International Labour Organization
The International Labour Organization is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social justice and promote decent work by setting international labour standards. It was the first specialised agency of the UN; the ILO has 187 member states: 186 of the 193 UN member states plus the Cook Islands are members of the ILO. The tripartite structure is unique to the ILO where representatives from the government and employees debate and create labour standards; the International Labour Office is the permanent secretariat of the International Labour Organization. It is the focal point for International Labour Organization's overall activities, which it prepares under the scrutiny of the Governing Body and under the leadership of the Director-General; the Office employs some 2,700 officials from over 150 nations at its headquarters in Geneva, in around 40 field offices around the world. Among these officials, 900 work in technical cooperation projects. In 1969, the ILO received the Nobel Peace Prize for improving fraternity and peace among nations, pursuing decent work and justice for workers, providing technical assistance to other developing nations.
Fifty years to mark the organisation's centenary, it convened a Global Commission on the Future of Work, whose report, published in January 2019, made ten recommendations for governments to meet the unprecedented challenges of a changing world of work. Those included a universal labour guarantee, social protection from birth to old age and an entitlement to lifelong learning; the International Labour Organization has developed a system of international labour standards aimed at promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and dignity. The International Labour Organization, the oldest UN specialized agency, will celebrate its 100th anniversary in 2019. “Throughout the last century, international labour standards have guided countries, in the words of the 1919 ILO Constitution, “to adopt humane conditions of labour” with the understanding that a failure to do so would become “an obstacle in the way of other nations which desire to improve the conditions in their own countries”.
This 100 years will be an opportunity to celebrate the ILO's achievements and to reaffirm its position as the authoritative organization of the world of work. Throughout 2019, there will be different events taking place around the world that will highlight the achievements of the organization and the role it plays in everyone's lives; this will be an opportunity to reaffirm the ILO's core values and vision as it prepares for its second century of worked. Unlike other United Nations specialized agencies, the International Labour Organization has a tripartite governing structure that brings together governments and workers of 187 member States, to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men; the structure of the ILO, where workers and employers together have an equal voice with governments in its deliberations, shows social dialogue in action. It ensures that the views of the social partners are reflected in ILO labour standards and programmes.
The Governing Body is the executive body of the International Labour Organization. It meets three times a year, in March and November, it takes decisions on ILO policy, decides the agenda of the International Labour Conference, adopts the draft Programme and Budget of the Organization for submission to the Conference, elects the Director-General, requests information from member states concerning labour matters, appoints commissions of inquiry and supervises the work of the International Labour Office. Juan Somavía was the ILO's Director-General from 1999 until October 2012; the ILO Governing Body re-elected Guy Rider as Director-General for a second five year-term in November 2016. This governing body is composed of 66 deputy members. Ten of the titular government seats are permanently held by States of chief industrial importance: Brazil, France, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States; the other Government members are elected by the Conference every three years.
The Employer and Worker members are elected in their individual capacity. The ILO organises once a year the International Labour Conference in Geneva to set the broad policies of the ILO, including conventions and recommendations. Known as the "international parliament of labour", the conference makes decisions about the ILO's general policy, work programme and budget and elects the Governing Body; each member State is represented by a delegation: two government delegates, an employer delegate, a worker delegate and their respective advisers. All of them have individual voting rights and all votes are equal, regardless the population of the delegate's member State; the employer and worker delegates are chosen in agreement with the most representative national organizations of employers and workers. The workers and employers' delegates coordinate their voting. All delegates are not required to vote in blocs. Delegate have the same rights, they can express themselves and vote as they wish; this diversity of viewpoints does not prevent decisions being adopted by large majorities or unanimously.
