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Foreign relations of Germany

The Federal Republic of Germany is a Central European country and member of the European Union, G4, G8, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It maintains a network of 229 diplomatic missions abroad and holds relations with more than 190 countries; as one of the world's leading industrialized countries it is recognized as a major power in European and global affairs. The three cabinet-level ministries responsible for guiding Germany's foreign policy are the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development and the Federal Foreign Office. In practice, most German federal departments play some role in shaping foreign policy in the sense that there are few policy areas left that remain outside of international jurisdiction; the bylaws of the Federal Cabinet, assign the Federal Foreign Office a coordinating function. Accordingly, other ministries may only invite foreign guests or participate in treaty negotiations with the approval of the Federal Foreign Office.

With respect to foreign policy, the Bundestag acts in a supervisory capacity. Each of its committees – most notably the foreign relations committee – oversees the country's foreign policy; the consent of the Bundestag is required to ratify foreign treaties. If a treaty legislation passes first reading, it is referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, capable of delaying ratification and prejudice decision through its report to the Bundestag. In 1994, a full EU Committee was created for the purpose of addressing the large flow of EU-related topics and legislation; the committee has the mandate to speak on behalf of the Bundestag and represent it when deciding an EU policy position. A case in point was the committee's involvement regarding the European Union's eastern enlargement wherein the Committee on Foreign Affairs is responsible for relations with ECE states while the EU Committee is tasked with the negotiations. There is a raft of NGOs in Germany; these NGOs include think-tanks, single-issue lobbying organizations, as well as other organizations that promote stronger bilateral ties between Germany and other countries.

While the budgets and methods of NGOs are distinct, the overarching goal to persuade decision-makers to the wisdom of their own views is a shared one. In 2004, a new German governance framework on foreign and security policy areas, emerged where NGOs are integrated into actual policymaking; the idea is that the cooperation between state and civil society groups increases the quality of conflict resolution, development cooperation and humanitarian aid for fragile states. The framework seeks to benefit from the expertise of the NGOs in exchange for these groups to have a chance for influencing foreign policy. In 2001, the discovery that the terrorist cell which carried out the attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001, was based in Hamburg, sent shock waves through the country; the government of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder backed the following U. S. military actions, sending Bundeswehr troops to Afghanistan to lead a joint NATO program to provide security in the country after the ousting of the Taliban.

Nearly all of the public was against America's 2003 invasion of Iraq, any deployment of troops. This position was shared by the SPD/Green government, which led to some friction with the United States. In August 2006, the German government disclosed a botched plot to bomb two German trains; the attack was to occur in July 2006 and involved a 21-year-old Lebanese man, identified only as Youssef Mohammed E. H. Prosecutors said Youssef and another man left suitcases stuffed with crude propane-gas bombs on the trains; as of February 2007, Germany had about 3,000 NATO-led International Security Assistance Force force in Afghanistan as part of the War on Terrorism, the third largest contingent after the United States and the United Kingdom. German forces are in the more secure north of the country. However, along with some other larger European countries, have been criticised by the UK and Canada for not sharing the burden of the more intensive combat operations in southern Afghanistan. Germany is the largest net contributor to the United Nations and has several development agencies working in Africa and the Middle East.

The development policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is an independent area of German foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations; the German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. It is the world's third biggest aid donor after the United States and France. Germany spent 0.37 per cent of its gross domestic product on development, below the government's target of increasing aid to 0.51 per cent of GDP by 2010. The international target of 0.7% of GNP would have not been reached either. Germany is a member of the Council of Europe, European Union, European Space Agency, G4, G8, International Monetary Fund, NATO, OECD, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, UN, World Bank Group and the World Trade Organization. European integration has gone a long way since the European Coal and Steel Community and the Elysée Treaty. Peaceful collaborations with its neighbors remain one of Germany's biggest political objectives, Germany has been on the forefront of most achievements made in European integration: Maastricht TreatyMost of the social issues

Hooksett (CDP), New Hampshire

Hooksett is a census-designated place in the town of Hooksett in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. The CDP includes the historic central village of Hooksett as well as suburban and rural land surrounding it; the population of the CDP was 4,147 at the 2010 census, out of 13,451 in the entire town of Hooksett. The CDP occupies the central to northern parts of the town of Hooksett, on both sides of the Merrimack River; the village of Hooksett is at the center of the CDP. The CDP extends north to the Bow and Allenstown town lines and south to include the Granite Hill Villages housing development. Interstate 93 forms the western edge of the CDP, with access from Exit 11 at the Hooksett toll plaza, U. S. Route 3 runs through the eastern side. New Hampshire Route 3A passes through the center of the CDP along the west side of the Merrimack River. Hooksett is bordered to the north by the Suncook CDP in the town of Allenstown. Concord, the state capital, is 9 miles to the north via I-93 or NH 3A and 10 miles to the north via US 3, while Manchester, the largest city in the state, is 8 miles to the south.

