BorgWarner Inc. is an American worldwide automotive industry components and parts supplier. The company has 60 manufacturing facilities across 18 countries, including the U. S. Canada, Europe and it provides drivetrain components to all three U. S. automakers, as well as a variety of European and Asian original equipment manufacturer customers. BorgWarner has diversified into several automotive-related markets, including ignition interlock technology for preventing impaired operation of vehicles, BorgWarner was known for its ownership of the Norge appliance company. Ford took up development of the transmission in Studebakers place in 1955, the early Ford automatics are derivatives of the Borg Warner. In the 21st century, the changed the styling of its name from Borg-Warner to BorgWarner. The company is notable for co-developing a variable-geometry turbocharger with Porsche. BorgWarner claims this technology will reach mainstream cars within 10 years. 8T power plant, BorgWarner supplies wet clutches and hydraulic modules for dual-clutch transmission systems.
With their DualTronic technology, BorgWarner has gained contracts with European automakers that want to use dual clutch transmissions, the German automotive concern Volkswagen Group is BorgWarners largest customer, and Europe is their largest market. Light vehicles account for 72% of BorgWarners total sales, the companys world headquarters is in Auburn Hills, Michigan. Robert S. Ingersoll formerly served as the companys CEO and Chairman, BorgWarners Powertrain Technical Center is based in Auburn Hills. On October 2,2006, BorgWarner announced the purchase of the European Transmission, key products are turbochargers and other related engine operation components. BorgWarner Drivetrain Group, The fundamental core of this division is its automotive transmission systems and these include manual transmissions, automatic transmissions, and the critically acclaimed DualTronic dual clutch transmission, which is more commonly known as Volkswagen Groups Direct-Shift Gearbox. Other responsibilities are its four-wheel drive systems and transmission control units.
The ITM 3e multi-plate clutch coupling is used in the Hyundai Santa Fe, Hyundai Tucson, in normal conditions, it sends up to 95% of the torque to the front wheels. In the case of the Hyundais, the system can be locked in a 50,50 split so that you have a more dedicated off-road system, the system can be locked with the 4WD LOCK button. VTM-4 was used on the Acura MDX, Honda Pilot, hondas Super Handling-All Wheel Drive system was built under the joint-venture of Honda and Borg-Warner for AWD systems. The award recognized automotive suppliers for superior innovation, technological advancement, since 2012 season, BorgWarner currently supplies turbochargers for IndyCar Series with designation EFR7163. Since 1936 BorgWarner sponsoring Indianapolis 500-winning presented trophy, each year, the winning driver is presented with a miniature replica during a reception in January, about seven months after the race
Shelby had carried out a similar V8 conversion on the AC Cobra, and hoped to be offered the contract to produce the Tiger at his facility in America. Rootes decided instead to contract the work to Jensen at West Bromwich in England. Two prototype and extensively modified versions of the Mark I competed in the 196424 Hours of Le Mans, Rootes entered the Tiger in European rallies with some success, and for two years it was the American Hot Rod Associations national record holder over a quarter-mile drag strip. Production ended in 1967 soon after the Rootes Group was taken over by Chrysler, owing to the ease and affordability of modifying the Tiger, there are few surviving cars in standard form. The Sunbeam Tiger was a development of the Sunbeam Alpine series I, Rootes realised that the Alpine needed more power if it was to compete successfully in world markets, but lacked a suitable engine and the resources to develop one. The company therefore approached Ferrari to redesign the standard inline-four cylinder engine, negotiations initially seemed to go well, but ultimately broke down.
Ian Garrad lived close to where Carroll Shelby had his Shelby American operation and he approached Brian Rootes, head of sales for the Rootes Group, for funding and authorisation to build a prototype, to which Brian Rootes agreed. Ian Garrad, impatient to establish whether the conversion was feasible, commissioned racing driver and fabricator Ken Miles to build another prototype as quickly as he could. Miles was provided with a budget of $800, a Series II Alpine, a Ford V8 engine and a 2-speed automatic transmission, and in about a week he had a running V8 conversion, thus proving the concept. Shelby began work on his prototype, the car as it came to be known, in April 1963. Ian Garrad and John Panks, director of Rootes Motors Inc. it is apparent that we have a most successful experiment that can now be developed into a production car. Provisionally known as the Thunderbolt, the Shelby prototype was more polished than the Miles version, the Ford V8 was only 3.5 inches longer than the Alpines 4-cylinder engine it replaced, so the primary concern was the engines width.
