Denial and deception
Denial and deception is a Western theoretical framework for conceiving and analyzing military intelligence techniques pertaining to secrecy and deception. Originating in the 1980s, it is based on the more pragmatic Soviet practices of maskirovka but it has a more theoretical approach compared to the latter. In the D&D framework and deception are seen as distinct but complementary endeavors. Denial most involves security and concealment to prevent foreign agents, photographic surveillance, electronic monitoring, or the media from revealing secretive diplomatic or military matters. Deception is the construction of a false reality for the adversary through intentionally "leaked" false information, false stories implanted in the media, dummy or decoy structures or military formations, or numerous other measure. For example, in the Japanese information warfare campaign that preceded the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the D&D approach identifies as a denial measure the twice-repeated change in naval call signs effected by the Imperial Navy between 1 November and 1 December, but identifies as a deception measure the Japanese Foreign Office announcement that a large Japanese liner would sail to California on December 2 to evacuate Japanese citizens.
A denial and deception campaign is most effective when numerous denial and deceptive efforts are coherently coordinated to advance a specific plan. A single failed denial measure or deception can jeopardize an entire operation. According to political scientist John J. Mearsheimer, during peaceful times, inter-state deceptions have little traction as the level of trust between states is already low and therefore being caught in a lie would be ruinous. On the other hand, leaders in democracies move up the ranks by employing political deception and thus are not only familiar with deceiving the public for personal gain but have considerable political capital and public trust following their election. With this comparatively high level of trust, democratic leaders are the most to target the public with deceptions with fearmongering. Moersheimer uses the following example to convey the abstraction, that of Saddam Hussein who, while a malevolent dictator, had not lied to the world about having no weapons of mass destruction.
Yet western democracies headed by George Bush and Tony Blair had succeeded in instilling enough fear and doubt in the media and general populace to convince most that Hussein was duplicitous and did in fact have these "WMDs". Following this successful deception, the two democratic leaders were effective in launching the Iraq War with little opposition. According to Abram Shulsky, like the United States, had difficulty employing denial and deception campaigns; this is due to the open media of most such societies which expose any major operations undertaken militarily or diplomatically. Legal restrictions tend to hamper governments and intelligence services in democratic societies; the exception to these restrictions occurs in wartime, when some measure of martial law is imposed and legal impediments are relaxed. Authoritarian systems of government, however employ denial and deception campaigns both domestically and abroad to manipulate domestic opposition and foreign governments; these operations are unhampered by an open media.
Non-state actors, such as terrorist organizations use denial and deception to influence governments and the public opinion of target societies. Other authors illustrate the D&D topic with Operation Fortitude and consider it one of the most successful such examples in history. According to Donald C. F. Daniel, democratic societies have more qualms with deception. According to United States Department of Defense definitions, military deception includes both denial and deception. Canadian OPSEC officer John M. Roach notes that "Deception used as a broad, general term includes the elements of both denial and deception, each having distinct actions that are either active or passive." D&D is not the only terminology used to make this distinction. Western writers see the Soviet maskirovka practices as not drawing a sharp or significant distinction between the two components of denial and deception; the Islamic concepts of kitman and taqiyya, or at least the jihadist interpretations thereof, have been seen by Westerners as the equivalents of the two components of denial and deception.
Since taqiyya is a word with Shiite connotations, Sunni militants sometimes prefer to use the word iham instead with the meaning "deception of unbelievers". Although the Chinese deception theory literature is vast and uses rather different terminology, some recent surveys have identified that "seduction"—understood as convincing the enemy to make fatal mistakes—is considered the highest form of deception while confusing or denying information to the enemy are considered lesser fo
General Services Administration
The General Services Administration, an independent agency of the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U. S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of $20.9 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually, it contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U. S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,700 owned and leased buildings and a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D. C. – the largest U. S. federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center. GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service and the Public Buildings Service, as well as several Staff Offices including the Office of Government-wide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization, the Office of Mission Assurance.
