Foreign relations of Guyana

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After independence in 1966, Guyana sought an influential role in international affairs, particularly among Third World and non-aligned nations, it served twice on the UN Security Council (1975–76 and 1982–83). Former Vice President, Deputy Prime Minister, and Attorney General Mohamed Shahabuddeen served a 9-year term on the International Court of Justice (1987–96).

Guyana has diplomatic relations with a wide range of nations, and these managed primarily through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the European Union (EU), the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the UN Development Programme (UNDP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Organization of American States (OAS) have offices in Georgetown.

Guyana strongly supports the concept of regional integration, it played an important role in the founding of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), but its status as the organization's poorest member limits its ability to exert leadership in regional activities. Guyana has sought to keep foreign policy in close alignment with the consensus of CARICOM members, especially in voting in the UN, OAS, and other international organizations. In 1993, Guyana ratified the 1988 Vienna Convention on illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and cooperates with US law enforcement agencies on counter-narcotics efforts.

Two neighbours have longstanding territorial disputes with Guyana. Since the 19th century, Venezuela has claimed all of Guyana west of the Essequibo River – 62% of Guyana's territory. At a meeting in Geneva in 1966, the two countries agreed to receive recommendations from a representative of the UN Secretary General on ways to settle the dispute peacefully. Diplomatic contacts between the two countries and the Secretary General's representative continue. Neighbouring Suriname also claims the territory east of Guyana's New River, a largely uninhabited area of some 15,000 square kilometres (5,800 sq mi) in southeast Guyana. Guyana and Suriname also disputed their offshore maritime boundaries; this dispute flared up in June 2000 in response to an effort by a Canadian company to drill for oil under a Guyanese concession. Guyana regards its legal title to all of its territory as sound. However, the dispute with Suriname was arbitrated by the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea and a ruling in favor of Guyana was announced in September 2007.[1][2][3]

Guyana is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military (as covered under Article 98).

Disputes – international[edit]

All of the area west of the Essequibo River claimed by Venezuela; Suriname claims area east of the New Upper Courantyne.

Illicit drugs[edit]

Transshipment point for narcotics from South America – primarily Venezuela – to Europe and the United States; producer of cannabis.

Relations by country[edit]

Diplomatic relations of Guyana

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 20 September 1976

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 September 1976[4].

 Angola 24 July 1977

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 July 1977[5].

 Botswana 1975
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 28 October 1975.[6]
  • Guyana is covered through the Botswana Mission in New York City.[7]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 Burkina Faso 23 September 1987

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 September 1987[8].

 Egypt 10 September 1971

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 September 1971[9].

 Ethiopia 13 October 1970

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 October 1970.[6]

 Gambia 24 September 2009
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 September 2009[10].
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Ghana 14 May 1979
 Guinea 8 June 1970

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 June 1970[12].

 Kenya December 1970
 Lesotho 25 August 1979
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 25 August 1979.[6]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 Liberia 11 November 1974

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 November 1974[14].

 Libya 9 August 1972

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 August 1972[15].

 Mauritius 1 December 1992
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 December 1992[16].
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Morocco 2012

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 December 2012.[17]

 Mozambique 21 August 1975
 Namibia 1994
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 13 December 1994.[6]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 Niger 25 June 1979

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 June 1979[19].

 Nigeria 27 June 1970
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 28 September 2012

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 September 2012[21].

 Senegal 10 November 2009

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 November 2009[22].

 Seychelles 28 April 1993
 Sierra Leone 1974

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 October 1974[24].

 South Africa 4 November 1994
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 November 1994.[25]
  • South Africa is represented in Guyana through its High Commission in Kingston, Jamaica.[25]
 Swaziland 1977
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 24 May 1977.[6]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 Tanzania 28 December 1970
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 December 1970[26].
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Uganda 21 July 1970

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 July 1970[27].