There was a place for everything and a space for everything, all Rootes products had to be approved by Lord Rootes, who was reportedly very grumpy when he learned of the work that had gone into the Tiger project without his knowledge. But he agreed to have the Shelby prototype shipped over from America in July 1963 for him and his team to assess. Rootes placed an order for 3000, the number of Tigers it expected to sell in the first year. Installing such an engine in a relatively small vehicle required some modifications. Necessary chassis modifications included moving from the Burman recirculating ball steering mechanism to a modern rack. Although twice as powerful as the Alpine, the Tiger is only twenty per cent heavier
Ford Fairlane (Americas)
The Ford Fairlane is an automobile model that was sold between 1955 and 1970 by Ford in North America. The name is derived from Henry Fords estate, Fair Lane, near Dearborn, over time, the name referred to a number of different cars in different classes, the Fairlane was initially a full-sized car, but became a mid-sized car from the 1962 model year. The mid-sized model spawned the Australian-built Fairlane in 1967, although in that market it was considered a large car, for the 1955 model year the Fairlane name replaced the Crestline as Fords premier full-sized offering. All featured the trademark stainless-steel Fairlane stripe on the side, power options were a 223 cu in straight-6 engine and a 272 cu in V8. The 292 cu in Y-block was offered as an option and was called the Thunderbird V-8. Few changes were made for 1956, a four-door Victoria hardtop and two new, more powerful V8 options, of 292 cu in and 312 cu in, the Lifeguard safety package was introduced. The two-door Victoria hardtop featured a new and slimmer roofline, a one-year only two-door station wagon, the 1956 Ford Parklane, featured Fairlane-level trim.
It was marketed to compete against the Chevrolet Nomad, for 1957, a new style gave a longer, wider and sleeker look with low tailfins. The new proportions and modern styling were a hit with customers to the extent that the Ford outsold Chevrolet in 1957 for the first time since 1935, a new top trim level was reversed, the Fairlane 500. For the first time, the lower-level Custom line had a shorter wheelbase than the Fairlane, engines were largely the same as the year before. The big news for 1957 was the introduction of the Fairlane 500 Skyliner power retractable hardtop, another facelift for 1958 had fashionable quad headlights, a grille that matched the 1958 Thunderbird, and other styling changes. New big-block FE V8s of 332 and 352 CID replaced the previous largest V8s, a new top-level full-sized model was introduced at mid-year 1959, the Ford Galaxie. The 1959 Galaxie displayed both Fairlane 500 and Galaxie badging, full-sized Fairlane and Fairlane 500 models were restyled for 1960 and again for the 1961 model year.
The Galaxie series continued as the top-of-the-line full-sized Ford, Fairlane 500s demoted to mid-level in the lineup and were equivalent to the Chevrolet Bel Air. Fairlanes were primarily sold as base level trim models for fleet use, both were now only available as pillared sedans. The big-block 390 CID V8 was available in 1961 as the top-horsepower option, with an overall length of 197 in and a wheelbase of 115.5 in, it was 16 in longer than the Falcon and 12.3 in shorter than the Galaxie. Wheel track varied from 53.5 in to 56 in depending on model, suspension was a conventional short-long arm independent arrangement in front, with Hotchkiss drive in the rear. The Fairlane was initially offered only in two-door or four-door sedan body styles, the Sports Coupe option débuted mid-year and featured bucket seats and a small floor console
A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque. Geared devices can change the speed and direction of a power source, Gears almost always produce a change in torque, creating a mechanical advantage, through their gear ratio, and thus may be considered a simple machine. The teeth on the two meshing gears all have the same shape, two or more meshing gears, working in a sequence, are called a gear train or a transmission. A gear can mesh with a linear toothed part, called a rack, the gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a crossed, belt pulley system. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slippage, in transmissions with multiple gear ratios—such as bicycles and cars—the term gear as in first gear refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The term describes similar devices, even when the ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not actually contain gears.
Early examples of gears date from the 4th century BC in China, examples of further development include, Ma Jun used gears as part of a south-pointing chariot. The Antikythera mechanism is an example of an early and intricate geared device. Its time of construction is now estimated between 150 and 100 BC, the water-powered grain-mill, the water-powered saw mill, fulling mill, and other applications of watermill often used gears. The first mechanical clocks were built in AD725, the 1386 Salisbury cathedral clock may be the worlds oldest working mechanical clock. The definite ratio that teeth give gears provides an advantage over other drives in precision machines such as watches that depend upon an exact velocity ratio, an external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer surface of a cylinder or cone. Conversely, a gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or cone. For bevel gears, a gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90 degrees. Internal gears do not cause output shaft direction reversal, spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear.
