Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso
Municipalities of Bolivia
Municipalities in Bolivia are administrative divisions of the entire national territory governed by local elections. Municipalities are the third level of administrative divisions, below provinces; some of the provinces consist of only one municipality. In these cases the municipalities are identical to the provinces. Municipalities in Bolivia are each led by an executive office. Mayors were appointed by the national government from 1878 to 1942 and from 1949 to 1987. Local elections were held under the 1942 municipal code, in force until 1991; the 1985 Organic Law of Municipalities restored local elections for mayor and created a legislative body, the municipal council. In 1994, the entire territory of Bolivia was merged into municipalities, where only urban areas were organized as municipalities; as an effect of decentralization through the 1994 Law of Popular Participation the number of municipalities in Bolivia has risen from an initial twenty-four to 327, to 337, to 339. Of the 327 municipalities existing after 2005, 187 are inhabited by indigenous population.
New municipalities must have 5,000 in the case of border areas. The municipalities are as follows ordered by department: Baures Municipality Exaltación Municipality Guayaramerín Municipality Huacaraje Municipality Loreto Municipality, Beni Magdalena Municipality, Beni Puerto Siles Municipality Reyes Municipality Riberalta Municipality Rurrenabaque Municipality San Andrés Municipality, Beni San Borja Municipality San Ignacio Municipality, Beni San Javier Municipality, Beni San Joaquín Municipality, Beni San Ramón Municipality, Beni Santa Ana Municipality, Beni Santa Rosa Municipality, Beni Trinidad Municipality, Beni Aiquile Municipality Alalay Municipality Anzaldo Municipality Arani Municipality Arbieto Municipality Arque Municipality Ayopaya Municipality Bolívar Municipality, Cochabamba Capinota Municipality Chimoré Municipality Cliza Municipality Cocapata Municipality Cochabamba Municipality Colcapirhua Municipality Colomi Municipality Cuchumuela Municipality Entre Ríos Municipality, Cochabamba Mizque Municipality Morochata Municipality Muela Municipality Omereque Municipality Pasorapa Municipality Pocona Municipality Pojo Municipality Puerto Villarroel Municipality Punata Municipality Quillacollo Municipality Sacaba Municipality Sacabamba Municipality San Benito Municipality Santivañez Municipality Shinahota Municipality / Shinaota Municipality / Sinahota Municipality Sicaya Municipality Sipe Sipe Municipality Tacachi Municipality Tacopaya Municipality Tapacarí Municipality Tarata Municipality Tiquipaya Municipality Tiraque Municipality Toco Municipality Tolata Municipality Totora Municipality Tunari Municipality Vacas Municipality Vila Vila Municipality Vinto Municipality Azurduy Municipality Camargo Municipality, Chuquisaca Culpina Municipality El Villar Municipality Huacareta Municipality Huacaya Municipality Icla Municipality Incahuasi Municipality Mojocoya Municipality Camataqui Municipality Las Carreras Municipality Macharetí Municipality Monteagudo Municipality Padilla Municipality Poroma Municipality Presto Municipality San Lucas Municipality Sopachuy Municipality Sucre Municipality, Bolivia Tarabuco Municipality Tomina Municipality Villa Alcalá Municipality Villa Charcas Municipality Villa Serrano Municipality Villa Vaca Guzmán Municipality Villa Zudañez Municipality Tarvita Municipality Yotala Municipality Yamparáez Municipality Achacachi Municipality Achocalla Municipality Alto Beni Municipality Ancoraimes Municipality Apolo Municipality Aucapata Municipality Ayata Municipality Ayo Ayo Municipality Batallas Municipality Cairoma Municipality Cajuata Municipality Calacoto Municipality Calamarca Municipality Caquiaviri Municipality Caranavi Municipality Catacora Municipality Chacarilla Municipality Charaña Municipality Chúa Cocani Municipality Chulumani Municipality Chuma Municipality Collana Municipality Colquencha Municipality Colquiri Municipality Comanche Municipality Combaya Municipality Copacabana Municipality, La Paz Coripata Municipality Coro