As part of FAS, GSA's Technology Transformation Services helps federal agencies improve delivery of information and services to the public. Key initiatives include FedRAMP, Cloud.gov, the USAGov platform, Data.gov, Performance.gov, Challenge.gov. GSA is a member of the Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public procurement. In 1947 President Harry Truman asked former President Herbert Hoover to lead what became known as the Hoover Commission to make recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of an "Office of the General Services." This proposed office would combine the responsibilities of the following organizations: U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply U. S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement National Archives Establishment All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration War Assets AdministrationGSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act.
General Jess Larson, Administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named GSA's first Administrator. The first job awaiting Administrator Larson and the newly formed GSA was a complete renovation of the White House; the structure had fallen into such a state of disrepair by 1949 that one inspector of the time said the historic structure was standing "purely from habit." Larson explained the nature of the total renovation in depth by saying, "In order to make the White House structurally sound, it was necessary to dismantle, I mean dismantle, everything from the White House except the four walls, which were constructed of stone. Everything, except the four walls without a roof, was stripped down, that's where the work started." GSA worked with President Truman and First Lady Bess Truman to ensure that the new agency's first major project would be a success. GSA completed the renovation in 1952. In 1986 GSA headquarters, U. S. General Services Administration Building, located at Eighteenth and F Streets, NW, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, at the time serving as Interior Department offices.
In 1960 GSA created the Federal Telecommunications System, a government-wide intercity telephone system. In 1962 the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space created a new building program to address obsolete office buildings in Washington, D. C. resulting in the construction of many of the offices that now line Independence Avenue. In 1970 the Nixon administration created the Consumer Product Information Coordinating Center, now part of USAGov. In 1974 the Federal Buildings Fund was initiated, allowing GSA to issue rent bills to federal agencies. In 1972 GSA established the Automated Data and Telecommunications Service, which became the Office of Information Resources Management. In 1973 GSA created the Office of Federal Management Policy. GSA's Office of Acquisition Policy centralized procurement policy in 1978. GSA was responsible for emergency preparedness and stockpiling strategic materials to be used in wartime until these functions were transferred to the newly-created Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979.
In 1984 GSA introduced the federal government to the use of charge cards, known as the GMA SmartPay system. The National Archives and Records Administration was spun off into an independent agency in 1985; the same year, GSA began to provide governmentwide policy oversight and guidance for federal real property management as a result of an Executive Order signed by President Ronald Reagan. In 2003 the Federal Protective Service was moved to the Department of Homeland Security. In 2005 GSA reorganized to merge the Federal Supply Service and Federal Technology Service business lines into the Federal Acquisition Service. On April 3, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Martha N. Johnson to serve as GSA Administrator. After a nine-month delay, the United States Senate confirmed her nomination on February 4, 2010. On April 2, 2012, Johnson resigned in the wake of a management-deficiency report that detailed improper payments for a 2010 "Western Regions" training conference put on by the Public Buildings Service in Las Vegas.
In July 1991 GSA contractors began the excavation of what is now the Ted Weiss Federal Building in New York City. The planning for that buildin
Measurement and signature intelligence
Measurement and signature intelligence is a technical branch of intelligence gathering, which serves to detect, identify or describe the distinctive characteristics of fixed or dynamic target sources. This includes radar intelligence, acoustic intelligence, nuclear intelligence, chemical and biological intelligence. MASINT is defined as scientific and technical intelligence derived from the analysis of data obtained from sensing instruments for the purpose of identifying any distinctive features associated with the source, emitter or sender, to facilitate the latter’s measurement and identification. MASINT specialists themselves struggle with providing simple explanations of their field. One attempt calls it the “CSI” of the intelligence community, in imitation of the television series CSI: Crime Scene Investigation; this emphasizes. Another possible definition calls it "astronomy except for the direction of view." The allusion here is to observational astronomy being a set of techniques that do remote sensing looking away from the earth.
Astronomers make observations in multiple electromagnetic spectra, ranging through radio waves, infrared and ultraviolet light, into the X-ray spectrum and beyond. They correlate these multispectral observations and create hybrid “false-color” images to give a visual representation of wavelength and energy, but much of their detailed information is more a graph of such things as intensity and wavelength versus viewing angle. MASINT may have aspects of intelligence analysis management, since certain aspects of MASINT, such as the analysis of electromagnetic radiation received by signals intelligence, are more of an analysis technique than a collection method; some MASINT techniques require purpose-built sensors. MASINT was recognized by the United States Department of Defense as an intelligence discipline in 1986. MASINT is technically derived intelligence that—when collected and analyzed by dedicated MASINT systems—results in intelligence that detects and classifies targets, identifies or describes signatures of fixed or dynamic target sources.