They consist of a cylinder or disk with teeth projecting radially, though the teeth are not straight-sided, the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation. These gears mesh together correctly only if fitted to parallel shafts, No axial thrust is created by the tooth loads. Spur gears are excellent at moderate speeds but tend to be noisy at high speeds, helical or dry fixed gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, since the gear is curved, this angling makes the tooth shape a segment of a helix
Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16,1903, the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV, in the past, it has produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and it has a number of joint-ventures, one in China, one in Taiwan, one in Thailand, one in Turkey, and one in Russia. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, Fords former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010, in 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, Ford is the second-largest U. S. -based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe, Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants, the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford.
Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company and it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz, between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year, in 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the Model A, Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors mid-priced Pontiac, Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. The creation of a laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research
A manual transmission, known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, n-speed manual, standard, MT, or in colloquial U. S. English, a stick, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. The number of gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions often feature a clutch and a movable gear stick. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission. In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engines crankshaft, the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate, as the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, when the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio, automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic. Operating aforementioned transmissions often use the pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. The earliest form of a transmission is thought to have been invented by Louis-René Panhard. This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases and these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that often accompanied.
Newer manual transmissions on cars have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, in both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a gear, the transmission is put in neutral. The vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade, for both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released while in neutral. Some drivers use the only for starting from a stop. Even though automobile and light truck transmissions are now almost universally synchronized, transmissions for trucks and machinery, motorcycles
Like many British manufacturers, AC Cars had been using the Bristol straight-6 engine in its small-volume production, including its AC Ace two-seater roadster. This had a body with a steel tube frame. The engine was a pre-World War II design by BMW which by the 1960s was considered dated, Bristol decided in 1961 to cease production of its engine and instead to use Chrysler 313 cu in V8 engines. AC started using the 2.6 litre Ford Zephyr engine in its cars, in September 1961, American automotive designer Carroll Shelby wrote to AC asking if they would build him a car modified to accept a V8 engine. AC agreed, provided an engine could be found. Shelby went to Chevrolet to see if they would provide him with engines, Ford provided Shelby with two engines. In January 1962 mechanics at AC Cars in Thames Ditton, Surrey fitted the prototype chassis CSX2000 with a 260 ci Ford V8 borrowed from Ford in the UK, early engineering drawings were titled AC Ace 3.6. After testing and modification, the engine and transmission were removed and his team fitted it with an engine and transmission in less than eight hours at Dean Moons shop in Santa Fe Springs and began road-testing.
The most important modification was the fitting of a rear differential to handle the increased engine power. A Salisbury 4HU unit with inboard brakes to reduce unsprung weight was chosen instead of the old E. N. V. unit. It was the unit used on the Jaguar E-Type. On the production version, the brakes were moved outboard to reduce cost. The only modification of the front end of the first Cobra from that of the AC Ace 2.6 was the steering box, which had to be moved outward to clear the wider V8 engine. A small number of cars were completed on the East Coast of the USA by Ed Hugus in Pennsylvania, including the first production car. The first 75 Cobra Mk1 models were fitted with the 260 cu in, the remaining 51 Mk1 models were fitted with a larger version of the Windsor Ford engine, the 289 cu in V8. In late 1962 Alan Turner, ACs chief engineer completed a design change of the cars front end to accommodate rack. The new car entered production in early 1963 and was designated Mark II, the steering rack was borrowed from the MGB while the new steering column came from the VW Beetle.
About 528 Mark II Cobras were produced in the summer of 1965 and this would allow GM to compete directly in the FIA GT class of racing
For the Ford Bronco II of 1983 to 1990, see Ford Bronco II. The Ford Bronco is a Multi-Purpose Vehicle manufactured and marketed by Ford from 1966 to 1996, the Bronco was introduced in 1966 as a competitor to the small four-wheel-drive compact SUVs that included the Jeep CJ-5 and International Harvester Scout, and it was built on its own platform. A major redesign in 1978 moved the Bronco to a larger size, most Broncos are usually equipped with a Spare tire swing away carrier found on the outside of the rear end door. From 1966 to 1996 Broncos were produced at Fords Michigan Truck Plant in Wayne, after years of rumors, the Bronco will return for the 2020 model year in its old assembly plant. The original Bronco was an ORV, intended to compete primarily with Jeep CJ models, the Broncos small size riding on a 92-inch wheelbase made it maneuverable for some uses, but impractical as a tow vehicle. The Bronco was Fords first compact SUV, the idea behind the Bronco began with Ford product manager Donald N.