 Zambia 11 February 1971
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1971.[6]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 Zimbabwe 19 June 1980

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 June 1980.[6]

Americas[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 3 February 1982
 Argentina 6 October 1972
 Bahamas 10 July 1973
 Barbados See Barbados–Guyana relations

The relations between Guyana and Barbados had its genesis to a time when both Guyana (then British Guiana) and Barbados were both British colonies. Shortly after Great Britain secured British Guiana from the Dutch, waves of migrants were encouraged to move and settle in Guyana. Barbados was one such location where large numbers of migrants came from. Through time Barbados and Guyana have both supported each other. With the move towards independence in the region Guyana was seen as the breadbasket of the wider Caribbean which led to yet more waves of Barbadians seeking to move to Guyana for better opportunities.

Relations have been rocky, during the 1990s, immigration became contentious for Guyanese persons to Barbados; such terms as the "Guyanese bench" in the immigration area of the Barbados Sir Grantley Adams International Airport have tested both states at times. The two nations continue their cooperation through the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and work towards building and maintaining good relations between their nationals. Both nations also attempt to maintain open communications at high levels of both Governments.

More recently the Guyanese Government has extended an offer to Barbadians;[31][32] the Guyanese government has offered to put in place an economically favourable regime towards any Barbadians that wish to relocate to Guyana and contribute towards that nation's goals in agricultural investment.[33] The announcement was made in the final days of the Owen Arthur administration by MP member Mia Motley.

In the early 1990s the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, Patrick Manning pitched an initiative for Barbados, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago to enter into some form of political union or political association; this initiative was short lived and didn't proceed following the Democratic Labour Party's defeat during the 1994 elections.

 Belize
 Brazil See Brazil–Guyana relations

Brazil–Guyana relations have traditionally been close. Brazil has provided military assistance to Guyana in the form of war fare training and logistics. Bilateral relations between the countries have recently increased, as a result of Brazil's new South-South foreign policy aimed to strengthen South American integration.

During a state visit by Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Georgetown on 2 March 2007, the governments of Guyana and Brazil signed several cooperation agreements and announced plans to boost trade between the two countries.

 Bolivia 12 March 1987
 Canada

Canada started relations with Guyana in 1964 with the construction of the Commission of Canada in Georgetown. In 1966 it became a Canadian High Commission. There is a Guyanese High Commission in Ottawa and a Guyanese Consulate in Toronto.

Canada and Guyana have strong ties through the Commonwealth of Nations. There is an estimated 200,000 Guyanese living in Canada; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Guyanese police work closely to help with drug, and human smuggling.

 Chile 1971
 Colombia 18 December 1970
 Costa Rica 17 April 1974
 Cuba 8 December 1972
 Dominica 3 November 1978

Dominica and Guyana have established diplomatic relations on 3 November 1978.[38] Guyana has a High Commission in Roseau.[39]

 Dominican Republic 19 October 1970
 Ecuador 2 July 1974
 El Salvador 1 May 1992
 Guatemala 1992
 Haiti 6 October 1970
 Honduras 1 May 1992
 Jamaica 26 May 1966
 Mexico 1 March 1973 See Guyana–Mexico relations
  • Guyana is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.[46]
  • Mexico has an embassy in Georgetown.[47]
 Nicaragua 23 November 1981
 Panama 1973
 Paraguay 1994
 Peru 1971
 Saint Lucia 22 February 1979
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 27 October 1979
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 October 1979[51].
  • Both countries are members of CARICOM.
 Suriname 25 November 1975
 United States See Guyana–United States relations

U.S. policy toward The Co-operative Republic of Guyana seeks to develop robust, sustainable democratic institutions, laws, and political practices; support economic growth and development; and promote stability and security. During the last years of his administration, President Hoyte sought to improve relations with the United States as part of a decision to move his country toward genuine political nonalignment. Relations also were improved by Hoyte's efforts to respect human rights, invite international observers for the 1992 elections, and reform electoral laws; the United States also welcomed the Hoyte government's economic reform and efforts, which stimulated investment and growth. The 1992 democratic elections and Guyana's reaffirmation of sound economic policies and respect for human rights have placed U.S.-Guyanese relations on an excellent footing. Under successive PPP governments, the United States and Guyana continued to improve relations. President Cheddi Jagan was committed to democracy, adopted more free market policies, and pursued sustainable development for Guyana's environment.

