Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique is a Peruvian politician who served as the 63rd President of Peru, from 2001 to 2006. He was elected in April 2001. Toledo came to international prominence after leading the opposition against President Alberto Fujimori, who held the presidency from 1990 to 2000. Toledo was born into an impoverished family of indigenous peasants of Quechua heritage, he was the eighth oldest of sixteen sisters, seven of whom died in childhood. He was born in the village of Ferrer, but registered in the nearby town of Cabana, Pallasca Province, Ancash Department; as a child he worked shining shoes and selling newspapers and lottery tickets. When, at age 11, he finished grade school, his father expected him to leave school and get a job to support the family. With his teacher's encouragement, Toledo was able to continue his schooling by working nights and weekends, becoming the first person in his family to attend high school. Toledo found employment as a news correspondent for La Prensa in Chimbote, where he interviewed several high-ranking politicians.
Toledo's prospects improved when two Peace Corps volunteers, Joel Meister and Nancy Deeds, arrived in Chimbote looking for lodging and arrived at his family's door. The two Americans were drawn to Toledo by his "industriousness and charm," and his long conversations with them during the year that followed introduced Toledo to a world outside his small fishing village and inspired him to apply for a local civic group's scholarship to study in the United States, he was chosen to receive a one-year grant, while in the United States and Meister helped him get into the University of San Francisco's special program for non-English speakers. Toledo received a BA degree in economics and business administration at University of San Francisco by obtaining a partial soccer scholarship and working part-time pumping gas. Starting in 1970 he attended Stanford University, where he earned two MAs and, in 1993, a PhD in human resources from the graduate school of education. From 1981 to 1983, Toledo directed the Institute for Economic and Labor Studies in Lima, a subdivision of the Ministry of Labor and Social Development.
During the same period, he served as chairman of the Economic Advisory Committee to the president of the Central Reserve Bank and the labor minister. Throughout his academic and governmental career, Toledo worked as a consultant for various international organizations, including the United Nations, the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the International Labour Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, he led the 1989 UNDP/ILO mission for the evaluation of: "Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on Growth and Salaries", in six Central American countries. Toledo has been a professor at ESAN, one of Peru's leading business schools, serving as its director from 1986 to 1991. From 1991 to 1994, he was an affiliated researcher in the field of international development at the Harvard Institute for International Development, he has been a guest professor at the University of Waseda in Tokyo and at the Japan Foundation. Toledo entered politics as an independent candidate for the presidency in the 1995 election in which Alberto Fujimori was re-elected.
Despite his loss, the party he founded in 1994, Perú Posible, gained popularity and influence over the next few years. Toledo declared his intent to run again in the 2000 election and despite a constitutional controversy about his eligibility to serve a third term, Fujimori announced his candidacy. Despite being a low-profile politician, Toledo found himself the leader of the opposition to Fujimori's presidency. Toledo promised to uphold and strengthen the market program, put in place, while mitigating inequality issues attributed to it, he promised to reinvigorate Peru's social infrastructure. During the campaign, he promised to raise the wages of civil servants, stagnant under Fujimori, to create 400,000 jobs a year through programs designed to encourage agriculture and small business. Toledo called for the expansion of investigations into government, including investigations into allegations that the Fujimori administration had stolen billions from government coffers. Racial-ethnic themes echoed throughout the campaign.
Toledo was running to become Peru's first indigenous president. He referred to himself as El Cholo throughout his campaign, many indigenous Peruvians hoped that as president he would bring greater attention to issues of importance to them. Toledo's background, engaging manner, informal attitude made him an attractive candidate to both indigenous and non-indigenous Peruvians. Just minutes after the polls closed at 4:00 pm on April 9, 2000, major news networks rushed to announce that Toledo had garnered more votes than Fujimori; these announcements were based on projections from Peru's top polling firms, which base their numbers on exit polls. The prominent pollsters modified projections based on samples of actual vote counts from selected polling places, better known as the "quick count". Shortly after receiving news of Toledo's encouraging performance in the initial stage of the vote count, supporters gathered in the streets around Toledo's hotel room. An enthusiastic Toledo walked out onto the balcony of his room wearing a red headband, reminiscent of ancient Inca warriors.
He optimistically speculated that a first round victory might be within his grasp but still urged his supporters to wait for the results of the quick count. The second wave of quick count results reversed earl
Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province in the country not belonging to any of the twenty-five regions. Its capital is Lima, the nation's capital. Despite its small area, this province is the major industrial and economic powerhouse of the Peruvian economy, it concentrates one-third of the country's population and 50% of Peru's GDP in 2012. The province was created in 1821 as Peru's territory was divided into departments, provinces and parishes; the province was part of the Lima Department, formed by the territories of present-day Lima and Ica regions, the provinces of Casma and Santa, which would be part of the La Costa Department. The department was further subdivided as time passed but the Lima Province kept being part of it. Due to the massive migration from other areas of the country, the need to separate the province from the rest of the department was forecast by experts. In 2002, the new regionalization law passed by President Alejandro Toledo made the Lima Province a separate entity from the rest of the newly created Lima Region.
