of 2014 and severing most production as well as development ties. This partnership with Ford began owing to Mazda's financial diff