  • Guyana has an embassy in Washington, DC and a consulate-general in New York City.
  • United States has an embassy in Georgetown.[53]
 Uruguay 1985
 Venezuela See Guyana–Venezuela relations

Venezuela claimed more than half of the territory of the British colony of Guyana at the time of the Latin American wars of independence, a dispute that was settled by arbitration in 1899. In 1962 Venezuela declared that it would no longer abide by the arbitration decision, which ceded mineral-rich territory in the Orinoco basin to Guyana; the area is called Guayana Esequiba by Venezuela. A border commission was set up in 1966 with representatives from Guyana, Venezuela and Great Britain, but failed to reach agreement. Venezuela vetoed Guyana's bid to become a member of the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1967. In 1969 Venezuela backed an abortive uprising in the disputed area.

Under intense diplomatic pressure, Venezuela agreed in 1970 to a 12-year moratorium on the dispute with the Protocol of Port-of-Spain. In 1981, Venezuela refused to renew the protocol. However, with changes to the governments of both countries relations improved, to the extent that in 1990 Venezuela sponsored Guyana's bid for OAS membership in 1990.[54][55]

Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Cambodia 1973

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 September 1973.[6]

 China
  • Bilateral relations are good and progress on the economic side.[56]
 India See Guyana–India relations

Relations between India and Guyana ever since the independence of Guyana in May 1966 have been cordial;[57] the cordiality in the relation remains unaffected with changes in governments either in India or in Guyana. Late Shrimati Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, visited Guyana in 1968, late Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma, the then Vice President of India visited Guyana in 1988 and Shri Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, the then Vice President of India came on a state visit to Guyana in 2006.[57]

The cooperation between the two countries in sharing developmental experience is mainly routed through Indian Technical & Economic Cooperation (ITEC) under which forty scholarships are granted every year in various courses. Besides, some experts are also deputed to Guyana from time to time on request in specified areas of activity. Several other scholarships are also available to Guyanese to pursue long-term courses, to get acquainted with India and to learn Hindi language in India.

India has offered credit facilities to Guyana for use in mutually accepted designated fields, agriculture and information technology, being two of these. Indian companies have also expressed interest in bio fuel, energy, minerals and pharmaceuticals. Total trade turn over remains low, though the trend is positive.

Indian Cultural Centre in Georgetown was established in 1972 with the objective of strengthening cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and Guyana and their peoples; the Centre runs regular classes in Yoga and Dance (Kathak). The Centre has a well equipped Auditorium where cultural events are organised on a regular basis; the teachers and students of ICC participate in events by the local community on various occasions round the year. The Centre has a library with books/publications on history, literature, art, culture, mythology and works of eminent scholars and authors.

An important cultural connection between India and Guyana is cricket. With the advent of the Indian Premier League, many Guyanese players were contracted to play in India.[57]

 Indonesia 27 August 1999

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 August 1999.[6]

 Israel 9 March 1992

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 9 March 1992.[6]

 Japan June 1967
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in June 1967.[58]
  • Japan is represented in Guyana through its embassy in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.[59]
 Maldives 13 April 1994
 Mongolia 1979

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 15 December 1979.[6]

 North Korea 18 May 1974[60] See Foreign relations of North Korea
 Pakistan

Guyana and Pakistan established diplomatic relations on 10 November 1967. Islamabad pursues expansion of trade relations between the two countries and expressed interest in establishing a Guyana trade mission in Pakistan. Both the countries have over the years expressed desire to pursue opportunities for enhanced cooperation in human resource development, science and technology, information technology, trade and investment. Strengthening of the Guyana/Pakistan relationship can be extended further in many areas including culture and trade as the two prospects. There are common interests which the two countries share as members of the Commonwealth and the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) among others. Guyana and Pakistan share a lot of commonalities, including the passion and love for cricket.