Heads of State and prime ministers participate in the Conference. International organizations, both governmental and others attend but as observers. Through Ju
Organisation of African Unity
The Organisation of African Unity was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments. One of the main heads for OAU's establishment was Kwame Nkrumah, it was disbanded on 9 July 2002 by its last chairperson, South African President Thabo Mbeki, replaced by the African Union. Some of the key aims of the OAU were to encourage political and economic integration among member states, to eradicate colonialism and neo-colonialism from the African continent. Although it achieved some success, there were differences of opinion as to how, going to be achieved; the OAU was founded in May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia by 32 African states with the main aim of bringing the African nations together and resolve the issues within the continent. Its first conference was held on 1st May 1963 at Addis Ababa. In that conference, the late Gambia historian, one of the leading Gambian nationalists and Pan-Africanists at the time—Alieu Ebrima Cham Joof delivered a speech in front of the member states—in which he said: "It is 75 years when the European Powers sat round the table in Germany each holding a dagger to carve up Africa for its own benefit.… Your success will inspire and speed up the freedom and total independence of the African continent and eradicate imperialism and colonialism from the continent and neo-colonialism from the globe… Your failure, which no true African in Africa is praying for, will prolong our struggle with bitterness and disappointment.
I therefore adjure that you ignore any suggestion outside Africa and holding that the present civilization, which some of the big powered are boasting of, sprang up from Africa, realising that the entire world has something earthly to learn from Africa, you would endeavour your utmost to come to agreement, save Africa from the clutches of neo-colonialism and resurrect African dignity and national stability." The OAU had the following primary aims: To co-ordinate and intensify the co-operation of African states in order to achieve a better life for the people of Africa. To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states; the OAU was dedicated to the eradication of all forms of colonialism and white minority rule as, when it was established, there were several states that had not yet won their independence or were white minority-ruled. South Africa and Angola were two such countries; the OAU proposed two ways of ridding the continent of colonialism and white minority rule.
Firstly, it would defend the interests of independent countries and help to pursue the independence those of still-colonised ones. Secondly, it would remain neutral in terms of world affairs, preventing its members from being controlled once more by outside powers. A Liberation Committee was established to aid independence movements and look after the interests of already-independent states; the OAU aimed to stay neutral in terms of global politics, which would prevent them from being controlled once more by outside forces – an especial danger with the Cold War. The OAU had other aims, too: Ensure. Raise the living standards of all Africans. Settle arguments and disputes between members – not through fighting but rather peaceful and diplomatic negotiation. Soon after achieving independence, a number of African states expressed a growing desire for more unity within the continent. Not everyone was agreed on how this unity could be achieved and two opinionated groups emerged in this respect: The Casablanca bloc, led by Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, wanted a federation of all African countries.
Aside from Ghana, it comprised Algeria, Morocco, Egypt and Libya. Founded in 1961, its members were described as "progressive states"; the Monrovian bloc, led by Senghor of Senegal, felt that unity should be achieved through economic cooperation. It did not support the notion of a political federation, its other members were Nigeria, Liberia and most of the former French colonies. Some of the initial discussions took place at Liberia; the dispute was resolved when Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I invited the two groups to Addis Ababa, where the OAU and its headquarters were subsequently established. The Charter of the Organisation was signed by 32 independent African states. At the time of the OAU's disbanding, 53 out of the 54 African states were members; the organisation was derided as a bureaucratic "talking shop" with little power. It struggled to enforce its decisions, its lack of armed force made intervention exceedingly difficult. Civil wars in Nigeria and Angola continued unabated for years, the OAU could do nothing to stop them.
The policy of non-interference in the affairs of member states limited the effectiveness of the OAU. Thus, when human rights were violated, as in Uganda under Idi Amin in the 1970s, the OAU was powerless to stop them; the Organisation was praised by Ghanaian former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan for bringing Africans together. In its 39 years of existence, critics argue that the OAU did little to protect the rights and liberties of African citizens from their own political leaders dubbing it as a "Dictators' Club" or "Dictator's Trade Union"; the OAU was, successful in some respects. Many of its members were members of the UN, they stood together within the latter organisation to safeguard African interests – in respect of lingering colonialism, its pursuit of African unity, was in some ways successful. Total unity was difficult to
European Economic Community
The European Economic Community was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states. It was created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957. Upon the formation of the European Union in 1993, the EEC was incorporated and renamed as the European Community. In 2009 the EC's institutions were absorbed into the EU's wider framework and the community ceased to exist; the Community's initial aim was to bring about economic integration, including a common market and customs union, among its six founding members: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands and West Germany. It gained a common set of institutions along with the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Atomic Energy Community as one of the European Communities under the 1965 Merger Treaty. In 1993, a complete single market was achieved, known as the internal market, which allowed for the free movement of goods, capital and people within the EEC. In 1994, the internal market was formalised by the EEA agreement.