In addition to MASINT, IMINT and HUMINT can subsequently be used to track or more classify targets identified through the intelligence process. While traditional IMINT and SIGINT are not considered to be MASINT efforts and signals from other intelligence-gathering processes can be further examined through the MASINT discipline, such as determining the depth of buried assets in imagery gathered through the IMINT process. William K. Moore described the discipline: "MASINT looks at every intelligence indicator with new eyes and makes available new indicators as well, it measures and identifies battlespace entities via multiple means that are difficult to spoof and it provides intelligence that confirms the more traditional sources, but is robust enough to stand with spectrometry to differentiate between paint and foliage, or recognizing radar decoys because the signal lacks unintentional characteristics of the real radar system. At the same time, it can detect things that other sensors cannot sense, or sometimes it can be the first sensor to recognize a critical datum."It can be difficult to draw a line between tactical sensors and strategic MASINT sensors.
Indeed, the same sensor may be used strategically. In a tactical role, a submarine might use acoustic sensors—active and passive sonar—to close in on a target or get away from a pursuer; those same passive sonars may be used by a submarine, operating stealthily in a foreign harbor, to characterize the signature of a new submarine type. MASINT and technical intelligence can overlap. A good distinction is that a technical intelligence analyst has possession of a piece of enemy equipment, such as an artillery round, which can be evaluated in a laboratory. MASINT MASINT materials intelligence, has to infer things about an object that it can only sense remotely. MASINT electro-optical and radar sensors could determine the muzzle velocity of the shell. MASINT chemical and spectroscopic sensors could determine its propellant; the two disciplines are complementary: consider that the technical intelligence analyst may not have the artillery piece to fire the round on a test range, while the MASINT analyst has multispectral recordings of it being used in the field.
As with many intelligence disciplines, it can be a challenge to integrate the technologies into the active services, so they can be used by warfighters. In the context of MASINT, measurement relates to the finite metric parameters of targets and signature covers the distinctive features of phenomena, equipment, or objects as they are sensed by the collection instrument; the signature is used to recognize the phenomenon. MASINT measurement searches for differences from known norms, characterizes the signatures of new phenomena. For example, the first time a new rocket fuel exhaust is measured, it would be a deviation from a norm; when the properties of that exhaust are measured, such as its thermal energy, spectral analysis of its light, etc. those properties become a new signature in the MASINT database. MASINT has been described as a "non-literal" discipline, it feeds on a target's unintended emissive byproducts, or "trails"—the spectral, chemical or RF emissions an object leaves behind. These trails form distinctive signatures, which can be exploited as reliable discriminators to characterize specific events or disclose hidden targets."While there are specialized MASINT sensors, much of the MASINT disc
In espionage, an official cover operative is one who assumes a position in an organization with diplomatic ties to the government for which the operative works such as an embassy or consulate. This provides the agent with official diplomatic immunity, thus protecting them from the steep punishments meted out to captured spies. Upon discovery of an official cover agent's secret hostile role, the host nation declares the agent persona non grata and orders them to leave the country. Official cover operatives are granted a set of governmental protections, if caught in the act of espionage, they can request diplomatic protection from their government. In other words, official cover operatives are agents recognized by their country. Non-official cover "How the CIA Works"—HowStuffWorks article on the Central Intelligence Agency explaining this term; the dictionary definition of official cover at Wiktionary
Eavesdropping is the act of secretly or stealthily listening to the private conversation or communications of others without their consent. The practice is regarded as unethical, in many jurisdictions is illegal; the verb eavesdrop is a back-formation from the noun eavesdropper, formed from the related noun eavesdrop. An eavesdropper was someone who would hang from the eave of a building so as to hear what is said within; the PBS documentaries, Inside the Court of Henry VIII and Secrets of Henry VIII’s Palace include segments that display and discuss "eavedrops", carved wooden figures Henry VIII had built into the eaves of Hampton Court to discourage unwanted gossip or dissension from the King's wishes and rule, to foment paranoia and fear, demonstrate that everything said there was being overheard. Eavesdropping vectors include telephone lines, cellular networks and other methods of private instant messaging. VoIP communications software is vulnerable to electronic eavesdropping via infections such as trojans.
