Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, it is colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". Central Asia has a population of about 72 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Afghanistan, a part of South Asia, is sometimes included in Central Asia. Central Asia has been tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, East Asia. The Silk Road connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe and China; this crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and traditionalism and modernization. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia was predominantly Iranian, populated by Eastern Iranian-speaking Bactrians, Sogdians and the semi-nomadic Scythians and Dahae.
After expansion by Turkic peoples, Central Asia became the homeland for the Kazakhs, Tatars, Turkmen and Uyghurs. From the mid-19th century until the end of the 20th century, most of Central Asia was part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, both Slavic-majority countries, the five former Soviet "-stans" are still home to about 7 million ethnic Russians and 500,000 Ukrainians; the idea of Central Asia as a distinct region of the world was introduced in 1843 by the geographer Alexander von Humboldt. The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions. Built political geography and geoculture are two significant parameters used in the scholarly literature about the definitions of the Central Asia; the most limited definition was the official one of the Soviet Union, which defined Middle Asia as consisting of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, hence omitting Kazakhstan. This definition was often used outside the USSR during this period. However, the Russian culture has two distinct terms: Средняя Азия and Центральная Азия.
Soon after independence, the leaders of the four former Soviet Central Asian Republics met in Tashkent and declared that the definition of Central Asia should include Kazakhstan as well as the original four included by the Soviets. Since this has become the most common definition of Central Asia; the UNESCO History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, published in 1992, defines the region as "Afghanistan, northeastern Iran and central Pakistan, northern India, western China and the former Soviet Central Asian republics."An alternative method is to define the region based on ethnicity, in particular, areas populated by Eastern Turkic, Eastern Iranian, or Mongolian peoples. These areas include Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Turkic regions of southern Siberia, the five republics, Afghan Turkestan. Afghanistan as a whole, the northern and western areas of Pakistan and the Kashmir Valley of India may be included; the Tibetans and Ladakhi are included. Insofar, most of the mentioned peoples are considered the "indigenous" peoples of the vast region.
Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan. There are several places that claim to be the geographic center of Asia, for example Kyzyl, the capital of Tuva in the Russian Federation, a village 200 miles north of Ürümqi, the capital of the Xinjiang region of China. Central Asia is an large region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains, vast deserts, treeless, grassy steppes; the vast steppe areas of Central Asia are considered together with the steppes of Eastern Europe as a homogeneous geographical zone known as the Eurasian Steppe. Much of the land of Central Asia is too rugged for farming; the Gobi desert extends from the foot of the Pamirs, 77° E, to the Great Khingan Mountains, 116°–118° E. Central Asia has the following geographic extremes: The world's northernmost desert, at Buurug Deliin Els, Mongolia, 50°18' N; the Northern Hemisphere's southernmost permafrost, at Erdenetsogt sum, Mongolia, 46°17' N. The world's shortest distance between non-frozen desert and permafrost: 770 km.
The Eurasian pole of inaccessibility. A majority of the people earn a living by herding livestock. Industrial activity centers in the region's cities. Major rivers of the region include the Amu Darya, the Syr Darya, the Hari River and the Murghab River. Major bodies of water include the Aral Sea and Lake Balkhash, both of which are part of the huge west-central Asian endorheic basin that includes the Caspian Sea. Both of these bodies of water have shrunk in recent decades due to diversion of water from rivers that feed them for irrigation and industrial purposes. Water is an valuable resource in arid Central Asia and can lead to rather significant international disputes. Central Asia is bounded on the north by the forests of Siberia; the northern half of Cent
The Arab League, formally the League of Arab States, is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia. It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Transjordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria. Yemen joined as a member on 5 May 1945; the League has 22 members, but Syria's participation has been suspended since November 2011, as a consequence of government repression during the Syrian Civil War. The League's main goal is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries". Through institutions, such as the Arab League Educational and Scientific Organization and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity, the Arab League facilitates political, cultural and social programmes designed to promote the interests of the Arab world, it has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis.
