Human rights in Bangladesh
Human rights in Bangladesh are enshrined as fundamental rights in Part III of the Constitution of Bangladesh. However and legal experts believe many of the country's laws require reform to enforce fundamental rights and reflect democratic values of the 21st century. Proposed reforms include strengthening parliamentary supremacy, judicial independence, the separation of powers, repealing laws which restrain freedom of the press and disbanding security agencies which violate civil liberties. Though Bangladesh has Islam as its state religion and has constitutional references to Hindus and Buddhists. Governments have respected freedom of religion, a cornerstone of the Bangladeshi constitution. However, police have been slow in responding to and investigating attacks against minorities and secularists. In southeastern Bangladesh, the Chittagong Hill Tracts remains a militarized region due to a historical insurgency. Tribal people in Bangladesh have demanded constitutional recognition. According to Mizanur Rahman, the chairman of the National Human Rights Commission in 2015, 70% of allegations of human rights violations are against law enforcement agencies.
Torture and enforced disappearances are rampantly employed by Bangladeshi security forces. In recent years, free speech and media freedom have been repressed by the government through laws regulating newspapers, TV channels and the internet. Elected MPs in parliament lack voting freedoms; the future of elections is a concern among the population, with opposition parties alleging free and fair elections are not possible under the incumbent government. Local government elections in 2015 were marred by widespread allegations of vote rigging. Capital punishment remains legal in Bangladesh. Worker's rights are effected by a ban on trade unions in special economic zones; the government has targeted trade union leaders with persecution. Article 6 of the constitution proclaims "the people of Bangladesh shall be known as Bangalees as a nation"; the article discriminates against the country's significant non-Bengali population, notably the Chakma, Garo, Marma, Tripuri, Tanchangya and Rohingya. The issue was addressed by Chakma politician Manabendra Narayan Larma during proceedings of the constituent assembly of Bangladesh in 1972.
Larma famously proclaimed that "Under no definition or logic can a Chakma be a Bengali or a Bengali be a Chakma.... As citizens of Bangladesh, we are all Bangladeshis, but we have a separate ethnic identity, which the Awami League leaders do not want to understand"; the substantial Bihari population complain of discrimination. Article 23A goes on to describe minorities as "tribes" and "minor races"; the constitution's proclamation of a People's Republic and socialism in its preamble and Article 10 are at odds with Bangladesh's free market economy, entrepreneurial class, diverse corporate sector and owners of private property. Six general elections were won by pro-market political parties, while four elections were won by left-wing parties. Bangladesh ranked 128th out of 178 countries in the 2017 Index of Economic Freedom. Article 11 proclaims that "the Republic shall be a democracy in which fundamental human rights and freedoms and respect for the dignity and worth of the human person shall be guaranteed".
The government enacted the anti-torture law, called Torture and Custodial Death Act, in 2013. However, torture is used by Bangladeshi security forces, including the police and military. In 2017, the police asked the prime minister to scrap the anti-torture law. Article 32 proclaims "no person shall be deprived of life or personal liberty save in accordance with law". In reality, Bangladesh has a large number of extrajudicial killings and enforced disappearances each year; the Rapid Action Battalion is accused of being the leading perpetrator of such human rights abuses, followed by the Bangladesh Police, the Directorate General of Forces Intelligence and the Bangladesh Army. Forced labor is prohibited under Article 34, but Bangladesh has significant challenges of human trafficking and modern slavery. Although there is general freedom of assembly in Bangladesh, the political opposition is restricted from holding public meetings and rallies by the government. On 3 January 2019, Human Rights Watch called for an investigation on attack on members of the opposition party on and before Bangladesh elections.