According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Hooksett CDP has a total area of 5.2 square miles, of which 4.8 square miles are land and 0.4 square miles, or 7.43%, are water. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,147 people, 1,819 households, 1,166 families residing in the CDP. There were 1,945 housing units, of which or 6.5 %, were vacant. The racial makeup of the CDP was 93.9% white, 1.6% African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% some other race, 1.7% from two or more races. 2.3 % of the population were Latino of any race. Of the 1,819 households in the CDP, 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were headed by married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.4% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28, the average family size was 2.75.19.7% of residents in the CDP were under the age of 18, 6.6% were from age 18 to 24, 28.2% were from 25 to 44, 30.6% were from 45 to 64, 14.9% were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 41.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.5 males. For the period 2011-15, the estimated median annual income for a household was $68,294, the median income for a family was $74,658. Male full-time workers had a median income of $45,516 versus $46,434 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $32,689. 3.8% of the population and 1.8% of families were below the poverty line, along with 0% of people under the age of 18 and 2.7% of people 65 or older

Robert-Jan Smits

Robert-Jan Smits is the President of the Executive Board of the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands since May 2019. In 2018-2019, he was a senior adviser for open access and innovation at the European Political Strategy Centre and from 2010 to 2018, he served as director-general of research and innovation at the European Commission, he is known for his key roles in planning Plan S, to ensure that all publicly funded scientific publications are available in Open Access by 2020, as well as for being one of the main architects of Horizon 2020. Robert-Jan Smits was born in 1958 in the Netherlands, he has degrees from Utrecht University in the Netherlands, Institut Universitaire d’Hautes Etudes Internationales in Switzerland, Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy in the United States. Following his studies, Smits worked for the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs from 1985 to 1989, left in 1989 to work at the European Commission. Smits is considered one of the main architects of Horizon 2020, an EU Research and Innovation program providing €80 billion of funding between 2014 and 2020.

Smits has played leading roles in developing the European Research Council, the European Research Area, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures. Smits has spearheaded the Plan S initiative, which requires scientists make their publications open-access on publication. 11 national funding agencies in Europe, who collectively spend €7.6 billion in research grants per year, have signed up to Plan S. Honorary degree from the University of Edinburgh Lifetime achievements award from EuroScience Academy Medal from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences Excellence in Global Science award in South-Africa Nature's 10 Plan S

Holt and Balcom Logging Camp No. 1

The Holt and Balcom Logging Camp No. 1 in Lakewood, Wisconsin was built around 1880 in what was timber along McCaslin Brook. It is the oldest lumber camp in Wisconsin still standing in its original location, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978; the Holt-Balcom Lumber Company was organized with headquarters in Chicago. Devillo Holt was a New Yorker who came west to Mackinac Island around 1843 for a job with the American Fur Company moved to Chicago in 1847 to operate a lumber yard. Uri Balcom was a lumberman from out east, their 1862 company held timber land in Marinette and Oconto counties and promptly opened a branch office and sawmill in Oconto. At that time much of northeast Wisconsin was still covered with forests of virgin timber, Holt-Balcom proceeded to cut the white pine logs from the tracts that they owned. By 1880 they had reached McCaslin Brook, a tributary of the Oconto River fifty miles upstream from their sawmill, they built splash dams on the brook, built the logging camp, the subject of this article on a rise about 80 feet from the brook.