The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter, which outlines the principles for economic activities in the region; each member state has one vote in the League Council, decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural and social programs of its members and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defence and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defence measures. In March 2015, the Arab League General Secretary announced the establishment of a Joint Arab Force with the aim of counteracting extremism and other threats to the Arab States; the decision was reached. Participation in the project is voluntary, the army intervenes only at the request of one of the member states.
The growing militarization of the region and the increase in violent civil wars as well as terrorist movements are the reason behind the creation of the JAF, financed by the rich Gulf countries. In the early 1970s, the Economic Council of the League of Arab States put forward a proposal to create the Joint Arab Chambers of Commerce across the European states; that led, under the decree of the League of Arab States no. K1175/D52/G, to the decision by the Arab governments to set up the Arab British Chamber of Commerce, mandated to "promote and facilitate bilateral trade" between the Arab world and its major trading partner, the United Kingdom. Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945, it aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes and coordinating political aims. Other countries joined the league; each country was given one vote in the council. The first major action was the joint intervention on behalf of the majority Arab population being uprooted as the state of Israel emerged in 1948, but a major participant in this intervention, had agreed with the Israelis to divide up the Arab Palestinian state proposed by the United Nations General Assembly, Egypt intervened to prevent its rival in Amman from accomplishing its objective.
It was followed by the creation of a mutual defence treaty two years later. A common market was established in 1965; the Arab League member states cover over 13,000,000 km2 and straddles two continents: Africa and Asia. The area consists of arid deserts, such as the Sahara, it contains several fertile lands like the Nile Valley, the Jubba Valley and Shebelle Valley in the Horn of Africa, the Atlas Mountains in the Maghreb, the Fertile Crescent that stretches over Mesopotamia and the Levant. The area comprises parts of the world's longest river, the Nile; the Charter of the Arab League known as the Pact of the League of Arab States, is the founding treaty of the Arab League. Adopted in 1945, it stipulates that "the League of Arab States shall be composed of the independent Arab States that have signed this Pact."Initially, in 1945, there were only six members. Today, the Arab League has 22 members, including three African countries among the largest by area and the largest country in the Middle East.
Five countries have observer status that entitles them to express their opinion and give advice but denies them voting rights. There was a continual increase in membership during the second half of the 20th century; as of 2016, there are 22 member states: and 5 observer states: Libya was suspended on 22 February 2011, following the start of the Libyan Civil War. The National Transitional Council, the recognised interim government of Libya, sent a representative to be seated at the Arab League meeting on 17 August to participate in a discussion as to whether to readmit Libya to the organisation. Syria was suspended on 16 November 2011. On 6 March 2013, the Arab League gave the Syrian National Coalition Syria's seat in the Arab League. On 9 March 2014, secretary gener
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative and industrial center of the country, it has been the capital since 1918, the fourteenth in the history of Armenia and the seventh located in or around the Ararat plain. The city serves as the seat of the Araratian Pontifical Diocese; the history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. Erebuni was "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a royal capital." By the late ancient Armenian Kingdom, new capital cities were established and Yerevan declined in importance. Under Iranian and Russian rule, it was the center of the Erivan Khanate from 1736 to 1828 and the Erivan Governorate from 1850 to 1917, respectively. After World War I, Yerevan became the capital of the First Republic of Armenia as thousands of survivors of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire arrived in the area.
The city expanded during the 20th century as Armenia became part of the Soviet Union. In a few decades, Yerevan was transformed from a provincial town within the Russian Empire to Armenia's principal cultural and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government. With the growth of the Armenian economy, Yerevan has undergone major transformation. Much construction has been done throughout the city since the early 2000s, retail outlets such as restaurants and street cafés, which were rare during Soviet times, have multiplied; as of 2011, the population of Yerevan was 1,060,138, just over 35% of the Republic of Armenia's total population. According to the official estimate of 2016, the current population of the city is 1,073,700. Yerevan was named the 2012 World Book Capital by UNESCO. Yerevan is an associate member of Eurocities. Of the notable landmarks of Yerevan, Erebuni Fortress is considered to be the birthplace of the city, the Katoghike Tsiranavor church is the oldest surviving church of Yerevan and Saint Gregory Cathedral is the largest Armenian cathedral in the world, Tsitsernakaberd is the official memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, several opera houses, museums and other cultural institutions.