Coro Municipality Coroico Municipality Curva Municipality Desaguadero Municipality El Alto Municipality, La Paz Escoma Municipality General Juan José Pérez Municipality Guanay Municipality Guaqui Municipality Huatajata Municipality Huarina Municipality Humanata Municipality Ichoca Municipality Inquisivi Municipality Irupana Municipality Ixiamas Municipality La Asunta Municipality La Paz Municipality Laja Municipality Licoma Pampa Municipality Luribay Municipality Malla Municipality Mecapaca Municipality Mocomoco Municipality Nazacara de Pacajes Municipality Palca Municipality Palos Blancos Municipality Papel Pampa Municipality Patacamaya Municipality Pelechuco Municipality Pucarani Municipality Puerto Acosta Municipality Puerto Carabuco Municipality Puerto Pérez Municipality Quiabaya Municipality Quime Municipality San Buenaventura Municipality, La Paz San Pedro de Curahuara Municipality San Pedro de Tiquina Municipality Santiago de Callapa Municipality Santiago de Huata Municipality Santiago de Machaca Municipality Sapahaqui Municipality Sica Sica Municipality Sorata Municipality Tacacoma Municipality Tiwanaku Municipality Tipuani Municipality Tito Yupanqui Municipality Umala Municipality Viacha Municipality Waldo Ballivián Municipality Yaco Municipality Yanacachi Municipality Andamarca Municipality Antequera Municipality Belén de Andamarca Municipality Caracollo Municipality Carangas Municipality Challapata Municipality Chipaya Municipality Choquecota Municipality Coipasa Municipality Corque Municipality Cruz de Machacamarca Municipality Curahuara de Carangas Municipality El Choro Municipalit
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
David Choquehuanca Céspedes is a Bolivian politician. He served as the Foreign Minister of Bolivia from 23 January 2006 to 23 January 2017, he was designated the Secretary General of the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas in March 2017. Choquehuanca, an Aymara Indian, is an activist in the Aymara indigenous and campesino movement, he worked in support of the Unified Syndical Confederation of Rural Workers of Bolivia, through various political actions and congresses. From 1998 to 2005, he worked as National Coordinator of the Programa Nina, an NGO consortium that provides training to rural movement leaders, he has worked with international agencies and has been an advisor to President Evo Morales, a fellow Aymara, since before Morales's election to the Presidency. He is considered one of the most important ministers of Morales, he and Luis Arce Catacora, Minister of Economy and Finance, were the only people to serve in their cabinet posts for over a decade during Evo Morales' presidency. Observers have described Choquehuanca as the leader of a pachamamista or indigenista faction within the cabinet, counterposed to the pragmatic developmentalism of Arce and Vice President Álvaro García Linera.
Choquehuanca visited the Eighth Grand National Indigenous March twice on behalf of the government. On September 14 and 15, he conveyed the message that "We cannot change what the president has decided" at the beginning of a long but fruitless dialogue with leaders of CIDOB and the Subcentral TIPNIS. From September 15, the march was blockaded from advancing by a crowd of some 200 campesino and colonizers' union members at the San Lorenzo bridge of Yucumo. Between the two protests, police set up a their own blockade. On the morning of September 24, Choquehuanca returned to the indigenous march. Again negotiations with the march leadership were inconclusive. A group of female marchers grabbed Choquehuanca and led him marching down the highway in an effort to circumvent the police blockade. At the police blockade, a tense standoff escalated into a brief confrontation, but the marchers succeeded in passing the police line. Several government officials, including Minister of Interior Sacha Llorenti and Minister of Transparency Nardi Suxo, said that this was a "kidnapping", but Choquehuanca steadfastly refused to label it as such saying that "the sisters and comrades grabbed me they had thought that they would pass that police encirclement with the Chancellor.
