Regions of Eritrea
The regions of Eritrea are the primary geographical divisions through which Eritrea is administered. Six in total, they include the Maekel/Central, Gash-Barka, Debub/Southern, Northern Red Sea and Southern Red Sea regions. At the time of independence in 1993 Eritrea was arranged into ten provinces; these provinces were similar to the nine provinces operating during the colonial period. In 1996, these were consolidated into six regions. Gash-Barka Region was the largest and the most densely populated region and is called the "bread-basket"; the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice, an authoritarian government, rules the country and the region. The regional and local elections are conducted on a periodic basis on a restricted framework. All men and women of any ethnic or religious background are eligible to vote. No parties or groups other than PFDJ are allowed to contest and the elections are presided by representatives from PDFJ. At the time of independence in 1993 Eritrea was arranged into ten provinces.
These provinces were similar to the nine provinces operating during the colonial period. In 1996, these were consolidated into six regions; the boundaries of these new regions are based on catchment basins. Critics of this policy contend that the Government of Eritrea was erasing the historical fabric of Eritrea while proponents believe that these new Regional boundaries would ease historical land disputes. Furthermore proponents of this policy argue that basing boundaries on an important natural resource would ease the planning of its use; each region has a locally elected regional assembly while the local administrator is appointed by the President of Eritrea. During Cabinet meetings the President meets with the Regional Administrators who report on the activities of their regions; the Regional Assemblies are charged with developing a budget for local programs and hearing the concerns of the local populations. Local programs included cultural events, infrastructure such as feeder roads, to promote afforestation.
Eritrea has a one party national Assembly governed by People’s Front for Democracy and Justice, an authoritarian government. From the time of independence since 30 May 1991, the country has been continuing with a transitional government elected during the elections in April 1993; the scheduled elections in 2001 has been postponed indefinitely. The regional and local elections are conducted on a periodic basis on a restricted framework. All men and women of any ethnic or religious background are eligible to vote. No parties or groups other than PFDJ are allowed to contest and the elections are presided by representatives from PDFJ. Policy decisions should be centered around the party mandate and opposition and dissenters have been imprisoned; the topography of the regions on the Western side, Anseba and has highland plateau, which are cooler than the regions around the coastal plains. There are the heavier one during summer and the lighter one during spring; the climate and geography of the region along with other regions of Eritrea is similar to the one of Ethiopia.
The average elevation in the region is around 1,800 m to 2,100 m. The hottest month is May recording temperatures up to 30 °C, while the coldest month is December to February when it reaches freezing temperature; the region received around 508 mm of the soil is conducive for agriculture. There are a number of fauna species in the high plateau regions in the West. Notably this was historic habitat for the endangered painted hunting dog, a canid, now thought to be extirpated from the region. Eritrea as a whole was extensively forested as as 1900. However, at present the total forest cover of Eritrea is less than one percent. Wildlife such as hamadryas baboons, Soemmerring's gazelle, dorcas gazelle, black-backed jackal, Ruppells sandfox, African golden wolf, Abyssinian hare, wild ass and ostriches are found in this region. African wild dog was found in the coastal region, but their present condition is unknown. There have been reports of cheetah occurring in this region, but there has been no evidence of their presence.
It is likely that both cheetah and wild dog are extinct in Eritrea. The regions, followed by the sub-region,: ISO 3166-2:ER
The Non-Aligned Movement is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states world-wide. Drawing on the principles agreed at the Bandung Conference in 1955, the NAM was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia through an initiative of the Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito; this led to the first Conference of Governments of Non-Aligned Countries. The term non-aligned movement first appears in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as "members of the movement"; the purpose of the organization was enumerated by Fidel Castro in his Havana Declaration of 1979 as to ensure "the national independence, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, neo-colonialism and all forms of foreign aggression, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics."
The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, though the Non-Aligned Movement has a number of developed nations. Although many of the Non-Aligned Movement's members were quite aligned with one or another of the superpowers, the movement still maintained cohesion throughout the Cold War despite several conflicts between members which threatened the movement. In the years since the Cold War's end, it has focused on developing multilateral ties and connections as well as unity among the developing nations of the world those within the Global South; the Non-Aligned Movement as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia in 1956, was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on 19 July 1956. The Declaration was signed by Yugoslavia's president, Josip Broz Tito, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser.
One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another". According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, an ideologue of the Congress party which ruled India for most part of the Cold War years, the Non-Aligned Movement arose from the desire of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to guard their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either two warring superpowers"; the Movement advocates a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at the United Nations, but it soon after became the name to refer to the participants of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries first held in 1961.