Yerevan Opera Theatre is the main spectacle hall of the Armenian capital, the National Gallery of Armenia is the largest art museum in the Republic of Armenia and shares a building with the History Museum of Armenia, the Matenadaran repository contains one of the largest depositories of ancient books and manuscripts in the world. One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan's name is the city was named after the Armenian king, Yervand IV, the last leader of the Orontid Dynasty, founder of the city of Yervandashat. However, it is that the city's name is derived from the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni, founded on the territory of modern-day Yerevan in 782 BC by Argishti I; as elements of the Urartian language blended with that of the Armenian one, the name evolved into Yerevan. Scholar Margarit Israelyan notes these changes when comparing inscriptions found on two cuneiform tablets at Erebuni: The transcription of the second cuneiform bu of the word was essential in our interpretation as it is the Urartaean b, shifted to the Armenian v.
The original writing of the inscription read «er-bu-ni». In other words b was placed between two vowels; the true pronunciation of the fortress-city was Erebuny. Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name Yerevan to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah, in Armenian. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark had landed on Mount Ararat and the flood waters had receded, Noah is believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!". In the late medieval and early modern periods, when Yerevan was under Turkic and Persian rule, the city was known in Persian as Iravân; this name is still used by Azerbaijanis. The city was known as Erivan under Russian rule during the 19th and early 20th centuries; the city was renamed back to Yerevan in 1936. Up until the mid-1970s the city's name was spelled Erevan, more than Yerevan, in English sources; the principal symbol of Yerevan is Mount Ararat, visible from any area in the capital. The seal of the city is a crowned lion on a pedestal with the inscriptit in the upper part.
The emblem is a rectangular shield with a blue border. On 27 September 2004, Yerevan adopted an anthem, "Erebuni-Yerevan", written by Paruyr Sevak and composed by Edgar Hovhanisyan, it was selected in new flag that would best represent the city. The chosen flag has a white background with the city's seal in the middle, surrounded by twelve small red triangles that symbolize the twelve historic capitals of Armenia; the flag includes the three colours of the Armenian National flag. The lion is portrayed on the orange background with blue edging; the territory of Yerevan has been inhabited since the 2nd half of the 4th millennium BC. The southern part of the city known as Sheng
The Dhofar Governorate is the largest of the eleven Governorates in the Sultanate of Oman in terms of area. It lies on the eastern border with Yemen's Al Mahrah Governorate, it is a rather mountainous area that covers 99,300 km2 and has a population of 249,729 as of the 2010 census. The largest city, as well as capital of the Governorate, is Salalah; the region was the chief source of frankincense in the world. The local variety of Arabic is Dhofari Arabic, quite distinct from that of the rest of Oman and from Yemen. At Aybut Al-Auwal in Wadi Aybut, a site was discovered in 2011 containing more than 100 surface scatters of stone tools belonging to a regionally specific lithic industry, the late Nubian Complex, known only from Northeast Africa. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates place the Arabian Nubian Complex at 106,000 years old; this provides evidence for a distinct Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia around the earlier part of the Marine Isotope Stage 5. Genoese adventurer Marco Polo wrote of Dhofar in the The Travels of Marco Polo, stating: Dufar is a great and noble and fine city.
The people are Saracens and have a Count for their chief, subject to the Soldan of Aden. Much white incense is produced here, I will tell you how it grows; the trees are like small fir trees. Sometimes it flows from the tree without any notch; this Dhafar is supposed to be the Sephar of Genesis, x. 30. Dhofar was a major exporter of frankincense in ancient times, with some of it being traded as far as China. Al Baleed, an area near Salalah, served as the home of the Manjawi Civilization from the 12th-to-16th centuries. Prior to Omani rule, a portion of Dhofar was part of the sultanate of Kathiri, mostly controlled by tribes of Al-Hakli, thus given the name "Qara Mountain Range", it is thought. A historical political précis on Dhofar produced by the British Government indicate that in 1876, a man named Sayyid Fadhl bin Alawi, who had arrived in Dhofar from Mecca in August 1875, had established himself as the de facto ruler of Dhofar, he claimed allegiance to the Ottomans, however, it was unknown if he was acting under their directive.