Frey, who conceived the Ford Mustang, and similarly, Lee Iacocca pushed the idea through into production. The Bronco was designed under engineer Paul G. Axelrad, the rear suspension was more conventional, with leaf springs in a typical Hotchkiss design. A shift-on the-fly Dana transfer case and locking hubs were standard, the early Broncos were offered in wagon, and a less popular roadster configuration. The roadster version was dropped and the package, which became a model line, was added. Aftermarket accessories included campers, overdrive units, and the array of wheels, chassis. The Bronco sold well in its first year and remained in place after the CJ-5 until the advent of the full-sized Chevrolet Blazer in 1969. Lacking a dedicated small SUV platform, the Blazer was based on their full size pickup which was a larger and more powerful vehicle, offering greater luxury, comfort. The longer option list included an automatic transmission and power steering, by then, Blazer sales were double those of the Bronco, and International Harvester had seen the light and come out with the Scout II that was more in the Blazer class.
By 1974, the larger and more vehicles such as the Jeep Cherokee made more sense for the average driver than the more rustically oriented Bronco. The low sales of the Bronco did not allow a large budget for upgrades, production of the original model fell in its last year,1977. In 1965, racecar builder Bill Stroppe assembled a team of Broncos for long-distance off-road competition for Ford, partnering with Holman-Moody, the Stroppe/Holman/Moody Broncos competed in the Mint 400, Baja 500, and Mexican 1000. In 1969, SHM again entered a team of six Broncos in the Baja 1000, priced at US$5,566, versus the standard V8 Bronco price of $3,665, only 650 were sold over the next four years. Originally slated for launch as a 1974 model, the Ford Bronco was intended to become a competitor against the Chevrolet K5 Blazer/GMC Jimmy
Ford Torino Talladega
The Ford Torino Talladega is a muscle car that was produced by Ford only during the first few weeks of 1969. Fords Talladega was named after the Talladega Superspeedway racetrack in Alabama, the Ford Talladega was a special, more aerodynamic version of the Ford Torino / Fairlane Cobra. It is believed that a total of 754 Talladegas may have been built, the Bunkie Knudsen car was significantly different from all of the homologation cars with regard to options and color. This Talladega was even built at a different plant, Fords Lorain, all production examples were constructed during January and February 1969 at Fords Atlanta Assembly plant in Atlanta, Georgia. All production homologation cars produced after the cars were built between January 21 and February 28. A largely equivalent vehicle was produced under the Mercury marque as the Cyclone Spoiler II. The 1969 Ford Talladega was based on the Fairlane Cobra Sportsroof 2-door hardtop, to make the car more aerodynamic at high speeds, a sleeker front section was added.
Regular production Fairlanes and Torinos had a then-fashionable inset grille and headlights, the Torino Talladega replaced this nose with one that extended the cars length by about six inches, with a flush-mounted grille on a more aerodynamic front end. These other special parts were normally only available when ordering a drag pack car which would have been equipped with a 4 speed. Racing versions of the car were fitted with the Ford FE427 side oiler engine that had been Fords main racing engine since 1963. Later in the season, the Ford Boss 429 engine was used by many of the teams, after it had finally been declared officially homologated by NASCAR president, ironically the Boss 429 engine was actually homologated in the 1969 Ford Mustang Boss 429. In a very unusual move, Ford homologated the engine separately from the car in which it was to race, the only option actually offered on the production vehicles was the color, choices were, Wimbledon White, Royal Maroon, or Presidential Blue. The Torino Talladega did exactly what Ford hoped it would do on the circuit, it won 29 Grand National races during the 1969 and 1970 NASCAR seasons - far more than any other model.