The term "non-alignment" was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Sri Lanka. In this speech, Zhou Enlai and Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel; the five principles were: Mutual respect for each other's territorial sovereignty. Mutual non-aggression. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs. Equality and mutual benefit. Peaceful co-existence. A significant milestone in the development of the Non-Aligned Movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian president Sukarno, who gave a significant contribution to promote this movement. Bringing together Sukarno, U Nu, Nehru, Tito and Menon with the likes of Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai, Norodom Sihanouk, as well as U Thant and a young Indira Gandhi, the conference adopted a "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which included Zhou Enlai and Nehru's five principles, a collective pledge to remain neutral in the Cold War.
Six years after Bandung, an initiative of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, held in September 1961 in Belgrade. The term non-aligned movement appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as members of the movement. At the Lusaka Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries; some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members. In the 1970s, Cuba made a major effort to assume a leadership role in the world's nonalignment movement, which represented over 90 Third World nations. Cuban combat troops in Angola impressed fellow non-aligned nations. Cuba established military advisory missions, economic and social reform programs; the 1976 world conference of the Nonaligned Movement applauded Cuban internationalism, "which assisted the people of Angola in frustrating the expansionist and colonialist strategy of South Africa's racist regime and its allies."
The next nonaligned conference was scheduled for Havana in 1979, to be chaired by Fidel Castro, with his becoming the de facto spokesman for the Movement. The confere
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Qatar the State of Qatar, is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Whether the sovereign state should be regarded as a constitutional monarchy or an absolute monarchy is disputed, its sole land border is with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. An arm of the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the nearby Bahrain. In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates. Islam is the official religion of Qatar; the country has the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of high human development and is regarded as the most advanced Arab state for human development. Qatar is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves. Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status.
Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. In 2003, the constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with 98% in favour. In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a significant power in the Arab world both through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring. For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, has been identified as a middle power. Qatar is the subject of a diplomatic and economic embargo by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt, which began in June 2017. Saudi Arabia has proposed the construction of the Salwa Canal, which would run along the Saudi-Qatar border turning Qatar into an island. Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer, documented the earliest account pertaining to the inhabitants of the peninsula around the mid-first century AD, referring to them as the Catharrei, a designation which may have derived from the name of a prominent local settlement.
A century Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, referring to it as Catara. The map referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the peninsula; the term'Catara' was used until the 18th century, after which'Katara' emerged as the most recognised spelling. After several variations -'Katr','Kattar' and'Guttur' - the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the country's name. In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced. Human habitation of Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago. Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula. Mesopotamian artifacts originating from the Ubaid period have been discovered in abandoned coastal settlements. Al Da'asa, a settlement located on the western coast of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the country and is believed to have accommodated a small seasonal encampment. Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC found in Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the inhabitants of Qatar and the Kassites in modern-day Bahrain.
Among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. It has been suggested that Qatar is the earliest known site of shellfish dye production, owing to a Kassite purple dye industry which existed on the coast. In 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian Gulf. Qatar played a role in the commercial activity of the Sasanids, contributing at least two commodities: precious pearls and purple dye. Under the Sasanid reign, many of the inhabitants in Eastern Arabia were introduced to Christianity following the eastward dispersal of the religion by Mesopotamian Christians. Monasteries were constructed and further settlements were founded during this era. During the latter part of the Christian era, Qatar comprised a region known as'Beth Qatraye'; the region was not limited to Qatar. In 628, Muhammad sent a Muslim envoy to a ruler in Eastern Arabia named Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi and requested that he and his subjects accept Islam. Munzir obliged his request, accordingly, most of the Arab tribes in the region converted to Islam.
After the adoption of Islam, the Arabs led the Muslim conquest of Persia which resulted in the fall of the Sasanian Empire. Qatar was described as a famous camel breeding centre during the Umayyad period. In the 8th century, it started benefiting from its commercially strategic position in the Persian Gulf and went on to become a centre of pearl trading. Substantial development in the pearling industry around the Qatari Peninsula occurred during the Abbasid era. Ships voyaging from Basra to India and China would make stops in Qatar's ports during this period. Chinese porcelain, West African coins and artefacts from Thailand have been discovered in Qatar. Archaeological remains from the 9th century suggest that Qatar's inhabitants used greater wealth to construct higher quality homes and public buildings. Over 100 stone-built houses, two mosques, an Abbasid fort were constructed in Murwab during this period. However, when the caliphate's prosperity declined in Iraq, so too did it in Qatar. Qatar is mentioned in 13th-century Muslim scholar Yaqut al-Hamawi's book, Mu'jam Al-Buldan, which alludes to the Qataris' fine striped wov
World Customs Organization
The World Customs Organization is an intergovernmental organization headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. The WCO is noted for its work in areas covering the development of international conventions and tools on topics such as commodity classification, rules of origin, collection of customs revenue, supply chain security, international trade facilitation, customs enforcement activities, combating counterfeiting in support of Intellectual Property Rights, drugs enforcement, illegal weapons trading, integrity promotion, delivering sustainable capacity building to assist with customs reforms and modernization; the WCO maintains the international Harmonized System goods nomenclature, administers the technical aspects of the World Trade Organization Agreements on Customs Valuation and Rules of Origin. On August 23, 1947, the Committee for European Economic Cooperation created a European Customs Union Study Group to examine economic and technical issues of inter-European Customs Union concerning the rules of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
In total, six ECUSG meetings were held in four years from November 1947 to June 1950. This work of ECUSG led to the adoption in 1950 of the Convention establishing the Customs Co-operation Council, signed in Brussels. On January 26, 1953, the CCC’s inaugural session took place with the participation of 17 founding members. CCC membership subsequently expanded to cover all regions of the globe. In 1994, the organization adopted the World Customs Organization. Today, WCO members are responsible for customs controls in 182 countries representing more than 98 per cent of all international trade; the WCO is internationally acknowledged as the global centre of customs expertise and plays a leading role in the discussion, development and implementation of modern customs systems and procedures. It is responsive to the needs of its members and its strategic environment, its instruments and best-practice approaches are recognized as the basis for sound customs administration throughout the world; the WCO’s primary objective is to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of member customs administrations, thereby assisting them to contribute to national development goals revenue collection, national security, trade facilitation, community protection, collection of trade statistics.