This agreement extended the internal market to include most of the member states of the European Free Trade Association, forming the European Economic Area covering 15 countries. Upon the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the EEC was renamed the European Community to reflect that it covered a wider range than economic policy; this was when the three European Communities, including the EC, were collectively made to constitute the first of the three pillars of the European Union, which the treaty founded. The EC existed in this form until it was abolished by the 2009 Treaty of Lisbon, which incorporated the EC's institutions into the EU's wider framework and provided that the EU would "replace and succeed the European Community"; the EEC was known as the Common Market in the English-speaking countries and sometimes referred to as the European Community before it was renamed as such in 1993. In 1951, the Treaty of Paris was signed, creating Steel Community; this was an international community based on supranationalism and international law, designed to help the economy of Europe and prevent future war by integrating its members.
In the aim of creating a federal Europe two further communities were proposed: a European Defence Community and a European Political Community. While the treaty for the latter was being drawn up by the Common Assembly, the ECSC parliamentary chamber, the proposed defense community was rejected by the French Parliament. ECSC President Jean Monnet, a leading figure behind the communities, resigned from the High Authority in protest and began work on alternative communities, based on economic integration rather than political integration. After the Messina Conference in 1955, Paul Henri Spaak was given the task to prepare a report on the idea of a customs union; the so-called Spaak Report of the Spaak Committee formed the cornerstone of the intergovernmental negotiations at Val Duchesse conference centre in 1956. Together with the Ohlin Report the Spaak Report would provide the basis for the Treaty of Rome. In 1956, Paul Henri Spaak led the Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom at the Val Duchesse conference centre, which prepared for the Treaty of Rome in 1957.
The conference led to the signature, on 25 March 1957, of the Treaty of Rome establishing a European Economic Community. The resulting communities were the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; these were markedly less supranational than the previous communities, due to protests from some countries that their sovereignty was being infringed. The first formal meeting of the Hallstein Commission was held on 16 January 1958 at the Chateau de Val-Duchesse; the EEC was to create a customs union while Euratom would promote co-operation in the nuclear power sphere. The EEC became the most important of these and expanded its activities. One of the first important accomplishments of the EEC was the establishment of common price levels for agricultural products. In 1968, internal tariffs were removed on certain products. Another crisis was triggered in regard to proposals for the financing of the Common Agricultural Policy, which came into force in 1962; the transitional period whereby decisions were made by unanimity had come to an end, majority-voting in the Council had taken effect.
Then-French President Charles de Gaulle's opposition to supranationalism and fear of the other members challenging the CAP led to an "empty chair policy" whereby French representatives were withdrawn from the European institutions until the French veto was reinstated. A compromise was reached with the Luxembourg compromise on 29 January 1966 whereby a gentlemen's agreement permitted members to use a veto on areas of national interest. On 1 July 1967 when the Merger Treaty came into operation, combining the institutions of the ECSC and Euratom into that of the EEC, they shared a Parliamentary Assembly and Courts. Collectively they were known as the European Communities; the Communities still had independent personalities although were integrated. Future treaties granted the community new powers beyond simple economic matters which had achieved a high level of integration; as it got closer to the goal of political integration and a peaceful and united Europe, what Mikhail Gorbachev described as a Common European Home.
The 1960s saw the first attempts at enlargement. In 1961, Ireland and the United Kingdom applied to join the three Communities. However, Presi
Azawad is the name given to northern Mali by Berber Touareg rebels, as well as a former short-lived unrecognised state. Its independence was declared unilaterally by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad in 2012, after a Tuareg rebellion drove the Malian Army from the region, it rejoined Mali in February 2013, after less than a year of unrecognized independence. Azawad, as claimed by the MNLA, comprises the Malian regions of Timbuktu, Gao, as well as a part of Mopti region, encompassing about 60 percent of Mali's total land area. Azawad borders Burkina Faso to the south, Mauritania to the west and northwest, Algeria to the north and northeast, Niger to the east and southeast, with undisputed Mali to its southwest, it straddles a portion of the Sahelian zone. Gao is its largest city and served as the temporary capital, while Timbuktu is the second-largest city, was intended to be the capital by the independence forces. On 6 April 2012, in a statement posted to its website, the MNLA declared "irrevocably" the independence of Azawad from Mali.