Chryslers initial competitor was the Dodge Charger 500, which proved to be inferior to the Talladega. Ironically, in 1969 a Dodge Charger Daytona won at Talladega, of course, having the best talent driving the best cars was a factor during the aero wars years. In an effort to get their star driver, Richard Petty, back after he had defected to Ford in 1969, Plymouth built the Plymouth Superbird in 1970. Plymouths Superbird was intended to be more competition for the Talladega/Spoiler II. All of the Superbirds wins came in 1970, which allowed Plymouth to recapture the championship in NASCAR, one other important footnote,1969 was Fords last year of factory involvement and/or support in racing of any kind for several years
Ford FE engine
The Ford FE engine is a Ford V8 engine used in vehicles sold in the North American market between 1958 and 1976. The FE was introduced to replace the short-lived Ford Y-block engine and it was designed with room to be significantly expanded, and manufactured both as a top-oiler and side-oiler, and in displacements between 330 cu in and 428 cu in. The FE series engines were used in cars, buses, Ford produced the engine from 1958 and ceased production in 1976. Aftermarket support has continued, with replacement parts as well as many newly engineered and improved components, in Ford vehicles, the FE primarily powered full and midsize cars and trucks. In addition to its use in Ford and Mercury branded vehicles, the FE was sold to parties for use in their own products such as buses. In addition, the FE was used to power pumps and other machinery where long-running, low-rpm. Ford regularly made updates to the design of the FE which appear as engineering codes or variations in casting numbers of parts, in addition to production casting codes, Ford made use of SK and XE numbers if the parts were one-offs or developmental designs not approved for production.
Many parts attached to Fords racing engines carried SK and XE numbers, a Ford FE from the factory weighed 650 lb with all iron components, while similar seven-liter offerings from GM and Chrysler weighed over 700 lb. With an aluminum intake and aluminum water pump the FE could be reduced to under 600 lb and this weight saving was significant to boaters and racers. The FE was popular in V-drive marine applications, available as an option in Chris Craft boats. Beginning in 1968, the U. S. Navy SEALS used twin 427 FEs to power their light SEAL support craft. Specific models that used FE engines include the AC Cobra MKIII, GT40s, the AC Frua, as well as various factory racing versions of Ford Mustangs, Ford Galaxies, Ford Fairlanes, and Ford Thunderbirds. In the 1960s, most organized racing events required either stock components or components that were available to the general public. For NASCAR racing, rules required that at least 500 vehicles be sold to the general public equipped as raced, many drag racing and road racing organizations had similar rules, which contributed to a wide range of performance parts being made available through Ford dealership parts counters.
In addition, aftermarket suppliers produced performance parts and accessories, the use of the FE by Ford itself as the powerplant in many of its racing programs and performance vehicles resulted in constant improvements and engineering changes over the course of its life. Racing-inspired changes to the FE which made it to production engines included the side-oiler block, in 1963, the 427 Galaxies dominated NASCAR. Tiny Lund won the biggest race of the year, the Daytona 500, Ford won 23 races to Plymouths 19. The Plymouths earned all their victories on the tracks while Ford dominated the super speedways, Chevrolet finished with eight wins
Mercury Marauder is a nameplate that was used by three separate full-size cars produced by the Mercury division of Ford Motor Company. Initially marketed as the Mercury equivalent of the Ford Galaxie 500XL from 1963 to 1965, after its replacement by the similar Mercury S-55, the Marauder made its return from 1969 to 1970, it was a fastback version of the Mercury Marquis. For the 2003 model year, the Mercury Marauder was revived, after lower than expected sales, the Marauder was discontinued at the end of the 2004 model year. It is the last rear-wheel drive sedan introduced by Ford in North America, the Marauder name made its first appearance in 1958 as Ford introduced a new introduced a new family of V8 engines for its Mercury and Lincoln brands. Exclusive to Mercury was a 383 cubic-inch V8, dubbed Marauder, it produced 330 hp with an optional 4-barrel carburetor. In that tune, the engine was available in the Montclair, shared with Lincoln, the 430 V8 was an option, though the Super Marauder option package was exclusive to Mercury.
Consisting of three two-barrel carburetors, the Super Marauder V8 was notable for being the first engine advertised with a 400hp output, for both 1959 and 1960, the 383 and 430 were retuned with lower engine outputs, with the 400hp Super Marauder option lasting only for 1958. For 1960,383 Marauders became optional in all Mercury vehicles, including the Monterey, Park Lane, the Mercury Marauder debuted as a mid-year model, sometimes called 1963½ models. The Marauder featured a sloping notchback roof design, in contrast to the reverse-slated Breezeway roofline with a rear window that was used by the Lincoln Mark III, IV. The more fastback Marauder was available on the Monterey, Montclair, S-55, additional Marauder features included bucket seats, a central console, and other trim items similar to those in the Ford Galaxie 500/XL. This more aerodynamic roofline was developed for campaigning in the NASCAR circuit, in 1964, the Marauder became available in a four-door hardtop sedan, with a more fastback roofline.