In order to achieve its objectives, the WCO has adopted a number of customs instruments, including but not limited to the following: 1) The International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System was adopted in 1983 and came into force in 1988. The HS multipurpose goods nomenclature is used as the basis for customs tariffs and for the compilation of international trade statistics, it comprises about 5,000 commodity groups, each identified by a six digit code arranged in a legal and logical structure with well-defined rules to achieve uniform classification. The HS is used for many other purposes involving trade policy, rules of origin, monitoring of controlled goods, internal taxes, freight tariffs, transport statistics, quota controls, price monitoring, compilation of national accounts, economic research and analysis. 2) The International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs procedures was adopted in 1974 and was subsequently revised in 1999.
The RKC comprises several key governing principles: transparency and predictability of customs controls. It promotes trade facilitation and effective controls through its legal provisions that detail the application of simple yet efficient procedures and contains new and obligatory rules for its application; the WCO revised Kyoto Convention is sometimes confused with the Kyoto Protocol, a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 3) ATA Convention and the Convention on Temporary Admission. Both the ATA Convention and the Istanbul Convention are WCO instruments governing temporary admission of goods; the ATA system, integral to both Conventions, allows the free movement of goods across frontiers and their temporary admission into a customs territory with relief from duties and taxes. The goods are covered by a single document known as the ATA carnet, secured by an international guarantee system. 4) The Arusha Declaration on Customs Integrity was adopted in 1993 and revised in 2003.
The Arusha Declaration is a non-binding instrument which provides a number of basic principles to promote integrity and combat corruption within customs administrations. 5) The SAFE Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade was adopted in 2005. The SAFE Framework is a non-binding instrument that contains supply chain security and facilitation standards for goods being traded internationally, enables integrated supply chain management for all modes of transport, strengthens networking arrangements between customs administrations to improve their capability to detect high-risk consignments, promotes cooperation between customs and the business community through the Authorized Economic Operator concept, champions the seamless movement of goods through secure international trade supply chains. 6) The Columbus Program is a customs capacity building p
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries. The IBRD is the first of five member institutions that compose the World Bank Group, is headquartered in Washington, D. C. United States, it was established in 1944 with the mission of financing the reconstruction of European nations devastated by World War II. The IBRD and its concessional lending arm, the International Development Association, are collectively known as the World Bank as they share the same leadership and staff. Following the reconstruction of Europe, the Bank's mandate expanded to advancing worldwide economic development and eradicating poverty; the IBRD provides commercial-grade or concessional financing to sovereign states to fund projects that seek to improve transportation and infrastructure, domestic policy, environmental consciousness, energy investments, access to food and potable water, access to improved sanitation.
The IBRD is owned and governed by its member states, but has its own executive leadership and staff which conduct its normal business operations. The Bank's member governments are shareholders which contribute paid-in capital and have the right to vote on its matters. In addition to contributions from its member nations, the IBRD acquires most of its capital by borrowing on international capital markets through bond issues. In 2011, it raised $29 billion USD in capital from bond issues made in 26 different currencies; the Bank offers a number of financial services and products, including flexible loans, risk guarantees, financial derivatives, catastrophic risk financing. It reported lending commitments of $26.7 billion made to 132 projects in 2011. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and International Monetary Fund were established by delegates at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 and became operational in 1946; the IBRD was established with the original mission of financing the reconstruction efforts of war-torn European nations following World War II, with goals shared by the Marshall Plan.