In spite of Article 38 calling for freedom okf association, trade union leaders from the textile industry face arbitrary arrests and politically motivated lawsuits. Forming trade unions is banned in export processing zones, but the government has pledged to remove the ban. Free speech is enshrined under Article 39. During the 1990s and first one and a half decade of the 21st century, the Bangladeshi media enjoyed more freedom than at any other time in history. However, since the 2014 election in which the incumbent Awami League won a boycotted election, press freedom has declined; the ruling party has targeted the country's two leading newspapers The Daily Star and Prothom Alo with numerous lawsuits and has encouraged businesses to stop advertising in those papers. Pro-opposition journalists Mahmudur Rahman and Shafik Rehman were detained for prolonged periods. Nurul Kabir, editor of the New Age, has faced threats to personal life. Mahfuz Anam, editor of The Daily Star, has faced 83 lawsuits since 2016.
Reporters without Borders ranked Bangladesh at 146th out of 180 countries in its index of press freedom. According to Amnesty International, independent media outlets and journalists have come under severe pressure by the government. Several journalists faced arbitrary criminal charges for publishing cri
Minister of Foreign Affairs (Bangladesh)
The Minister of Foreign Affairs is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Constitution of Bangladesh President of Bangladesh Prime Minister of Bangladesh Politics of Bangladesh http://www.mofa.gov.bd/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=496&Itemid=517
Politics of Bangladesh
Politics of Bangladesh takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Bangladesh is the head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the parliament; the Constitution of Bangladesh has undergone sixteen amendments. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Bangladesh as "hybrid regime" in 2016; the three major parties in Bangladesh are the Bangladesh Nationalist Party and Bangladesh Awami League and Jatiya Party. BNP finds its allies among some Islamist parties like Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh while the Awami League aligns itself traditionally with leftist and secularist parties. Another important player is the Jatiya Party, headed by former military ruler Hossain Mohammad Ershad; the Awami League-BNP rivalry has been bitter and punctuated by protests and murder. Student politics is strong in Bangladesh, a legacy from the liberation movement era. All parties have active student wings, students have been elected to the Parliament.
Three radical Islamist parties, Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh and Jama'atul Mujahideen Bangladesh, Harkatul Jihad were banned in February 2005 on grounds of militancy and terrorism. Following the first series of bans, a series of bomb attacks took place in the country in August 2005; the evidence of staging these attacks by these extremist groups have been found in the investigation, hundreds of suspected members were detained in numerous security operations in 2006, including the two chiefs of the JMB, Shaykh Abdur Rahman and Bangla Bhai, who were executed with other top leaders in March 2007, bringing the radical parties to an end. A caretaker government was first introduced in 1990 when three political alliances jointly made a demand for it. Following the forced resignation of General Ershad, the three alliances nominated Chief Justice Shahbuddin Ahmed as the Chief Advisor. A Caretaker government is headed by a Chief Adviser who enjoys the same power as the regular prime minister of the country except defence matters.
The Advisors function as Ministers. Since 1996, the Caretaker government has held the elections of 1996, 2001 and 2008. Although the first caretaker government was intended to help the transition from authoritarianism to democracy, this system was institutionalized in 1996 by the Sixth Parliament dominated by Bangladesh Nationalist Party, yielding to boycotting opposition pressure. In Bangladesh, there was a Caretaker Government for the period of 1990-91 with understanding of political parties. There were CTG formed within constitutional framework in 1996, 2001 and 2006 followed by 13th amendment to the constitution passed in the parliament. Besides, an extra-constitutional military-backed CTG was installed in 2007 which governed Bangladesh without legitimacy that handed over to elected political party following 29 December 2008 parliamentary election when they were failed to continue as pressured by international world. According to the provision of CTG in the Bangladesh Constitution, there were 6 options to appoint Chief Advisor.
