Foreign and Commonwealth Office

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office called the Foreign Office, or British Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom. It is responsible for protecting and promoting British interests worldwide and was created in 1968 by merging the Foreign Office and the Commonwealth Office; the head of the FCO is the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs abbreviated to "Foreign Secretary". This is regarded as one of the four most prestigious positions in the Cabinet – the Great Offices of State – alongside those of Prime Minister, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Home Secretary; the FCO is managed from day to day by a civil servant, the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, who acts as the Head of Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service. This position is held by Sir Simon McDonald, who took office on 1 September 2015. Safeguarding the UK's national security by countering terrorism and weapons proliferation, working to reduce conflict. Building the UK's prosperity by increasing exports and investment, opening markets, ensuring access to resources, promoting sustainable global growth.

Supporting British nationals around the world through modern and efficient consular services. The FCO Ministers are as follows: The Foreign Office was formed in March 1782 by combining the Southern and Northern Departments of the Secretary of State, each of which covered both foreign and domestic affairs in their parts of the Kingdom; the two departments' foreign affairs responsibilities became the Foreign Office, whilst their domestic affairs responsibilities were assigned to the Home Office. The Home Office is technically the senior. During the 19th century, it was not infrequent for the Foreign Office to approach The Times newspaper and ask for continental intelligence, superior to that conveyed by official sources. Examples of journalists who specialized in foreign affairs and were well connected to politicians included: Henry Southern, Valentine Chirol, Harold Nicolson, Robert Bruce Lockhart. During the First World War, the Arab Bureau was set up within the British Foreign Office as a section of the Cairo Intelligence Department.

During the early cold war an important department was the Information Research Department, set up to counter Soviet propaganda and infiltration. The Foreign Office hired its first woman diplomat, Monica Milne, in 1946; the FCO was formed on 17 October 1968, from the merger of the short-lived Commonwealth Office and the Foreign Office. The Commonwealth Office had been created only in 1966, by the merger of the Commonwealth Relations Office and the Colonial Office, the Commonwealth Relations Office having been formed by the merger of the Dominions Office and the India Office in 1947—with the Dominions Office having been split from the Colonial Office in 1925; the Foreign and Commonwealth Office held responsibility for international development issues between 1970 and 1974, again between 1979 and 1997. From 1997, this became the responsibility of the separate Department for International Development; the National Archives website contains a Government timeline to show the departments responsible for Foreign Affairs from 1945.

When David Miliband took over as Foreign Secretary in June 2007, he set in hand a review of the FCO's strategic priorities. One of the key messages of these discussions was the conclusion that the existing framework of ten international strategic priorities, dating from 2003, was no longer appropriate. Although the framework had been useful in helping the FCO plan its work and allocate its resources, there was agreement that it needed a new framework to drive its work forward; the new strategic framework consists of three core elements: A flexible global network of staff and offices, serving the whole of the UK Government. Three essential services that support the British economy, British nationals abroad and managed migration for Britain; these services are delivered through UK Trade & Investment, consular teams in Britain and overseas, UK Visas and Immigration. Four policy goals: countering terrorism and weapons proliferation and their causes preventing and resolving conflict promoting a low-carbon, high-growth, global economy developing effective international institutions, in particular the United Nations and the European Union.

In August 2005, a report by management consultant group Collinson Grant was made public by Andrew Mackinlay. The report criticised the FCO's management structure, noting: The Foreign Office could be "slow to act". Delegation is lacking within the management structure. Accountability was poor; the FCO could feasibly cut 1200 jobs. At least £48 million could be saved annually; the Foreign Office commissioned the report to highlight areas which would help it achieve its pledge to reduce spending by £87 million over three years. In response to the report being made public, the Foreign Office stated it had implemented the report's recommendations. In 2009, Gordon Brown created the position of Chief Scientific Adviser to the FCO; the first science adviser was David C. Clary. On 25 April 2010, the department apologised after The Sunday Telegraph obtained a "foolish" document calling for the upcoming September visit of Pope Benedict XVI to be marked by the launch of "Benedict-branded" condoms, the opening of an abortion clinic and the blessing of a same-sex marriage.