 Palestine

Guyana recognised the independence of the State of Palestine on 13 January 2011.[61] On that very same day, Guyana and Palestine both established formal diplomatic relations.[62]

 Singapore 19 September 2002

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 September 2002[63][64].

 South Korea 13 June 1968[65]

The establishment of diplomatic relations between South Korea and Guyana started on 13 June 1968.[65]

 Sri Lanka 1974
 Turkmenistan 1997

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 June 1997[66].

 Vietnam 19 April 1975
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 April 1975.[67]
  • Economic and commercial relations are very limited.[68]

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1 May 1985

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 May 1985.[6]

 Armenia 24 October 2003

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 October 2003.[69]

 Belarus 2000

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 2000.[6]

 Croatia 25 February 2003
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 2003.[70]
  • Croatia is represented in Guyana through its Permanent Mission in New York City.[71]
 Cyprus 11 May 2011
 Czech Republic 1 January 1993

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 January 1993.[6]

 Denmark 16 November 1979
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 November 1979.[6]
  • Denmark is represented in Guyana, through its embassy in Brasília.[74]
  • Guyana is represented in Denmark, through its embassy in Brussels.
 Estonia 19 April 1997

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 April 1997.[6]

 Finland 1979
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 April 1979.[6]
  • Guyana is represented in Finland by their embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Finland also has an honorary consulate general in Georgetown.
 France 1967
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 June 1967.[6]
  • France is represented in Guyana through its embassy in Paramaribo, Suriname.[75]
  • France has an honorary consulate in Guyana.[76]
  • Both countries have passed a number of bilateral treaties.[77]
 Germany 1966
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1966.[78]
  • Germany is represented in Guyana through its embassy in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.[79]
 Georgia 23 April 2012
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 April 2012.[80]
  • Bilateral political consultations between the Foreign Agencies cooperation is ongoing between both countries in political, legal, cultural, trade and economic relations. Cooperation concerning the academic exchanges is successfully implemented.[80]
 Greece 14 May 1979
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 May 1979.[6]
  • Greece is represented in Guyana by its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.[81]
  • Greece has provided Guyana with development aid in the past.[81]
 Hungary 1975

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 June 1975.[6]

 Iceland 2005

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 10 March 2005.[6][82]

 Ireland 2 February 2000
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 February 2000.[6]
  • Ireland has an honorary consulate in Georgetown, Guyana.
  • Guyana is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London, United Kingdom.
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 Italy 12 April 1967

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 April 1967.[6]

 Latvia 16 March 2005

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 March 2005.[6]

 Lithuania 25 January 2012

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 January 2012.[6]

 Malta 12 March 1976
 Montenegro 2011

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 September 2011.[6]

 Netherlands 1970

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 May 1970.[6]

 North Macedonia 22 September 2003

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 September 2003.[6]

 Norway 1979

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 August 1979.[6]

 Romania 20 June 1973
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 June 1973.[83]
  • Romania is represented in Guyana by its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.[84]
 Russia 17 December 1970 See Guyana–Russia relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 December 1970.
  • Guyana is represented in Russia by its High Commission in (London, United Kingdom.
  • Russia is represented in Guyana by its embassy in Georgetown, Guyana.
 Serbia 5 November 1968
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 November 1968.[85]
  • Serbia is represented in Guyana through its embassy in Washington, D.C..[86]
 Sweden 1975

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 June 1975.[6]

 Turkey
  • Turkey is represented in Guyana by its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.[87]
  • In 2010, Turkey's exports to Guyana totaled 5.5 million USD and its imports from Guyana were 2.5 million USD.[87]
 Ukraine 2001

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 November 2001.[6]

 United Kingdom
  • Guyana has a high commission in London.[88]
  • United Kingdom has a high commission in Georgetown.[89]