Last option of CA is the President. CTG had to hold election within 90 days and in 120 days power could be handed over to elected political party. Day to day affair or routine duty and holding parliamentary election are mandated responsibility of CTG; the military backed CTG was formed without constitutional provision, CA was appointed violating provision of constitution, performed all responsibilities of regular elected government and lasted for 2 years. Army chief used to attend the advisory council meetings and pressured cabinet to take decision as he wanted. Advisor to the President M Mukhlesur Rahman Chowdhury was ousted as he was against army move and President Iajuddin Ahmed had to run presidency at the gun point. Lt. Gen. Moeen upgraded army chief's rank to General and to maintain balance other two forces chiefs accordingly. Moeen made his one-year extension without lawful authority in absence of regular elected government. Senior Advisor and Minister of State Mukhles Chowdhury tried utmost, solved political problem and thereby brought rival political parties to the planned parliamentary elections of 22 January 2007.
However, by cancelling H M Ershad's nomination Moeen staged a military coup on 11 January 2007. Former state minister for home affairs Lutfuzzaman Babar was used for this purpose. Political dynasties have long been a feature of the Bangladesh political landscape since the country's independence in 1971, they are characterized as families that have established their political or economic dominance in a party, in national government or other positions of national political prominence. Members of such dynasties do not limit their involvement to political activities, have been found participating in business or culture-related activities; this idea of inherited wealth and connections discouraging future generations to work hard can be attributed to dynastic politicians. Dynastic politicians have a significant advantage from the start of their political career They have a statistically higher probability, due to factors like popularity and incumbency advantage, to win elections when pitted against politicians with no such political networks.
Dynastic politicians have lower educational attainment, because of their reliance on dynastic connections rather than bureaucratic or academic competence for their position. Dynastic candidates, being exclusively from the upper classes, are biased towards defending their own vested economic interests, which presents conflict of interest problems. Political d
The Bangladesh passport is an ICAO compliant, machine readable passport issued in Bangladesh for the purpose of international travel of the passport holder. The passport is issued by the Government of The People's Republic of Bangladesh or by any of its overseas missions to eligible Bangladeshi nationals who are citizens by birth, by descent or through naturalization; the passport booklet is manufactured and issued by the Department of Immigration and Passports. The Government of Bangladesh issues three different types of passports; these are Diplomatic passports with a red cover. Diplomatic passports are only issued to diplomats of Bangladesh. Official passports are only issued to Bangladesh government employees, government officials and envoys. Regular or ordinary passports are issued to the rest of the citizens of Bangladesh; the passport is aesthetically designed with all the blank visa pages of the passport covered in images of important historical landmarks and buildings of Bangladesh, as well as popular Bangladeshi tourist attractions, with their names written in both Bengali and English.
Page numbers of the passport are bilingual – written both in Bengali and in English. Prior to the machine-readable passport, the Department of Immigration & Passports of the Government of Bangladesh used to issue tradition handwritten or manual passports. In 2010, the Bangladesh government announced a plan to replace over 6.6 million handwritten passports with new machine-readable passports. Following the guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Bangladesh government started issuing machine-readable passport and machine-readable visa in April 2010. However, all traditional handwritten passports were honored as bona fide travel documents issued by the Bangladesh government until they expired. All traditional handwritten passports were withdrawn from circulation before ICAO's international deadline of November 2015; the Bangladeshi government in 2016 announced its intention to issue e-passports, which Home Minister Asaduzzaman Khan Kamal said would ease immigration and visa procedures for Bangladeshi passport holders.
The new Bangladesh e-Passport will be provided by a German company along with 50 e-Gates by the end of December 2018. Ordinary passport is issued to ordinary citizens for international travel, such as for vacation and business trips etc. Official passport is issued to individuals representing the Bangladeshi government on official business. Diplomatic passport is issued to Bangladeshi diplomats, top ranking government officials and diplomatic couriers. All Bangladeshi passports issued since 2010 are Machine Readable Passports. Bangladeshi passports are dark green, with the Seal of the Government of Bangladesh emblazoned in golden color in the centre of the front cover; the word “পাসপোর্ট” and “Passport” are inscribed above the Seal. Below the Seal “গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ”; the standard Bangladesh passport contains 48 pages, however frequent travellers can opt for a passport containing 64 pages. The inside cover contains the date and place of issuance of the passport as well as the declaration of the President, addressing the authorities of all other states, identifying the bearer as a citizen of the People's Republic of Bangladesh and requesting that he or she be allowed to pass and be treated as per international norms.