In Gao on the same day, Bilal Ag Acherif, the secretary-general of the movement, signed the Azawadi Declaration of Independence, which declared the MNLA as the interim administrators of Azawad until a "national authority" could be formed. The proclamation was never recognised by any foreign entity, the MNLA's claim to have de facto control of the Azawad region was disputed by both the Malian government and Islamist insurgent groups in the Sahara. At this time, a rift was developing with the Islamists; the Economic Community of West African States, which refused to recognise Azawad and called the declaration of its independence "null and void", warned it could send troops into the disputed region in support of the Malian claim. Tuareg military leader Moussa Ag Achara Toumane affiliated with the MSA was interviewed by the French language news outlet "TV5MONDE," during its "Le journal Afrique" or "African Journal" segment, about hostile events that occurred between the MNLA and other separatist groups against jihadi extremists in 2012.
He claimed that jihadi groups, the Ansar Dine in particular, had been in the region of Azawad for 10 years before the circumstances which led to the Azawadi Declaration of Independence. Locals had heard of their extremist views subsequently distanced themselves from the jihadis. Ag Toumane further asserted that the death of Col. Mu'ammar el Gaddafi destabilised the political landscape for sahelians from Mali and Niger to such a degree that it was described as "disastrous." The Tuareg rebels went into a "survival mode" for 5 years after his death which were fraught with socio-political and socio-economic crises. Disorganised and unaware of moderate militias, some joined jihadi groups but left when acquainted with better options; when asked about the speculated alliance between the MNLA and the Ansar Dine, Ag Toumane said he "personally did not know of the alliance" and referred back to the distance Azawadi locals kept from them. On 14 February 2013, the MNLA renounced its claim of independence for Azawad and asked the Malian government to start negotiations on its future status.
The MNLA ended the ceasefire in September of the same year after government forces opened fire on unarmed protesters. According to the Scottish explorer and scientist Robert Brown, Azawad is an Arabic corruption of the Berber word Azawagh, referring to a dry river basin that covers western Niger, northeastern Mali, southern Algeria; the name translates to "land of transhumance". On 6 April 2012, in a statement posted to its website, the MNLA declared the independence of Azawad from Mali. In this Azawad Declaration of Independence, the name Independent State of Azawad was used. On 26 May, the MNLA and its former co-belligerent Ansar Dine announced a pact in which they would merge to form an Islamist state, but this new name is not clear – sources list several variants of it: the Islamic Republic of Azawad, the Islamic State of Azawad, the Republic of Azawad. Azawad authorities did not confirm any change of name. Reports indicated the MNLA had decided to withdraw from the pact with Ansar Dine. In a new statement, dated on 9 June, the MNLA used the name State of Azawad.
The MNLA produced a list of the 28 members of the Transitional Council of the State of Azawad serving as a provisional government with President Bilal Ag Acherif to manage the new State of Azawad. The Gao Empire owes its name to the town of Gao. In the ninth century AD, it was considered to be the most powerful West African kingdom. In the early 14th century, the southern part of the region came under the control of the Mali Empire. King Musa I peacefully annexed Timbuktu in 1324. With the power of the Mali Empire waning in the first half of the 15th century, the area around Timbuktu became autonomous, although the Maghsharan Tuareg had a dominant position. Thirty years the rising Songhay Empire expanded in Gao, absorbing Timbuktu in 1468 or 1469 and much of the surrounding area; the city was led, consecutively, by Sunni Ali Ber, Sunni Baru and Askia Mohammad I (1493
A proto-state known as a quasi-state, is a political entity that does not represent a institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state. The precise definition of "proto-state" in political literature fluctuates depending on the context in which it is used. For instance, it has been used by some modern scholars to describe the self-governing British colonies and dependencies that exercised a form of home rule but remained integral parts of the British Empire and subject firstly to the metropole's administration; the Republics of the Soviet Union, which represented individual administrative units with their own respective national distinctions, have been described as proto-states. In more recent usage, the term proto-state has most been evoked in reference to militant secessionist groups that claim, exercise some form of territorial control over, a specific region but lack institutional cohesion; such proto-states include the Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia during the Bosnian War and Azawad during the 2012 Tuareg rebellion.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant is widely held to be an example of a modern proto-state. The term "proto-state" has been used in contexts as far back as Ancient Greece to refer to the phenomenon that the formation of a large and cohesive nation would be preceded by small and loose forms of statehood. For instance, historical sociologist Gary Runciman noted that Greek city-states in classical antiquity such as Athens were weak proto-states that evolved into larger and more centralised political entities. Most ancient proto-states were the product of tribal societies, consisting of short-lived confederations of communities that united under a single warlord or chieftain endowed with symbolic authority and military rank; these were not considered sovereign states since they achieved any degree of institutional permanence and authority was exercised over a mobile people rather than measurable territory. Loose confederacies of this nature were the primary means of embracing a common statehood by people in many regions, such as the Central Asian steppes, throughout ancient history.