Network eavesdropping is a network layer attack that focuses on capturing small packets from the network transmitted by other computers and reading the data content in search of any type of information. This type of network attack is one of the most effective as a lack of encryption services are used, it is linked to the collection of metadata. Those who perform this type of attack are black-hat hackers; the dictionary definition of eavesdropping at Wiktionary Media related to Eavesdropping at Wikimedia Commons
Interrogation is interviewing as employed by law enforcement officers, military personnel, intelligence agencies with the goal of eliciting useful information. Interrogation may involve a diverse array of techniques, ranging from developing a rapport with the subject to outright torture. There are multiple techniques employed in interrogation including deception, increasing suggestibility, the use of mind-altering drugs. A person's suggestibility is how willing they are to act on suggestions by others. Interrogators seek to increase a subject's suggestibility. Methods used to increase suggestibility may include moderate sleep deprivation, exposure to constant white noise, using GABAergic drugs such as sodium amytal or sodium thiopental. Attempting to increase a subject's suggestibility through these methods may violate local and national laws concerning the treatment of detainees, in some areas may be considered torture. Sleep deprivation, exposure to white noise, the use of drugs may inhibit a detainee's ability to provide truthful and accurate information.
Deception can form an important part of effective interrogation. In the United States, there is no law or regulation that forbids the interrogator from lying about the strength of their case, from making misleading statements or from implying that the interviewee has been implicated in the crime by someone else. See case law on trickery and deception; as noted above, traditionally the issue of deception is considered from the perspective of the interrogator engaging in deception towards the individual being interrogated. Work completed regarding effective interview methods used to gather information from individuals who score in the medium to high range on measures of psychopathology and are engaged in deception directed towards the interrogator have appeared in the literature; the importance of allowing the psychopathic interviewee to tell one lie after another and not confront until all of the lies have been presented is essential when the goal is to use the interview to expose the improbable statements made during the interview in future court proceedings.
The major aim of this technique is to investigate to what extent verbal and non-verbal features of liars’ and truth-tellers’ behaviour change during the course of repeated interrogations. It has shown that liars display fewer smiles, self-manipulations and less gaze aversion than truth-tellers. According to Granhag & Strömwall, there are three approaches to non-verbal deceptive behavior; the first is the emotional approach, which suggests that liars will alter their behaviors based on their own emotional feelings. For example, if a subject is lying and they begin to experience guilt, they will shift their gaze; the second approach is the cognitive approach, which suggests that lying requires more thought than telling the truth, which in turn, may result in a liar making more errors in speech. Lastly, the attempted control approach suggests a subject, lying will attempt to be normal or honest, will try to adjust their behaviors to make themselves believable. A common technique, used in interrogation is Good Cop/Bad Cop.
With this technique, two officers will pretend to take opposing sides while interacting with a subject. While the ‘bad cop’ is against the subject, the'good cop' seems to take the side of the subject, sympathizing with and defending the subject; the purpose of this technique is to have the subject think that he or she can confide in the ‘good cop,’ thus providing him or her with information that may help further the case. There are two pride-and-ego techniques used in interrogation. One is the pride-and-ego up approach; the pride-and-ego up approach involves seeking information from a subject through the use of constant flattery and compliments. As the subject is being continuously praised, the interrogator hopes that through speaking of the subject in a positive light, he or she will provide the necessary information. On the contrary, the pride-and-ego-down approach occurs when the interrogator demeans and insults the subject, with the intent of having the subject provide information; the interrogator will verbally/emotionally abuse the subject, hoping that the subject will attempt to salvage his or her sense of pride or self-worth.