The note inside of the Bangladeshi passports states: In Bengali: গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশের রাষ্ট্রপতির পক্ষে সংশ্লিষ্ট সকলকে এই মর্মে জানান যাইতেছে এবং প্রত্যাশা করা হইতেছে যে, ইহার বাহককে অবাধে ও বিনা প্রতিবন্ধকতায় গমনাগমনের অনুমতি এবং তাহার প্রয়োজনে সকল প্রকার সহায়তা ও নিরাপত্তা প্রদান করা হউক। গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশের রাষ্ট্রপতির আদেশক্রমেIn English: These are to request and require in the name of the President of the People's Republic of Bangladesh all those whom it may concern to allow the bearer to pass without let or hindrance and to afford him/her every assistance and protection of which he/she may stand in need. By order of the President of the People's Republic of Bangladesh The text of Bangladeshi passports is printed in both Bangla and English. Information about the passport holder are spread across seven or more pages in the contemporary Bangladesh passport; the field names are written in Bengali and English, with the field values is written in English only. No information regarding gender or faith are required.
The inside cover of a machine-readable Bangladeshi passport has an embossed image of the National Martyrs Mausoleum, with Amar Shonar Bangla, the national anthem of Bangladesh, written in Bengali and English. The first page contains the President's declaration in Bengali and English, states that the passport is valid for all the countries in the world except Israel; the second page is the main data page. It contains all information pre-printed on a thin plastic sheet; the information printed includes: Photo of bearer Passport type Country code Passport no. Surname Given Name Nationality Personal no. Date of birth Previous passport no. Sex Place of birth Date of issue Issuing authority Date of expiry Holder's signature More information regarding the passport holder is encoded using op
President of Bangladesh
The President of Bangladesh is the Head of State of Bangladesh. The role of the president has been changed three times since Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971. In 1991, with the restoration of a democratically elected government, Bangladesh adopted a parliamentary democracy; the President is now a ceremonial post elected by the parliament. In 1996, Parliament passed new laws enhancing the President's executive authority, as laid down in the constitution, after the Parliament dissolves; the President resides at the Bangabhaban, his office and residence. The President is elected by the 300 parliamentarians in an open ballot, thus represents the majority party of the legislature, he continues to hold in office after his five-year term expires until a successor is elected to the presidency. Although the position of President holds de jure importance, its de facto powers are ceremonial; the Constitution allows the President to act only upon the advice of the Prime Minister and his/her Cabinet.
The President can appoint the following to office: By Article 56, the Prime Minister and his/her Cabinet, with the limitation that the Prime Minister must be a parliamentarian who holds the confidence of the majority of the House. The President can dismiss a member of Cabinet upon the request of the Prime Minister. By Article 95, the Chief Justice and other Judges of the Court. By Article 118, the Bangladesh Election Commission, including the Chief; the President has the prerogative of mercy by Article 49 of the Constitution, which allows him to grant pardon to anybody, overriding any verdict given by any Court in Bangladesh. By Article 80, the President can refuse to assent to any bill passed by the parliament, sending it back for review. A bill is enacted only after the President assents to it, but when the bill is passed again by the parliament, if the president further fail or refuse to assent a bill, after a certain period of days, the bill will be automatically transformed into law and will be considered as assented by the president.