In 2012, the Foreign Office was criticised by Gerald Steinberg, of the Jerusalem-based research institute NGO Monitor, saying that the Foreign Office and the Department for International Development provided more than £500,000 in funding to Palestinian NGOs which he said "promote political attacks on Israel." In response, a spokesman for the Foreign Office said "we are careful abou

William J. Lindsay

William J. Lindsay was an American politician, he served as New York Legislator from the 8th district until his death. He served as the presiding officer of the Suffolk County legislature and was the longest serving PO in the history of Suffolk County. Lindsay was a native of Long Island, he spent the majority of his life as an electrician. This career began through an apprenticeship with the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, Local 25, he spent many years as a construction electrician and became involved in the operation and management of the union. Lindsay served as Business Manager of IBEW Local 25 starting in 1992. During that time he served on numerous boards, including the Long Island Housing Partnership and the Long Island Federation of Labor. Lindsay ran for the 8th Legislative district in March 2001; the special election came about as a result of the then-current legislator, Steve Levy, winning election to the New York State Assembly. Running on the Democratic line, he won election by a narrow margin.

With his responsibility to the 8th Legislative district, Lindsay retired from his position within IBEW Local 25. Lindsay and his wife Patricia resided in Holbrook, New York, have three children, his legacy lives on in Suffolk County with his son William J. Lindsay III representing the people of the 8th district at the legislature. Suffolk County Community College has kept his memory alive by erecting a building on the Ammerman Campus in Selden and naming it The William J. Lindsay Life Sciences Building. Suffolk County Democratic Committee

Claudius Terentianus

Claudius Terentianus was an Egyptian enrolled in the Roman army. He was the author of a number of papyrus-letters addressed to his father Claudius Tiberianus, a veteran settled in Karanis. Claudius Terentianus enlisted in the classis Alexandriae sometime around 110 AD, he complained about life in the fleet, subsequently transferred to a legion. He was deployed to Syria in relation to Trajan's Parthian campaign, was wounded quelling civic unrest in Alexandria, he was discharged in 136 AD, settled in the village of Karanis. Claudius Terentianus refers to Claudius Tiberianus as his father. While a few scholars think this may be an honorary title, most believe that Terentianus is Tiberianus' biological son. Terentianus calls another man named Ptolemaios "father". Terentianus refers to a woman he calls his "mother" living in Alexandria, most his aunt Tabetheus. If she is the same woman who addresses Claudius Tiberianus as "brother" in P. Mich 5403 she was living in Alexandria near where Terentianus was stationed.

The same letter mentions that Terentianus had a brother named Isidoros and a sister named Segathis, who are being cared for by the aunt in Alexandria. It may be that Tiberianus was a widower, entrusted his children to his sister in Alexandria while he was occupied with his own military career. P Michigan 5390: Results of a shopping spree in Alexandria. P Michigan 5391: Terentianus recounts his enlistment in the fleet, requests military equipment. P Michigan 5393: Dispute with Ptolemaios, his "father," addressed to Claudius Terentianus, his father. P Michigan 5400: A Riot in Alexandria, Terentianus is wounded. Connected to the diaspora revolt of 115-117 AD. Adams, J. N; the Vulgar Latin of the Letters of Claudius Terentianus. (P. Mich. VIII 467-72. Manchester, 1977. Lewis, N. "A Veteran in Quest of a Home." Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 90 p. 139-146. Strassi, S. L'archivio di Claudius Tiberianus da Karanis. Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete. Beiheft: 26, Berlin, 2008.

Taylor, Michael J. "The Papyrus Letters of Claudius Terentianus: A Voice from Egypt." Ancient Warfare Magazine, V.5, 2011