With the help of Dhofari tribes he carried out warfare against the Bedouins of the interior. He was expelled by local sheikhs in January 1879. Dhofar is extensively detailed in the 1917 publication Gazetteer of Arabia, produced by the Government in British India and based on information gathered by J. G. Lorimer's in his 1908 and 1915 handbook Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf and Central Arabia. In it, Dhofar's boundaries are given as between the Samhan hills and the sea, from Ra's Risut eastwards for 30 miles to Khor Rori. Colloquially, the term Dhofar was used to describe the villages of Al Haffah and Salalah, which housed about two-thirds of Dhofar's population at that time. Dhofar's physical geography was noted as consisting of barren plains, a mountain range and several valleys, the most important of, Wadi Raikut. Communication outside of Dhofar was made difficult on account of the rugged landscape and the fact that no large harbors existed on the coast, though Mirbat and Risut were said to offer good anchorage for smaller vessels.
The mountain paths were, for all purposes, inaccessible during the rainy season. Aside from camels, no other transport animals were used. Frankincense was said to comprise the bulk of economic trade, with 9,000 cwt. Being sent to Mumbai annually. Other exports were hides, sheep-skins and beeswax. Among the chief imports were khat from Mukalla and rice, sugar and cloths from Mumbai. Gordon Noel Jackson's 1943 essay on Dhofar provides a historical glimpse into the administration of the region: The administration of the Dhufar Province is in the hands of the Sultan of Muscat himself, he appears to regard Dhufar more as a private estate than as a Province of his Sultanate and maintains a separate treasury. According to an article published some 65 years ago in the Nehla, a superior Arabic magazine of the last century, Sayyid Turki, the present Sultan's grandfather, established his rule there at the invitation of the Sayyids of Salalah to forestall the unwelcome interest of the Turks, he entrusted the task of establishing Muscat authority to one Sulaiman bin Suwailim, a former slave, supplied him with a small body of soldiers to secure the towns from the tribesmen.
Sulaiman bin Suwailim built a fort on the site of the present palace, seized and looted by the Kathiri, but it was not long before Muscat authority was re-established. His father took little interest in the Province but Sayyid Said bin Taimur, the present Sultan, has now been in residence there for over a year, has a trained agricultural adviser and an engineer with him and is making great strides in developing the agricultural resources. During World War I it was fertile enough to produce food and grain to supply a large proportion of the requirement of the British Army fighting in Mesopotamia. A counter-insurgency campaign—the Omani Civil War —was fought here by the Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces in 1965–1975 against guerrilla fighters of the nationalist Dhofar Liberation Front and the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Persian Gu
History of Oman
Oman is the site of pre-historic human habitation, stretching back over 100,000 years. The region was impacted by powerful invaders, including other Arab tribes and Britain. Oman once possessed the island of Zanzibar, on the east coast of Africa as a colony. In Oman, a site was discovered by Doctor Bien Joven in 2011 containing more than 100 surface scatters of stone tools belonging to the late Nubian Complex, known only from archaeological excavations in Sudan. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates place the Arabian Nubian Complex at 106,000 years old; this provides evidence for a distinct Mobile Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia, around the earlier part of the Marine Isotope Stage 5. The hypothesized departure of humankind from Africa to colonise the rest of the world involved them crossing the Straits of Bab el Mandab in the southern Purple Sea and moving along the green coastlines around Arabia and thence to the rest of Eurasia; such crossing became possible when sea level had fallen by more than 80 meters to expose much of the shelf between southern Eritrea and Yemen.