La Paz Prosecutor Patrica Santos, charged with investigating the events, received Choquehuanca's testimony to this effect on 21 November. In February 2012, the Prosecutor's Office subpoenaed twenty-six leaders of the indigenous movement and its allies to testify in an investigation of the incident as an alleged homicide. Former human rights ombudsman Waldo Albarracín has described the charges of kidnapping and attempted homicide as without merit. List of foreign ministers in 2017
Foreign policy of the Evo Morales administration
The foreign policy of the Evo Morales administration concerns the policy initiatives made towards other states by the current President of Bolivia, in difference to past, or future, Bolivian foreign policy. Morales' foreign policy can be divided between that of the Americas and the rest of the world. From December 29, 2005, Evo Morales undertook an international tour described by Latin American media as exceptional. For two weeks, Morales visited several countries in search of political and economic support for his agenda for the transformation of Bolivia; this tour is said to have constituted a break with decades of tradition in which the first international destination visited by a president-elect in Bolivia was the United States. His itinerary reinforced the view that his election was part of a strengthening of "anti-imperialist" governments and movements in Latin America. In September 2006, he spoke at the United Nations General Assembly, holding a coca leaf, saying: ‘I should like to take this opportunity to speak of another historical injustice: the criminalization of the coca leaf.
This coca leaf is green, not white, like cocaine. The coca leaf is symbolic of Andean culture, of the hopes of peoples, it is not acceptable that the coca leaf be legal for Coca-Cola and illegal for medicinal consumption not only in our country but throughout the world. ‘The United Nations should be aware that scientific studies have been carried out in American and European universities that have shown that the coca leaf has no negative effects on human health. I am sorry that because some have a drug habit, the coca leaf has become illegal. We are aware of that; that is why, as coca leaf producers, we have stated that there will not be unfettered coca leaf production, but neither will there be zero production. Conditionality-based policies implemented in the past focused on zero coca-leaf production, but zero coca-leaf production is equivalent to zero Quechuas, zero Aymarás, zero Mojeños, zero Chiquitanos. All of that ended with another Government. We are an underdeveloped country with economic problems resulting from the pillage of our natural resources.
We are here today to begin to regain the dignity of our country. ‘In that context, I wish to say that the best contribution to combating drug trafficking has been through an agreed, voluntary reduction, with no deaths or injuries. I was pleased to hear that the United Nations report recognizes the honest and responsible effort, made to combat drug trafficking. Drug seizures have increased 300 per cent. However, yesterday I heard the United States Government state that it would not accept coca cultivation and that it was imposing conditions on us so that we would change our system. In September, 2007, Morales appeared on "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart". There he discussed various political issues. Morales was only the second sitting head of state to appear on the show and the first to be interviewed on the show using a translator. On April 28, 2008, again he addressed the United Nations at the inauguration of the UN's VII Indigenous Forum UNPFII - United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, with his proposed 10 Commandments to save the Planet, summarized as: In order to save the planet, the capitalist model must be eradicated and the North pay its ecological debt, rather than the countries of the South and throughout the world continuing to pay their external debts.
Denounce and PUT AN END to war, which only brings profits for empires, a few families, but not for peoples. The million and millions of dollars destined to warfare should be invested in the Earth, hurt as a result of misuse and overexploitation. Develop relations of coexistence, rather than domination, among countries in a world without imperialism or colonialism. Bilateral and multilateral relations are important because we belong to a culture of dialogue and social coexistence, but those relationships should not be of submission of one country to another. Water is a right for all living things on the planet, it is not possible. Develop clean energies that are nature friendly. In 100 years we are doing away with the fossil fuels. Avoid the promotion of agrofuels, it is incomprehensible that some governments and economic development models can set aside land in order to make luxury cars run, rather than using it to provide food for human beings. Promote debates with governments and create awareness that the earth must be used for the benefit of all human beings and not to produce agrofuels.