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia
 Fiji 2014
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 December 2014.[6]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 New Zealand 1971
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 1 September 1971.[6]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 Solomon Islands 26 November 1996
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 November 1996.[6]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Welcome to guyanachronicle.com". Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
  2. ^ Guyana to experience ‘massive' oil exploration this year
  3. ^ Business: News in the Caribbean – Caribbean360.com Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ [3]
  8. ^ [4]
  9. ^ [5]
  10. ^ [6]
  11. ^ [7]
  12. ^ [8]
  13. ^ [9]
  14. ^ [10]
  15. ^ [11]
  16. ^ [12]
  17. ^ [13]
  18. ^ [14]
  19. ^ [15]
  20. ^ [16]
  21. ^ [17]
  22. ^ [18]
  23. ^ [19]
  24. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ a b South African Department of International Relations and Cooperation
  26. ^ [20]
  27. ^ [21]
  28. ^ [22]
  29. ^ [23]
  30. ^ [24]
  31. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 November 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ [25]
  35. ^ [26]
  36. ^ [27]
  37. ^ [28]
  38. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20160307101008/http://www.minfor.gov.gy/docs/other/diplomatic_relations_list.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  39. ^ Guyana's Diplomatic & Consular Representatives
  40. ^ [29]
  41. ^ [30]
  42. ^ [31]
  43. ^ [32]
  44. ^ [33]
  45. ^ [34]
  46. ^ Non-resident ambassador of Guyana presents letter of accreditation to the President of Mexico (in Spanish)
  47. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Georgetown (in English and Spanish)
  48. ^ [35]
  49. ^ [36]
  50. ^ [37]
  51. ^ [ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)]
  52. ^ [38]
  53. ^ "Embassy of the United States in Georgetown". Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  54. ^ "Relations with Venezuela". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
  55. ^ "The Trail of Diplomacy". Guyana News and Information. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
  56. ^ China ministry of foreign affairs
  57. ^ a b c Indian High Commission Guyana Archived 15 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  58. ^ Ministry of foreign affairs of Japan
  59. ^ Japanese embassy in Port of Spain
  60. ^ Wertz, Daniel; Oh, JJ; Kim, Insung (August 2016). Issue Brief: DPRK Diplomatic Relations (PDF). The National Committee on North Korea. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 December 2016.
  61. ^ Government of Guyana (13 January 2011). "Statement by the Government of Guyana in Recognition of the State of Palestine". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011. "The Government of Guyana has today decided to formally recognize the State of Palestine as a free, independent, and sovereign state, based on its 1967 borders."
  62. ^ "Guyana recognizes a Palestinian state". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 13 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.[permanent dead link]
  63. ^ [39]
  64. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  65. ^ a b http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/latinamerica/countries/20070803/1_24572.jsp?menu=m_30_30[permanent dead link]
  66. ^ [40]
  67. ^ Ministry of foreign affairs of Vietnam
  68. ^ Ministry of foreign affairs of Vietnam
  69. ^ "Ministry of foreign affairs of Armenia". Archived from the original on 20 April 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  70. ^ Ministry of foreign affairs of Croatia
  71. ^ Ministry of foreign affairs of Croatia
  72. ^ Cyprus Foreign ministry
  73. ^ Cyprus Foreign ministry
  74. ^ "Danish Consulate in Guyana". Danish embassy in Brasilia, Brazil. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  75. ^ Embassy of France in Paramaribo
  76. ^ [41]
  77. ^ French ministry of foreign affairs (in French)
  78. ^ German Ministry of foreign affairs
  79. ^ Germany's embassy in Port of Spain
  80. ^ a b Ministry of foreign affairs of Georgia
  81. ^ a b Greek Ministry of foreign affairs
  82. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2019.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  83. ^ Ministry of foreign affairs of Romania
  84. ^ [42]
  85. ^ Ministry of foreign affairs of Serbia
  86. ^ Ministry of foreign affairs of Serbia
  87. ^ a b "Turkish Ministry of foreign affairs". Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  88. ^ High Commission of Guyana in London
  89. ^ High Commission of the United Kingdom in Georgetown
  90. ^ Australia's High Commission in Port of Spain
  91. ^ Australia's Department of foreign affairs and trade