Many components were common to Ford and Mercury models including powertrain choices for the Marauder that were identical to the full-sized Fords, the 390,406, and 427 cubic-inch Thunderbird V8s, were available, with 3-speed or 4-speed manual, or a 3-speed automatic transmission. The Marauder was discontinued after the 1965 model year, with the role of the performance-oriented full-size Mercury available in a S-55 model, the Marauder was reintroduced into the Mercury lineup as a two-door hardtop body style for the 1969 model year. Repositioned from a model to a full-size personal luxury car. However, from the windshield rearward, the Marauder differed from the Marquis, the design was similar to the Ford XL and Ford Galaxie 500 SportsRoof, it featured a fastback roofline with a tunneled rear window. The Marauder incorporated non-functional louvered side air intakes in the quarter panels, a performance trim level of the Marauder was marketed as the Marauder X-100. Largely for appearance purposes, the X-100 included a choice of Twin Comfort Lounge seats, the X-100 featured Kelsey-Hayes road wheels along with rear fender skirts.
The market for sporty full-size cars had disappeared and production reached about 15,000 cars for 1969, standard versions of the Marauder were equipped with the 390 cu in Ford FE engine and a manual 3 speed transmission
The Ford Galaxie was a full-sized car that was built in the United States of America by Ford for model years 1959 through to 1974. The name was used for the top models in Fords full-size range from 1958 until 1961, for 1962, all full-size Fords wore the Galaxie badge, with 500 and 500/XL denoting the higher series. The Galaxie 500/LTD was introduced for 1965 followed by the Galaxie 500 7-Litre for 1966, the Galaxie 500 part was dropped from the LTD in 1966, and from the XL in 1967, however the basic series structuring levels were maintained. The regular Galaxie 500 continued below the LTD as Fords mid-level full-size model from 1965 until its demise at the end of the 1974 model year, the Galaxie was the high volume counterpart to the Chevrolet Impala. The similarly named Ford Galaxy is a large car/minivan available in the European market, the vehicles name is derived from the original Ford Galaxie. The 1959 Ford range was introduced in late 1958 with the Fairlane 500 as the top trim level, during the 1959 model year the Galaxie was added to the range as an additional trim level, assuming the top position from the Fairlane 500.
The Galaxie was offered with the sedan and hardtop body styles as the Fairlane 500 whilst the Sunliner and Skyliner convertibles were moved across from the Fairlane 500 range. Styling varied from the Fairlane 500 with the addition of a Ford Thunderbird-style C pillar on all, although a separate series from the Fairlane 500,1959 Galaxie models carried both Fairlane 500 and Galaxie badging. In keeping with the era, the 1959 Galaxie was a chrome and it was the very image of the ostentatious late-1950s American automobiles, though somewhat tamer than its Chevrolet and Plymouth competitors. Ford advertised safety anchorage for the front seats, the parking brake was now a pedal. Seat belts, a dashboard, and child-proof rear door locks were optional, while a deep-dished steering wheel. Among the models was the Skyliner, moved upward from the Fairlane 500 model and this feature and expensive, left very little trunk room when folded down. Not until 2006, when the Pontiac G6 convertible, Peugeot 206 CC and Volkswagen Eos appeared, a fixture was the previous years 352 V8, still developing 300 horsepower.
1960 The 1960 Galaxie introduced all-new design with less ornamentation, a new body style was the Starliner, featuring a huge, curving rear observation window on a pillarless, hardtop bodyshell. The formal roofed 2-door hardtop was not available this year, but the roofline was used for the Galaxie 2-door pillared sedan and it had been the most popular body style in the line for 1959, and sales dropped off sharply. Contrary to Fords tradition of pie-plate round taillghts, the 1960 featured half-moon lenses turned downward, the A pillar now swept forward instead of backward, making entering and exiting the car more convenient. 1961 For 1961, the bodywork was again, although the underpinnings were the same as for 1960. This time, the tailfins were almost gone, the small blade-like fins capped smaller versions of 1959s pie-plate round taillamps once again, the latter was rated at 401 hp