Respect for the mother Earth. Learn from the historic teachings of native and indigenous peoples with regard to the respect for the mother Earth. A collective social consciousness must be developed among all sectors of society, recognizing that the Earth is our mother. Basic services, such as water, education, healthcare and collective transportation should all be considered human rights. Consume what is necessary, give priority and consume what is produced locally, put an end to consumerism and luxury, it is incomprehensible that some families dedicate themselves to the search for luxury, when millions and millions of persons do not have the possibility to live well. Promote cultural and economic diversity. We are diverse and this is our nature. A plurinational state, in which everyone is included within that state - whites, blacks, everyone. We want everyone to be able to live well, which does not mean to live better at the expense of others. We must build a communitarian socialism that
The Atacama Desert is a desert plateau in South America covering a 1000-km strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains. The Atacama desert is one of the driest places in the world, as well as the only true desert to receive less precipitation than the polar deserts. According to estimates, the Atacama Desert occupies 105,000 km2, or 128,000 km2 if the barren lower slopes of the Andes are included. Most of the desert is composed of stony terrain, salt lakes and felsic lava that flows towards the Andes; the desert owes its extreme aridity to a constant temperature inversion due to the cool north-flowing Humboldt ocean current, to the presence of the strong Pacific anticyclone. The most arid region of the Atacama desert is situated between two mountain chains of sufficient height to prevent moisture advection from either the Pacific or the Atlantic Oceans, a two-sided rain shadow. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the Atacama Desert ecoregion occupies a continuous strip for nearly 1,600 km along the narrow coast of the northern third of Chile, from near Arica southward to near La Serena.
The National Geographic Society considers the coastal area of southern Peru to be part of the Atacama Desert and includes the deserts south of the Ica Region in Peru. Peru borders it on the north and the Chilean Matorral ecoregion borders it on the south. To the east lies the less arid Central Andean dry puna ecoregion; the drier portion of this ecoregion is located south of the Loa River between the parallel Sierra Vicuña Mackenna and Cordillera Domeyko. To the north of the Loa lies the Pampa del Tamarugal; the Coastal Cliff of northern Chile west of the Chilean Coast Range is the main topographical feature of the coast. The geomorphology of the Atacama Desert has been characterized as a low-relief bench "similar to a giant uplifted terrace" by Armijo and co-workers; the intermediate depression forms a series of endorheic basins in much of Atacama Desert south of latitude 19°30'S. North of this latitude, the intermediate depression drains into the Pacific Ocean. Although the total lack of precipitation is the most prominent characteristic of the Atacama Desert, exceptions may occur.
In July 2011, an extreme Antarctic cold front broke through the rain shadow, bringing 80 cm of snow to the plateau, stranding residents across the region in Bolivia, where many drivers became stuck in snow drifts and emergency crews became overtaxed with a large number of rescue calls. In 2012, the altiplano winter brought floods to San Pedro de Atacama. On 25 March 2015, heavy rainfall affected the southern part of the Atacama Desert. Resulting floods triggered mudflows that affected the cities of Copiapo, Tierra Amarilla and Diego de Almagro, causing the deaths of more than 100 people; the Atacama Desert is known as the driest nonpolar place in the world the surroundings of the abandoned Yungay town. The average rainfall is about 15 mm per year, although some locations, such as Arica and Iquique, receive 1 to 3 mm in a year. Moreover, some weather stations in the Atacama have never received rain. Periods up to four years have been registered with no rainfall in the central sector, delimited by the cities of Antofagasta and Copiapó, in Chile.