The province is divided into 43 districts. Each of them is headed by a mayor, although the Metropolitan Lima Municipal Council, led by the mayor of Lima exercises its authority in these districts. All the districts of Lima province are fused together in a continuous urban area, with the exception of the beach resorts of Ancon and Santa Rosa in the north and Pachacamac, Punta Hermosa, Punta Negra, San Bartolo, Santa Maria del Mar and Pucusana in the south. North: Huaral Province Northeast: Canta Province East: Huarochirí Province South: Cañete Province West: Callao Region and the Pacific Ocean Lima Province is administered by the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima, which administers the city of Lima, its current mayor is Jorge Muñoz Wells
Government of Peru
The Republic of Peru is a unitary state and a semi-presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system, The current government was established by the 1993 Constitution of Peru. The government is composed of three branches, being the executive and legislative branches; the head of state is the President of Peru, elected to a term of five years. Family members may not succeed another family member's presidency; the current president is Martín Vizcarra. He was sworn into office as President on March 23, 2018 following the resignation of President Kuczynski; the executive branch, in addition to the legislative branch, may propose legislation. After legislation has been passed by the congress, the President may promulgate the legislation, giving it the force of law. In addition to the president, the executive branch contains the Council of Ministers, which, in addition to the Prime Minister, are appointed by the president. According to Article 124 of the Political Constitution of Peru, in order to be Minister, it is required: Being born in Peru.
Be a current citizen. Be 25 years old or older. Members of the Armed Forces and National Police can be Ministers. Article 92 states. Run the process of strategic planning, embedded in the National System of Strategic Planning and determining the sector's functional national goals applicable to every level of government. Approve the budget proposal to the entities within their sector, abiding by the article 32 and supervising their execution. Stablish the management measurements of the entities within their sector and evaluate their fulfillment. Propose the inner organization of their Ministry and approve it according to their competencies attributed by Law. Designate and remove the advising positions or any directly appointed, the heads of public entities and other entities of the sector, when this appointment is not explicitly attributed to the Council of Ministries, other authorities or the President. Maintain relations with regional and local government within the competencies attributed to the sector.
Countersign the presidential mandates that concern to their Ministry Issue Supreme Resolution and Ministerial Resolutions. Put into effect the transfer of competencies and sectorial resources to Regional and Local Government and account for their execution. Execute all other functions that are put upon the Ministry by the Political Constitution of Peru, the Law and the President.mlgThe Ministers of State can delegate, within their Ministry, the faculties and powers that are not exclusive to their function, to the extent that it is allowed by Law. Functions 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 are exclusive to the Minister; the judicial branch is represented by the Supreme Court Of Justice, a 16-member body divided into three supreme sectors: Civil Sector: Presides over all topics related to civil rights and commercial law. Criminal Sector: Presides over all topics relating to criminal law. Constitutional and Social Sector: Presides over all topics relating to constitutional rights and labor law; the legislative branch of Peru is vested in the Congress of the Republic of Peru, a 130-member unicameral house.
The legislators are elected for five year terms on a proportional representation basis. Legislation is voted on in congress sent to the president, who may approve it. Universal suffrage is granted to all over the age of 18. Voting is compulsory until the age of 70; some argue whether compulsive voting is for best of the citizens. Enforced with exceptions. Municipalities of Peru Politics of Peru Regional Governments of Peru
National Board of Justice
The National Board of Justice or JNJ the National Council of the Magistrature, is an autonomous constitutional institution, part of the Republic of Peru. Its primary function is to appoint and ratify all judges and prosecutors in the Peruvian justice system as well as to remove those that fail to fulfill their responsibilities. Different systems have been used since independence by the Peruvian government to designate impartial judges and prosecutors; the 1933 Peruvian Constitution set up a system similar to the American one which gave the Executive branch the power to appoint judges with the ratification of the Senate. Juan Velasco Alvarado removed most of the judges that served as part of the Supreme Court shortly after coming to power. A "National Concil of Justice" was set up as an autonomous institution not dependent of any of the branches of government; this was done to solve corruption issues within the Judiciary branch as well as to prevent politics from infiltrating said branch. The function of the Council was similar to that of the modern National Council of the Magistrature.
The Council was made part of the 1979 Peruvian Constitution under its current name. The function of the Council was that of proposing judges. Supreme Court Justices were proposed to the President by the Council and in turn to the Senate which ratified the appointments. Lower court judges were chosen by the Council and the ratified by small Distritial Magistrate Councils; this Council was modeled after the Italian High Council of the Judiciary and was similar to other councils in Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. It was composed by seven members; the Prosecutor General presided over the Council while the other six members were two representatives from the Supreme Court, one from the National Federation of Bar Associations of Peru, one from the Lima Bar Association, two from Law Schools in Peru. After the 1992 Peruvian constitutional crisis and the adoption of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution, the Council gained greater autonomy and responsibility. A series of wiretaps were published by the press starting in July 2018 which recorded counselors speaking with prominent businessmen and judges which showed vast cronyism within the system.