Chancellor is a titular position at Universities in Bangladesh, always held by the incumbent President of Bangladesh under the Private Universities Act 1992. The position in public universities is not fixed for the president under any acts or laws, but it has been the custom so far to name the incumbent president of the country as chancellor of all state universities thus established; the Constitution of Bangladesh sets the principle qualifications one must meet to be eligible to the office of the President. A person shall not be qualified for election as President if he- is less than thirty-five years of age. Certain conditions, as per Article 27 of the Constitution, debar any eligible citizen from contesting the presidential elections; the conditions are: No person shall hold office as President for more than two terms, whether or not the terms are consecutive. The President shall not be a member of Parliament, if a member of Parliament is elected as President he shall vacate his seat in Parliament on the day on which he enters upon his office as President.
Whenever the office becomes vacant, the new President is chosen by members of Parliament. Although presidential elections involve actual voting by MPs, they tend to vote for the candidate supported by their respective parties; the president may be impeached and subsequently removed from office by a two-thirds majority vote of the parliament. The President is required to make and subscribe in the presence of the Speaker of the Jatiya Sangsad, an oath or affirmation that he/she shall protect and defend the Constitution as follows: I, do solemnly swear that I will faithfully discharge the duties of the office of President of Bangladesh according to law: That I will bear true faith and allegiance to Bangladesh: That I will preserve and defend the Constitution: And that I will do right to all manner of people according to law, without fear or favour, affection or ill-will" The President is granted immunity for all his actions by Article 51 of the Constitution and is not answerable to anybody for his actions, no criminal charges can be brought to the Court against him.
The only exception to this immunity is. Article 54 of the Constitution of Bangladesh provides for the succession of the President, it states that in case of absence due to illness or other reasons, the Speaker of the Jatiya Sangsad will act as the President of Bangladesh until the President resumes office. This Article was used during the ascension of Speaker Jamiruddin Sircar as the Acting President of the State following the resignation of former President A. Q. M. Badruddoza Chowdhury, when President Zillur Rahman could not discharge his duties due to his illness, death. Since Bangladesh is a parliamentary system, it does not have a Vice President. However, during the presidential system of governance, Bangladesh had a Vice President who would assume the President's role in his absence. A President can resign from office by writing a letter by hand to the Speaker; the President can be impeached by the Parliament. In case of impeachment, the Parliament must bring specific charges against the President, investigate it themselves, or refer it to any other body for investigation.
The President will have the right to defend himself. Following the proceedings, the President is impeached if tw
Leader of the Opposition (Bangladesh)
The Leader of the Opposition leads the Official Opposition in the Jatiya Sangsad, the national parliament of Bangladesh. The Leader of the Opposition is the leader of the largest party not within the government, the second largest political party in the Jatiya Sangsad; the post carries weight-age of cabinet minister and is seen comparable to prime minister, leader of house and ruling party. There is no Opposition Leader in the 1st and the 6th Parliament
Bangladesh Nationalist Party
The Bangladesh Nationalist Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties of Bangladesh. It was founded on 1 September 1978 by former Bangladesh President Ziaur Rahman after the Presidential election of 1978, with a view to uniting the people with nationalist ideology of the country. Since the BNP won the second, fifth and eighth national elections and two Presidential elections in 1978 and 1981; the party holds the record of being the largest opposition in the history of parliamentary elections of the country, with 116 seats in the seventh national election of June 1996. It does not have representation in parliament after its boycotting of the 2014 national election; the party holds the ideology of Bangladeshi nationalism as its core concept and adopted a 19-point program which declared that "The sovereignty and independence of Bangladesh, golden fruits of the historic liberation struggle, is our sacred trust and inviolable right". The founding manifesto of the BNP claims that the people of Bangladesh want to "...see that all-out faith and confidence in the almighty Allah, democracy and socialism of social and economic justice are reflected in all spheres of national life".