Proto-states proliferated in Western Europe during the Middle Ages as a result of a trend towards political decentralisation following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the adoption of feudalism. While theoretically owing allegiance to a single monarch under the feudal system, many lesser nobles administered their own fiefs as miniature "states within states" that were independent of each other; this practice was notable with regards to large, decentralised political entities such as the Holy Roman Empire, that incorporated many autonomous and semi-autonomous proto-states. Following the Age of Discovery, the emergence of European colonialism resulted in the formation of colonial proto-states in Asia and the Americas. A few colonies were given the unique status of protectorates, which were controlled by the metropole but retained limited ability to administer themselves, self-governing colonies and dependencies; these were distinct administrative units that each fulfilled many of the functions of a state without exercising full sovereignty or independence.
Colonies without a sub-national home rule status, on the other hand, were considered administrative extensions of the colonising power rather than true proto-states. Colonial proto-states served as the basis for a number of modern nation states on the Asian and African continents. During the twentieth century, some proto-states existed as not only distinct administrative units, but their own theoretically self-governing republics joined to each other in a political union such as the socialist federal systems observed in Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. Another form of proto-state that has become common since the end of World War II is established through the unconstitutional seizure of territory by an insurgent or militant group that proceeds to assume the role of a de facto government. Although denied recognition and bereft of civil institutions, insurgent proto-states may engage in external trade, provide social services, undertake limited diplomatic activity; these proto-states are formed by movements drawn from geographically concentrated ethnic or religious minorities, are thus a common feature of inter-ethnic civil conflicts.
This is due to the inclinations of an internal cultural identity group seeking to reject the legitimacy of a sovereign state's political order, create its own enclave where it is free to live under its own sphere of laws, social mores, ordering. The accumulation of territory by an insurgent force to form a sub-national geopolitical system and a proto-state, was a calculated process in China during the Chinese Civil War that set a precedent for many similar attempts throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Proto-states established as a result of civil conflict exist in a perpetual state of warfare and their wealth and populations may be limited accordingly. One of the most prominent examples of a wartime proto-state in the twenty-first century is the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, that maintained its own administrative bureaucracy and imposed taxes; the definition of a proto-state is not concise, has been confused by the interchangeable use of the terms state and nation to describe a given territory.
The term proto-state is preferred to "proto-nation" in an academic context, since some authorities use nation to denote a social, ethnic, or cultural group capable of forming its own state. A proto-state does not meet the four essential criteria for statehood as elaborated upon in the declarative theory of s
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.8 billion as of 2015 with 40 countries being Muslim-majority countries. The organisation states that it is "the collective voice of the Muslim world" and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony"; the OIC has permanent delegations to the European Union. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic and French. On 21 August 1969 a fire was started in the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Amin al-Husseini, the former Mufti of Jerusalem, called the arson a "Jewish crime" and called for all Muslim heads of state to convene a summit. On 25 September 1969, an Islamic Conference, a summit of representatives of 24 Muslim majority countries, was held in Rabat, Morocco. A resolution was passed stating that "Muslim government would consult with a view to promoting among themselves close cooperation and mutual assistance in the economic, scientific and spiritual fields, inspired by the immortal teachings of Islam."