The Reid Technique is a trademarked interrogation technique used by law enforcement agencies in North America. The technique has been criticized for being difficult to apply across cultures and eliciting false confessions from innocent people; the use of drugs in interrogation is both illegal. The Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment forbids "methods of interrogation which impair the capacity of decision of judgment." Furthermore, the World Medical Association and American Medical Association, for example, both forbid participation by physicians in interrogations. In the past, various mind-altering substances have been tried as "truth serums", including sodium pentothal, sodium amytal, scopolamine. In the context of Project MKUltra, the CIA conducted trials on LSD as a potential truth serum, beginning in the 1950s; the history of the state use of torture in interrogations extends over more than 2,000 years in Europe—though it was recognized early on as the Roman imperial jurist Ulpian in the third century AD cautioned, that information extracted under duress was deceptive and untrustworthy.
There is "no means of obtaining the truth" from tho
Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information. Assessments develop in response to leadership declaration requirements to inform decision making. Assessment may be executed on behalf of a state, military or commercial organisation with ranges of information sources available to each. An intelligence assessment reviews available information and previous assessments for relevance and currency. Where there requires additional information, the analyst may direct some collection. Intelligence studies is the academic field concerning intelligence assessment relating to international relations and military science. Intelligence assessment is based on a customer requirement or need, which may be a standing requirement or tailored to a specific circumstance or a Request for Information; the "requirement" is passed to the assessing agency and worked through the intelligence cycle, a structured method for responding to the RFI.
The RFI may indicate. The RFI is reviewed by a Requirements Manager, who will direct appropriate tasks to respond to the request; this will involve a review of existing material, the tasking of new analytical product or the collection of new information to inform an analysis. New information may be collected through one or more of the various collection disciplines; the nature of the RFI and the urgency placed on it may indicate that some collection types are unsuitable due to the time taken to collect or validate the information gathered. Intelligence gathering disciplines and the sources and methods used are highly classified and compartmentalised, with analysts requiring an appropriate high level of security clearance; the process of taking known information about situations and entities of importance to the RFI, characterizing what is known and attempting to forecast future events is termed "all source" assessment, analysis or processing. The analyst uses multiple sources to mutually corroborate, or exclude, the information collected, reaching a conclusion along with a measure of confidence around that conclusion.
Where sufficient current information exists, the analysis may be tasked directly without reference to further collection. The analysis is communicated back to the requester in the format directed, although subject to the constraints on both the RFI and the methods used in the analysis, the format may be made available for other uses as well and disseminated accordingly; the analysis will be written to a defined classification level with alternative versions available at a number of classification levels for further dissemination. This approach, known as Find-Fix-Finish-Exploit-Assess, is complementary to the intelligence cycle and focused on the intervention itself, where the subject of the assessment is identifiable and provisions exist to make some form of intervention against that subject, the target-centric assessment approach may be used; the subject for action, or target, is identified and efforts are made to find the target for further development. This activity will identify where intervention against the target will have the most beneficial effects.
When the decision is made to intervene, action is taken to fix the target, confirming that the intervention will have a high probability of success and restricting the ability of the target to take independent action. During the finish stage, the intervention is executed an arrest or detention or the placement of other collection methods. Following the intervention, exploitation of the target is carried out, which may lead to further refinement of the process for related targets; the output from the exploit stage will be passed into other intelligence assessment activities. Intelligence cycle List of intelligence gathering disciplines Military intelligence Surveillance Threat assessment Futures studies SurveysAndrew, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush Black and Morris, Benny Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services Bungert, Heike et al. eds. Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century essays by scholars Dulles, Allen W.
The Craft of Intelligence: America's Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World Kahn, David The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet, 1200 pages Lerner, K. Lee and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, eds. Encyclopedia of Espionage and Security, 1100 pages. 850 articles, strongest on technology Odom, Gen. William E. Fixing Intelligence: For a More Secure America, Second Edition O'Toole, George. Honorable Treachery: A History of U. S. Intelligence, Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA Owen, David. Hidden Secrets: A Complete History of Espionage and the Technology Used to Support It, popular Richelson, Jeffery T. A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century Richelson, Jeffery T; the U. S. Intelligence Community Shulsky, Abram N. and Schmitt, Gary J. "Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence", 285 pages West, Nigel. MI6: British Secret Intelligence Service Operations 1909–1945 West, Nigel.
Secret War: The Story of SOE, Britain's Wartime Sabotage Organization Wohlstetter, Roberta. Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision World War IBeesly, Patrick. Room 40.. Covers the breaking of German codes by RN intelligence