BNP and its student wing was the driving force in the 1990 uprising against the autocratic Ershad rule that culminated in the fall of the regime and the restoration of democracy in Bangladesh. Begum Khaleda Zia, who served as the party's chairperson from 1983, was elected as the first woman Prime Minister of Bangladesh and the second female Prime Minister of a Muslim majority country after Pakistan's Benazir Bhutto. Begum Khaleda Zia is the chairperson of the party, with Tarique Rahman as the senior vice-chairman and Mirza Fakhrul Islam Alamgir as the secretary-general. On 22 February 1978, a new party, Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Dal, was formed with Justice Abdus Sattar as the coordinator. Most of the prominent figures were from the advisory council, running the country at that time. Jagadal was the first attempt to create a platform for the nationalists of the country. Major General M. Majid ul Haq, Professor Syed Ali Ahsan, Shamsul Alam Chowdhury, A. Z. M. Enayetullah Khan, M. Hamidullah Khan, Jakaria Chowdhury, Professor Dr. M. R. Khan, Saifur Rahman were prominent figures.
JAGODAL was dissolved on 28 August 1978 to consolidate its membership under the newly formed Jatiyatabadi Front. On 1 May 1978 the Jatiyatabadi Front or Nationalist Front was formed with Ziaur Rahman as the chief of the front, which JAGODAL joined soon after its formation. A major portion of NAP joined the front as well with Mashiur Rahman. Shah Azizur Rahman with some of his colleagues from Muslim League. Kazi Zafar Ahmed and a faction of United Peoples Party, Maolana Matin with his Labour Party, minority leader Rashraj Mandal with Tafsili Jati Federation joined. Ziaur Rahman was their candidate for the Presidential Election of 3 June 1978. Ziaur Rahman won the election, defeating M. A. G. Osmani of Ganatantrik Oikya Jote, backed by the Bangladesh Awami League. After the Presidential election of 1978 the Bangladesh Nationalist Party was established on 1 September; the constitution of the party was drafted in 21 days of the formation with 76 members with Ziaur Rahman as the chief convener, M. Hamidullah Khan as the Executive Secretary and Dr. A. Q. M. Badruddoza Chowdhury was appointed as the Secretary General.
Founding convening committee The BNP formed its first government after the 1979 Bangladesh general election. The first session of the parliament was 2 April 1979, it elected leader of the parliament. Mirza Ghulam Hafiz was elected as the speaker of the parliament. Asaduzzaman Khan from the Awami League became the leader of the opposition. During this time it attracted a large pool of supporters and activists who joined the newly formed students wing and youth wing. After the formation of the government, the first executive committee of the party was declared. A national standing committee was formed as the highest decision making forum of the party with 12 members. Founding National Standing Committee A youth wing was formed in September 1978, named Bangladesh Jatiyatabadi Jubo Dal with Abul Kashem as chief convener; the Dhaka unit convener was Saifur Rahman. Within a couple of months the central executive committee of Jubo Dal was declared with Abul Kashem and Saifur Rahman as the President and general secretary respectively.
Mirza Abbas became the Dhaka unit President with Kamruzzaman Ayat Ali as the Secretary General. On 30 May 1981 the founder of the party/ President Ziaur Rahman was assassinated in the Chittagong Circuit House by a small group of military officials. After the assassination of Ziaur Rahman, large crowds started protesting in major cities like Dhaka and Chittagong; the funeral of Ziaur Rahman became a huge event with the participation of millions of people in Dhaka. In the Bangladeshi presidential election, 1981 Abdus Sattar was elected, he formed a National Security Council to involve the Bangladesh Armed Forces. Meanwhile, Vice-President Mirza Nurul Huda resigned from his post in March 1982. Army Chief Hussain Muhammad Ershad thwarted the elected government of Justice Sattar on 24 March 1982 and replaced him with Justice A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury; the BNP was thrown out of power. Many of its leaders were imprisoned, including former Minister S. A. Bari, Saifur Rahman, Habibullah Khan, Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui, Atauddin Khan, Jamal Uddin Ahmed, K.
M. Obaidur Rahman, Abul Hasnat, Moudud Ahmed. 233 leaders of BNP were arrested from March to July 1982. From 1983, Begum Khaleda Zia became the de facto decision maker of the party. Unde