Evidence suggests that the Atacama may not have had any significant rainfall from 1570 to 1971. The Atacama Desert may be the oldest desert on earth, has experienced extreme hyperaridity for at least 3 million years, making it the oldest continuously arid region on earth; the long history of aridity raises the possibility that supergene mineralisation, under the appropriate conditions, can form in arid environments, instead of requiring humid conditions. The presence of evaporite formations suggest that in some sections of the Atacama Desert, arid conditions have persisted for the last 200 million years; the Atacama is so arid that many mountains higher than 6,000 m are free of glaciers. Only the highest peaks have some permanent snow coverage; the southern part of the desert, between 25 and 27°S, may have been glacier-free throughout the Quaternary, though permafrost extends down to an altitude of 4,400 m and is continuous above 5,600 m. Studies by a group of British scientists have suggested that some river beds have been dry for 120,000 years.
However, some locations in the Atacama receive a marine fog known locally as the camanchaca, providing sufficient moisture for hypolithic algae and some cacti—the genus Copiapoa is notable among these. Geographically, the aridity of the Atacama is explained by it being situated between two mountain chains of sufficient height to prevent moisture advection from either the Pacific or the Atlantic Oceans, a two-sided rain shadow. In a region about 100 km south of Antofagasta, which averages 3,000 m in elevation, the soil has been compared to that of Mars. Owing to its otherworldly appearance, the Atacama has been used as a location for filming Mars scenes, most notably in the television series Space Odyssey: Voyage to the Planets. In 2003, a team of researchers published a report in which they duplicated the tests used by the Viking 1 and Viking 2 Mars landers to detect life, were unable to detect any signs in Atacama Desert soil in the region of Yungay; the region may be unique on Earth in this regard, is being used by NASA to test instru
Bolivia the Plurinational State of Bolivia is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre; the largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales a flat region in the east of Bolivia. The sovereign state of Bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments, its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. With 1,098,581 km2 of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America, the 27th largest in the world and the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere; the country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Africans.
The racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages have official status, of which the most spoken are Guarani and Quechua languages. Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in large part upon the silver, extracted from Bolivia's mines. After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century Bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by Chile in 1879.
Bolivia remained politically stable until 1971, when Hugo Banzer led a coup d'état which replaced the socialist government of Juan José Torres with a military dictatorship headed by Banzer. Banzer's regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of Bolivian citizens. Banzer was ousted in 1978 and returned as the democratically elected president of Bolivia from 1997 to 2001. Modern Bolivia is a charter member of the UN, IMF, NAM, OAS, ACTO, Bank of the South, ALBA and USAN. For over a decade Bolivia has had one of the highest economic growth rates in Latin America, it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index, a poverty level of 38.6%, one of the lowest crime rates in Latin America. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing and manufacturing goods such as textiles, refined metals, refined petroleum. Bolivia is rich in minerals, including tin and lithium. Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a Venezuelan leader in the Spanish American wars of independence.
The leader of Venezuela, Antonio José de Sucre, had been given the option by Bolívar to either unite Charcas with the newly formed Republic of Peru, to unite with the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or to formally declare its independence from Spain as a wholly independent state. Sucre opted to create a brand new state and on 6 August 1825, with local support, named it in honor of Simón Bolívar; the original name was Republic of Bolívar. Some days congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed: "If from Romulus comes Rome from Bolívar comes Bolivia"; the name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825. In 2009, a new constitution changed the country's official name to "Plurinational State of Bolivia" in recognition of the multi-ethnic nature of the country and the enhanced position of Bolivia's indigenous peoples under the new constitution; the region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years. However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, in Western Bolivia.
The capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as 1500 BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village. The community grew to urban proportions between AD 600 and AD 800, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes. According to early estimates, the city covered 6.5 square kilometers at its maximum extent and had between 15,000 and 30,000 inhabitants. In 1996 satellite imaging was used to map the extent of fossilized suka kollus across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people. Around AD 400, Tiwanaku went from being a locally dominant force to a predatory state. Tiwanaku expanded its reaches into the Yungas and brought its culture and way of life to many other cultures in Peru and Chile. Tiwanaku was not a violent culture in many respects. In order to expand its reach, Tiwanaku exercised great political astuteness, creating colonies, fostering trade agree