The Bank issued its inaugural loan of $250 million to France in 1947 to finance infrastructure projects. The institution established its first field offices in Paris, Copenhagen and Prague in the former Czechoslovakia. Throughout the remainder of the 1940s and 1950s, the Bank financed projects seeking to dam rivers, generate electricity, improve access to water and sanitation, it invested in France and Luxembourg's steel industry. Following the reconstruction of Europe, the Bank's mandate has transitioned to eradicating poverty around the world. In 1960, the International Development Association was established to serve as the Bank's concessional lending arm and provide low and no-cost finance and grants to the poorest of the developing countries as measured by gross national income per capita; the IBRD is governed by the World Bank's Board of Governors which meets annually and consists of one governor per member country. The Board of Governors delegates most of its authority over daily matters such as lending and operations to the Board of Directors.
The Board of Directors consists of 25 executive directors and is chaired by the President of the World Bank Group. The executive directors collectively represent all 189 member states of the World Bank; the president oversees the IBRD's overall direction and daily operations. As of July 2012, Jim Yong Kim serves as the President of the World Bank Group; the Bank and IDA operate with a staff of 10,000 employees. Although members contribute capital to the IBRD, the Bank acquires funds by borrowing on international capital markets by issuing bonds; the Bank raised $29 billion USD worth of capital in 2011 from bonds issued in 26 different currencies. The IBRD has enjoyed a triple-A credit rating since 1959, which allows it to borrow capital at favorable rates, it offers benchmark and global benchmark bonds, bonds denominated in non-hard currencies, structured notes with custom-tailored yields and currencies, discount notes in U. S. dollars and eurodollars. In 2011, the IBRD sought an additional $86 billion USD as part of a general capital increase to increase its lending capacity to middle-income countries.
The IBRD expressed in February 2012 its intent to sell kangaroo bonds with maturities lasting until 2017 and 2022. The IBRD provides financial services as well as strategic coordination and information services to its borrowing member countries; the Bank only finances sovereign governments directly. The World Bank Treasury is the division of the IBRD that manages the Bank's debt portfolio of over $100 billion and financial derivatives transactions of $20 billion; the Bank offers flexible loans with maturities as long as 30 years and custom-tailored repayment scheduling. The IBRD offers loans in local currencies. Through a joint effort between the IBRD and the International Finance Corporation, the Bank offers financing to subnational entities either with or without sovereign guarantees. For borrowers needing quick financing for an unexpected change, the IBRD operates a Deferred Drawdown Option which serves as a line of credit with features similar to the Bank's flexible loan program. Among the World Bank Group's credit enhancement and guarantee products, the IBRD offers policy-based guarantees to cover countries' sovereign default risk, partial credit guarantees to cover the credit risk of a sovereign government or subnational entity, pa
Elections in Eritrea
There have never been national elections in Eritrea since independence in 1993. In theory, elections select representatives from the country's six regions for the National Assembly. Elections would occur to elect representatives for the country's regional assemblies and other posts within the country's districts. However, only local elections have been held, most in April 2014; the National Assembly of Eritrea has 104 members, 60 members that are appointed and 44 members that represent the members of the Central Committee of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union, parliament has 150 indirectly elected members; the National Assembly was composed in February 1992. Agence France-Presse reported that Eritreans have elected 399 representatives in the country's six regions in a lengthy process that will lead to the formation of a constituent assembly; the regional elections began on 4 January 1997 in some parts of the country and were completed in others by March 1, 1997.
As Eritrea is a totalitarian one-party state, only one political party, the People's Front for Democracy and Justice is allowed to hold effective power. The party controls half of the Eritrean Legislature, the other half being held by independent politicians. Eritrean National elections were set for 1997 and postponed until 2001, it was decided that because 20% of Eritrea's land was under occupation that elections would be postponed until the resolution of the conflict with Ethiopia. Local elections have continued in Eritrea; the most recent round of local government elections were held in May 2003, though to this day Eritrea has failed to hold any national elections. On further elections, the President's Chief of Staff, Yemane Ghebremeskel said, "The electoral commission is handling these elections this time round so that may be the new element in this process; the national assembly has mandated the electoral commission to set the date for national elections, so whenever the electoral commission sets the date there will be national elections.
It’s not dependent on regional elections, although that might be a helpful process. Multipartyism, in general principle yes, it is there but the law on political parties has to be approved by the national assembly, it was not approved the last time. The view from the beginning was that you don’t need a party law to hold national elections. You can have national elections and the party law can be adopted at any time. So in terms of commitment it’s clear, in terms of the process it has its own pace, its own characteristics." Isaias Afewerki was elected president of Eritrea by the national assembly in 1993. He has since been the de facto leader before independence with no legal opposition to his rule. Presidential elections, planned for 1997, have never been held. Regional and local elections for regional assemblies and local courts took place in all regions of Eritrea in December 2002 and May 2004; the polls were considered fair by the National Elections Commission. Electoral calendar Electoral system Adam Carr's Election Archive African Elections Database