From 135,000 to 90,000 years ago, tropical Africa had megadroughts which drove the humans from the land and towards the sea shores, forced them to cross over to other continents. The researchers used radiocarbon dating techniques on pollen grains trapped in lake-bottom mud to establish vegetation over the ages of the Malawi lake in Africa, taking samples at 300-year-intervals. Samples from the megadrought times had little pollen or charcoal, suggesting sparse vegetation with little to burn; the area around Lake Malawi, today forested, was a desert 135,000 to 90,000 years ago. Luminescence dating is a technique that measures occurring radiation stored in the sand. Data culled via this methodology demonstrates that 130,000 years ago, the Arabian Peninsula was more warm which caused more rainfall, turning it into a series of lush habitable land. During this period the southern Red Sea's levels was only 2.5 miles or 4 km wide. This offered a brief window of time for humans to cross the sea and cross the Peninsula to opposing sites like Jebel Faya.
These early migrants running away from the climate change in Africa, crossed the Red Sea into Yemen and Oman, trekked across Arabia during favourable climate conditions. 2,000 kilometres of inhospitable desert lie between the Red Sea and Jebel Faya in UAE. But around 130,000 years ago the world was at the end of an ice age; the Red Sea was shallow enough to be crossed on foot or on a small raft, the Arabian peninsula was being transformed from a parched desert into a green land. There have been discoveries of Paleolithic stone tools in caves in southern and central Oman, in the United Arab Emirates close to the Straits of Hormuz at the outlet of the Persian Gulf (UAE site; the stone tools, some up to 125,000 years old, resemble those made by humans in Africa around the same period. The northern half of Oman was part of the Maka satrapy of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. By the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the satrapy may have existed in some form and Alexander is said to have stayed in Purush, its capital near Bam, in Kerman province.
From the 2nd half of the 1st millennium BCE waves of Semitic speaking peoples migrated from central and western Arabia to the east. The most important of these tribes are known as Azd. On the coast Parthian and Sassanian colonies were maintained. From c. 100 BCE to c. 300 CE Semitic speakers appear in central Oman at Samad al-Shan and the so-called Pre-islamic recent period, abbreviated PIR, in what has become the United Arab Emirates. These waves continue, in the 19th century bringing Bedouin ruling families who ruled the Gulf states. Oman was exposed to Islam during the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad. In 751 Ibadi Muslims, a moderate branch of the Kharijites, established an imamate in Oman. Despite interruptions, the Ibadi imamate survived until the mid-20th century. Oman is the only country with a majority Ibadi population. Ibadhism has a reputation for its "moderate conservatism". One distinguishing feature of Ibadism is the choice of ruler by communal consent; the introduction of Ibadism vested power in the Imam, the leader nominated by the ulema.
The Imam's position was confirmed when the imam — having gained the allegiance of the tribal sheiks — received the bay'ah from the public. Several foreign powers attacked Oman; the Qarmatians controlled the area between 931 and 932 and again between 933 and 934. Between 967 and 1053 Oman formed part of the domain of the Iranian Buyyids, between 1053 and 1154 Oman was part of the Seljuk Empire. Seljuk power spread through Oman to Koothanallur in South India. In 1154 the indigenous Nabhani dynasty took control of Oman, the Nabhani kings ruled Oman until 1470, with an interruption of 37 years between 1406 and 1443; the Portuguese took Muscat on 1 April 1515, held it until 26 January 1650, although the Ottomans controlled Muscat from 1550 to 1551 and from 1581 to 1588. In about the year 1600, Nabhani rule was temporarily restored to Oman, although that lasted only to 1624 with the establishment of the fifth imamate known as the Yarubid Imamate; the latter recaptured Muscat from the Portuguese in 1650 after a colonial presence on the northeastern coast of Oman dating to 1508.
Turning the table, the Omani Yarubid dynasty became a colonial power itself, acq
Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces
The Sultan's Armed Forces — Arabic: القوات المسلحة لسلطان عمان, transliterated: al-Quwāt ul-Musallaḥatu lis-Sulṭān ‘Umān) are the Royal Army of Oman, Royal Navy of Oman, Royal Air Force of Oman, Sultan's Special Forces and other defense forces of the Sultanate of Oman. Since their formal establishment in the early 1950s, with British assistance SAF has twice overcome insurgencies which have threatened the integrity or social structure of the state, more have contributed contingents or facilities to coalitions formed to protect the Persian Gulf states. Oman has a military history. At the time, the forces of the Azd tribe were powerful enough to help the prophet Mohammed's companion Abu Bakr, in the War of al Mortadeen, it is said that before that, the Azd tribe, led by Malek bin Faham, were able to defeat a Persian force which controlled Oman at that time. The second known Omani army force was raised during the Yarubid dynasty, who forced the Portuguese out of the country in 1650. During the rule of the Yarubi dynasty, fortified buildings covered the country from the north of Musandam to the south of Dhofar, making Oman a great power in the Persian Gulf.