Six months in March 1970, the First Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers was held in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In 1972, the Organisation of the Islamic Conference was founded. While the al-Aqsa fire is regarded as one of the catalysts for the formation of the OIC, many Muslims have aspired to a pan-Islamic institution that would serve the common political and social interests of the ummah since the 19th century. In particular, the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the Caliphate after World War I left a vacuum. According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic economic values; the emblem of the OIC contains three main elements that reflect its vision and mission as incorporated in its new Charter. These elements are: the Kaaba, the Globe, the Crescent. On 5 August 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia, or Quranic Law.
In March 2008, the OIC conducted a formal revision of its charter. The revised charter set out to promote human rights, fundamental freedoms, good governance in all member states; the revisions removed any mention of the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. Within the revised charter, the OIC has chosen to support the Charter of the United Nations and international law, without mentioning the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. According to the UNHCR, OIC countries hosted 18 million refugees by the end of 2010. Since OIC members have absorbed refugees from other conflicts, including the uprising in Syria. In May 2012, the OIC addressed these concerns at the "Refugees in the Muslim World" conference in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. On 28 June 2011 during the 38th Council of Foreign Ministers meeting in Astana, the organisation changed its name from Organisation of the Islamic Conference to its current name; the OIC changed its logo at this time. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has 57 members, 56 of which are member states of the United Nations, the exception being Palestine.
Some members in West Africa and South America, are – though with large Muslim populations – not Muslim majority countries. A few countries with significant Muslim populations, such as Russia and Thailand, sit as Observer States; the collective population of OIC member states is over 1.9 billion as of 2018. The Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States was established in Iran in 1999, its head office is situated in Tehran. Only OIC members are entitled to membership in the union. On 27 June 2007, then-United States President George W. Bush announced that the United States would establish an envoy to the OIC. Bush said of the envoy, "Our special envoy will listen to and learn from representatives from Muslim states, will share with them America's views and values." As of June 2015, Arsalan Suleman is acting special envoy. He was appointed on 13 February 2015. In an investigation of the accuracy of a series of chain emails, Snopes.com reported that during the October 2003 – April 2004 session of the General Assembly, 17 individual members of the OIC voted against the United States 88% of the time.
The OIC, on 28 March 2008, joined the criticism of the film Fitna by Dutch lawmaker Geert Wilders, which features disturbing images of violent acts juxtaposed with alleged verses from the Quran. In March 2015, the OIC announced its support for the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis; the OIC supports a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The OIC has called for boycott of Israeli products in effort to pressure Israel into ending the occupation of the Palestinian territories. There was a meeting in Conakry in 2013. Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said that foreign ministers woul
Kamissa Camara is a Malian political analyst and politician who has served as the country's Minister of Foreign Affairs since September 2018. Camara was born in Grenoble to Malian parents. Camara has a BA in applied foreign languages from Paris Diderot University and an MA in international economics and development from Pierre Mendès-France University, she did an internship at the United Nations in Washington, D. C. in 2005 and spent a year in Concord, New Hampshire as an au pair. In 2007, she did an internship at the African Development Bank in Tunisia, before obtaining a Green card and moving to the United States, living there for eight years. From 2007, Camara worked at the International Foundation for Electoral Systems overseeing West Africa and was one of the observers of the 2013 Malian presidential election in Timbuktu, she moved to the National Endowment for Democracy in 2012, where she was promoted to vice director for Central and West Africa in 2016. She worked for a time with presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.
Camara was a member of the Center for African Studies at Harvard University until December 2017. She was the Africa Director of NGO Global Partners until June 2018, she has written opinion pieces and political analysis for various publications in English and French and has been a political commentator on English and French TV programs. She was the first Malian political scientist to appear on CNN. Camara is the co-chair of the Sahel Strategy Forum. In 2017, she wrote a letter to Mali's President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta, asking him to withdraw his plans to change the constitution. In July 2018, he appointed her as his diplomatic advisor, she was appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs by Keita on 9 September 2018, the first woman and youngest person to hold the post, one of eleven women in the thirty-two member cabinet. She has spoken about the issues of alleged human rights violations; as of December 2018, when she gave a speech to the United Nations General Assembly in Marrakech deploring the withdrawal of some countries from the Global Compact for Migration, she was the world's youngest Foreign minister.
Camara is a citizen of France, the US and Mali, is fluent in French and Bambara. She is married. Official website Kamissa Camara on Twitter