Now the camp looks out across the domestic McCaslin Brook Golf and Country Club, but in the 1880s it would have been surrounded by wilderness - tall trees and brush. It is said that Ernest Henderson Bateman constructed the camp, they cut white pine right there, peeled the logs, built the walls from them. The logs are eight to sixteen inches in diameter, notched at the ends so that the corners tie together in dovetail joints; the east end is a cook house 36 by 26 feet. The west end is 26 by 26 feet. One long roof covers both "pens," with an open dogtrot between them commonly called "the dingle." The floors are hand-sawn planks. The original roof was cedar or pine shakes, but now it is plank boarding with tar paper. In most of the logging camps of northern Wisconsin, the action was in the winter; the crew moved in around November 15 as things were freezing up, so that sleighs of logs could be hauled across frozen swamps, so the tracks could be iced to ease hauling. Through the winter, teams of men felled trees, limbed them, sawed them into lengths of ten to sixteen feet.

They hauled them with oxen or horses to a "skidway" on the bank of a stream, where they were "banked" in big piles for the rest of the winter. In spring, with the streams swollen, the woodsmen rolled the logs down into the water, to be driven downstream to the sawmill. Men left camp around the first of April. Around 1900, Camp #1 was no longer an outpost in the forest, but included a blacksmith shop, a horse barn, a warehouse for supplying Holt-Balcom's operations, a vegetable garden to supply Holt-Balcom's kitchens, pasture and hay fields to support their horses, it was called "Depot Camp," because it stored supplies, "McCaslin Brook Farm" because of the horse barn and fields. The company operated the camp until 1929. In 1949 the Holt Lumber Company gave the camp to the Oconto Historical Society; the McCaslin Lions Club restored the bunk house and cook house in the 1970s. Today it is a museum, with the track of the company's old supply road still visible between the building and the brook. Seeburger, William "First up the Dore Flambeau", Reprinted in Malcolm Rosholt's Lumbermen on the Chippewa beginning at page 342.

An account of building an early logging camp in the wilderness along the Flambeau River in 1872-1873

Decree on Separation of Church and State

The Decree on Separation of Church from State and School from Church is a legal act adopted by the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic on January 20, 1918 came into force on January 23 of the same year, on the day of official publication. It installed the secular nature of the state power, proclaimed the freedom of conscience and religion, it laid the foundation for the deployment of atheistic education. The Decree was superseded by the decree of the RSFSR Supreme Council of 25 October 1990. Further superseded in Russian Federation in 1997. Dobronovskaya А. P. Отделение церкви от государства в Енисейской губернии // Сибирь в XVII—XX веках: Проблемы политической и социальной истории: Бахрушинские чтения 1999—2000 гг.: межвуз. Сб. науч. тр. / под ред. В. И. Шишкина. — Новосибирск: Новосибирский государственный университет, 2002. Rassylnikov I. A. Принцип «отделения школы от церкви» как необходимый признак светского государства и его значение в условиях правовой реформы // Правовые реформы в России.

— Ростов-на-Дону: Изд-во СКАГС, 2004. — С. 124—129. Соколов А. В.. Государство и Православная церковь в России, февраль 1917 — январь 1918 гг. Диссертация на соискание ученой степени доктора исторических наук. СПб. Decree on Separation of Church and State at the Marxists Internet Archive ДЕКРЕТ ОБ ОТДЕЛЕНИИ ЦЕРКВИ ОТ ГОСУДАРСТВА // Древо. Открытая православная энциклопедия Elizabeth Sewell. Comparative characteristics of the secular state and equality of religious organizations

Minimisation (clinical trials)

Minimisation is a method of adaptive stratified sampling, used in clinical trials, as described by Pocock and Simon. The aim of minimisation is to minimise the imbalance between the number of patients in each treatment group over a number of factors. Patients would be allocated to a treatment group randomly and while this maintains a good overall balance, it can lead to imbalances within sub-groups. For example, if a majority of the patients who were receiving the active drug happened to be male, or smokers, the statistical usefulness of the study would be reduced; the traditional method to avoid this problem, known as blocked randomisation, is to stratify patients according to a number of factors and to use a separate randomisation list for each group. Each randomisation list would be created such that after every block of x patients, there would be an equal number in each treatment group; the problem with this method is that the number of lists increases exponentially with the number of stratification factors.

Minimisation addresses this problem by calculating the imbalance within each factor should the patient be allocated to a particular treatment group. The various imbalances are added together to give the overall imbalance in the study; the treatment group that would minimise the imbalance can be chosen directly, or a random element may be added. The imbalances can be weighted. A ratio can be applied to the number of patients in each treatment group. In use, minimisation maintains a better balance than traditional blocked randomisation, its advantage increases with the number of stratification factors