During the al Busaidi dynasty, Oman was a substantial empire with a powerful military force, making Oman one of the greatest forces in the Indian Ocean, second only to the United Kingdom. After Said bin Sultan's death, political conflicts in Oman forced Oman to close in upon itself, to transform from a powerful empire to a poor country. Prior to 1954, when Said bin Taimur became ruler of Muscat and Oman, the defence of the region was guaranteed by treaties with Britain; the only armed forces in Muscat and Oman were tribal levies and a palace guard recruited from Baluchistan in Pakistan. Prior to that year, there had been a dispute with Saudi Arabia over the ownership of the Buraimi Oasis, important for oil exploration rights. For many centuries, the interior of Oman had been the Imamate of Oman; the Imam of Oman was its secular leader. In 1954, the Imam was Ghalib bin Ali, he had been prepared to muster Omani tribesmen to expel the Saudis from Buraimi, but at British instigation, the matter was settled by arbitration.
To prevent the Imam interfering with the settlement over Buraimi, a battalion-sized task force, the Muscat and Oman Field Force was raised, occupied the town of Ibri. The Sultan's prestige and authority was damaged by his disdain for his own people. At this point, the SAF consisted. Muscat and Oman Field ForceSome British officers were attached to each unit. With the Field Force occupying part of his territory, Ghalib tried to declare the Imamate of Oman independent, but in December 1955 the Field Force captured Ghalib at the town of Rostaq, he was released on recognisances. Talib bin Ali, the Imam's brother, had fled to Saudi Arabia, he returned from there in 1957 with 300 well-equipped fighters, the insurrection broke out again. Talib's forces occupied a fortified tower near Bilad Sait, which the Field Force lacked the heavy weapons to destroy. After some weeks' inconclusive fighting, Suleiman bin Himyar, the Sheikh of one of the major tribes in the interior proclaimed his defiance of the Sultan, began a general uprising.
The Muscat and Oman Field Force was destroyed as it tried to retreat through hostile towns and villages. The rebellion was suppressed by the Muscat Regiment and the Trucial Oman Levies from the neighbouring United Arab Emirates; the decisive factor however, was the intervention of infantry and armoured car detachments from the British Army and aircraft of the RAF. Talib's forces retreated to the inaccessible Jebel Akhdar; the SAF's attacks up the few paths up the Jebel were repelled. The Sultan's army was reorganised under Colonel David Smiley; the Batinah Force was renamed the Northern Frontier Regiment and the remnants of the Muscat and Oman Field Force merged into the new Oman Regiment. Within each unit and sub-unit and Arab soldiers were mixed; this prevented units defecting to or sympathising with the rebels, but led to tensions within units, orders were not followed because of language problems. Many of the notionally Omani soldiers were recruited from the province of Dhofar, looked down upon by other Arabs.
The Army was still unable to deal with Talib's stronghold. The few paths up the Jebel Akhdar were far too narrow to deploy attacking battalions or companies. One attempt was made against the southern face of the Jebel, using four infantry companies (including two companies from the Trucial Oman Scouts, from what would become the United Arab Emirates; the attackers withdrew hastily after concluding they cut off. In another attempt, infantry launched a feint and withdrew while Avro Shackleton bombers of the RAF bombarded the massed defenders, they inflicted no casualties. For two years, rebel infiltrators continually mined the roads around the Jebel, ambushed SAF and British detachments and oil company vehicles; the SAF were spread in small detachments in the towns and villages at the foot of the Jebel, thus vulnerable and on the defensive. Their arms were less effective than the up-to-date equipment used by Talib's fighters. A SAF artillery unit with two 5.5 inch medium guns harassed the settlements on the plateau