President Martín Vizcarra convened Congress into a special session concerning the removal of all seven counselors on 20 July 2018. Congress removed all seven Counselors by a unanimous vote; the National Council was declared in emergency for nine months a week later. Most of the Council's personnel was dismissed, the Council's organic law was revoked, all processes being considered by the Council were put on hold. During his yearly message to Congress, President Vizcarra, called for a new Constitutional amendment which would change the composition of the Council as well as the requirements to become a counselor, he asked that all appointments and ratification done by the council in recent years be revised. The Constitutional Amendment proposed by the Executive branch brought down the number of counselors from 7 to 5, it proposed that counselors would be appointed by a committee made up of the President of the Judicial Branch, the Prosecutor General, the President of the Constitutional Tribunal, the Ombudsman, the Comptroller General.
Further, Counselors would have to be licensed lawyer with at least 30 years of experience and of good reputation. The President asked that the proposed Constitutional changes be ratified by the people via referendum; the final amendment as approved by Congress maintained the number of counselors at 7 as well as the composition of the committee as proposed by the Executive branch. The amendment was ratified by the population as the first of four Constitutional amendments voted for in the 2018 Peruvian constitutional referendum. Over 80% voted for the amendment which changed to the name of the Council to the National Board of Justice; the Board is independent of the rest of the Peruvian government and it is ruled by its own organic law. The members of the Board are known as counselors and serve for a five-year term and may not be re-elected to a consecutive term. Counselors must be natural-born citizens; the Board consist of seven members, which are elected by a special committee, called into session by the Ombudsman six months before the end of the Board's term.
The members of the special council are the Ombudsman. Congress may remove any of the members of the Board due to gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote; the 1993 Peruvian Constitution delineates the Board's responsibilities. Its primary function is to appoint and periodically ratify all judges and prosecutors in the Peruvian justice system; this includes decisions regarding ascension of prosecutors. In this way, the judiciary branch of the Peruvian government is isolated from political and ideological interference by the other branches of government, it elects the head of the National Office of Electoral Processes and the head of the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status which are two of the three institutions in charge of the electoral system and processes. Judge and prosecutor vacancies are filled through a merit-bas
The Office of Public Defender of Peru is a constitutional organization created during the presidency of Alberto Fujimori, added to the current Constitution of Peru. According to Chapter XI of the current Peruvian constitution states that the role of the Public Defender or Ombudsman of Peru and its organization are to protect the constitutional rights and freedoms of the individual and the community; the Public Defender is the leader of the organization. He is elected by the Congress for a period of five years and enjoys complete independence in the discharge of its functions as conferred by the Constitution. To be elected it must have at least two-thirds of the affirmative vote of Congress, he is governed by the Organic Law. The Ombudsman does not serve as a prosecutor, but tries to find solutions to the problem before accusing any individual. It cannot dictate sentences, give orders of detention, or charge fines, its power rests on persuasion, in the behavior modification proposals that it formulate in its recommendations, in the development of preventive protection strategies, in the power as a mediator to find solutions, in his power of public denunciation in extreme cases.
The first Peruvian Ombudsman was Jorge Santistevan de Noriega, followed by Beatriz Merino. The Current Ombudsman is Walter Gutiérrez Camacho
Cabinet of Peru
The Cabinet of Peru is made up of all the Ministers of State. This council is presided by the President of the Council of Ministers, a position likened to that of a prime minister; that position is directly appointed by the President of the Republic. The Prime Minister presides over the meetings of the Council, unless the President of the Republic is present whereupon he presides; the Cabinet has, under the Constitution, the following main duties: Approve laws that the President submits to Congress Approve legislative decrees and urgent decrees that President of the Republic dictates, as well as laws and resolutions arranged by law To deliberate on subjects of public interest. For the Cabinet to reach any agreement, the approving vote of the majority of its members is required. Ministers of State are in charge of managing politics and the activities of various sectors that direct and manage public services; the requirements to be a Minister of State are to be Peruvian by birth, a citizen, be at least 25 years of age.
The Ministers of State are appointed discretionally by the President of the Republic, in coordination with the Prime Minister. While individual cabinet members do not require to be confirmed by Congress, when a new Prime Minister is chosen, the entire cabinet is subjected to a Congressional "vote of confidence". If the Prime Minister resigns his office, all members of the cabinet are constitutionally forced to resign. In special situations, a Minister of State in charge of one sector can temporarily assume the role and responsibilities held by another Minister in case of illness, travel, or other absence of the latter. All actions by the President must be approved by the Minister of State in charge of the correspondent sector to be valid under Peruvian law. Official website
Vice President of Peru
The Republic of Peru has two Vice Presidents who are elected along with the President in democratic elections. Their only mission is to replace the President in case of death, travel and other cases. Vice Presidents are first in the Presidential line of succession. Position of unique Vice President was in place between 1829–1831 and 1858–1862. Positions of First and Second Vice Presidents has been in place since 1862. List of current Vice Presidents Media related to Vice Presidents of Peru at Wikimedia Commons