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Foreign relations of Poland

The Republic of Poland is a Central European country and member of the European Union and NATO, among others. Poland wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs; the foreign policy of Poland is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. The Polish economy is open and relies on international trade. Since the collapse of communism and its re-establishment as a democratic nation, Poland has extended its responsibilities and position in European and Western affairs and establishing friendly foreign relations with both the West and with numerous European countries. After regaining independence in 1989, Poland has forged ahead on its economic reintegration with the Western world. Poland has been an active nation in advocating European integration. In 1994, Poland became an associate member of the European Union and its defensive arm, the Western European Union.

In 1996, Poland achieved full OECD membership and submitted preliminary documentation for full EU membership. In 1997, Poland was invited in the first wave of NATO policy enlargement at the July 1997 NATO Summit in Madrid, Spain. In March 1999, Poland became a full member of NATO. Poland promoted its NATO candidacy through energetic participation in the Partnership for Peace program and through intensified individual dialogue with NATO. Poland formally joined the European Union in May 2004, along with the other members of the Visegrád group. Poland was a part of the multinational force in Iraq; the collapse of the Soviet Union led to the establishment of seven new sovereign states in Poland's immediate neighborhood, of which Lithuania, Belarus and Russia border Poland. Poland has pursued good relations with all its neighboring countries, signing friendship treaties replacing links severed by the collapse of the Warsaw Pact; the Poles have forged special relationships with Lithuania and Ukraine in an effort to anchor these states to the West.

Due to its tragic historical experience with aggression of powerful neighbors, Polish foreign policy pursues close cooperation with a strong partner, one apt enough to give strong military support in times of critical situations. This creates the background of Poland's tight relations with the USA and their sensitivity in relations towards its partner within the European Union, Germany. At the same time, the burdened attitude towards Russia results in tense diplomatic relations, which have been worsening since Vladimir Putin's rise to power; this is an important factor for the special attention Poland pays to the political emancipation of all its Eastern neighbors: Lithuania and Ukraine. List of diplomatic missions in Poland List of diplomatic missions of Poland Polish involvement in the 2003 invasion of Iraq Canada–Poland relations Israel–Poland relations This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website

Fedorowicz, Krzysztof. "National Identity and National Interest in Polish Eastern Policy, 1989-2004". Nationalities Papers. 35: 537–553. Doi:10.1080/00905990701368761

Jim Frazier (inventor)

James Frazier is an Australian inventor and cinematographer who invented the Frazier lens. He has won many Australian and international awards for his work, including an Academy Award for Technical Achievement and an Emmy Award, he is well known for filming documentaries for David Attenborough together with his long-time collaborator Australian naturalist and writer Densey Clyne. Clyne and Frazier formed a partnership known as Mantis Wildlife Films and their work including Webs of Intrigue, has won numerous international awards. David Attenborough asked the pair to work on his series Life on The Living Planet. Frazier and Clyne contributed 55 minutes of footage to Life on Earth. Frazier's career as a wildlife cinematographer has been spread over more than 40 years, with an Emmy, 3 Golden Tripods, a US Industrial Film & Video Gold Camera Award, an Honorary Doctorate and over 40 national and international awards for his work that include the acclaimed Cane Toads: An Unnatural History, he was winner of a Technical Oscar in 1997 for his invention of the Frazier lens System, which has revolutionised the international film industry, an ingenious lens that provides an extended depth of field and an ability to have both the foreground and background in focus.

The lens has been used by leading filmmakers including Steven Spielberg, James Cameron and in television commercials. In October 1998, Jim was presented with the John Grierson International Gold Medal for pioneering work in micro/macro cinematography of invertebrate animals leading to the design of the Frazier lens System. Frazier's latest invention is a new lens that promises to have a similar impact, being simpler and needing much less light, he has recently designed and tested 3D capture using a single lens. He creates crystal artworks, that have been developed through the growth and manipulation of crystals on glass plates; the crystals are shaped with the use of sound tones, energy fields and heat to make brilliant compositions and captured by special photographic techniques. They are featured in private collections around the world including those of Oprah Winfrey and Hillary Clinton. Jim Frazier at the Encyclopedia of Australian Science Jim Frazier - profile at Focus Australia

Luke Jones (rugby union)

Luke Jones is a rugby union footballer. His regular playing position is either flanker, he represents Bordeaux in the French Top 14 competition, having played for the Melbourne Rebels and the Western Force in Super Rugby. Jones represented the Australian Schoolboys in both 2008 and 2009, he was a Schoolboys' captain in 2009, named to play in a test against New Zealand in Brisbane. He captained NSW Schools in 2009 at the Australian National Championships, he was selected to tour the UK with the Australian Schoolboys in late 2009, selected again to play Ireland. Jones returned to Australia to train with the Western Force in Perth, he had signed with the Force while at St Pius X College in Sydney, to become the first forward in Australian rugby to sign a full-time professional contract whilst still at school. Jones had a busy 2010, he made his Super Rugby debut in Wellington against the Hurricanes. At the 2010 JWC in Argentina he scored one of Australia's nine tries to help the Australia wallop Scotland 58–13 in a pool match.

And he helped. In March 2010 it was announced Jones would leave the Force to transfer to the Melbourne Rebels ready for the 2011 Super Rugby season. In May 2011 he made his Rebels debut against the Cheetahs in South Africa. In June he received the'Rebel Rising Player of the Year' award, competed for Australia in the JWC in Italy, his JWC teammates included SPX alumni and flanker Michael Hooper, prop Paul Alo-Emile. Jones began his 2012 Super Rugby season at number 6 in the Rebels season opener against the Waratahs, he continued with the Rebels in 2013 and 2014. In 2013, Jones re-signed with the Rebels until the end of the 2016 Super Rugby season; as of 16 June 2019 Rebels profile


Ruptiliocarpon is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the family Lepidobotryaceae. The genus has only one species, Ruptiliocarpon caracolito, it is a tall tree that grows in several small isolated areas of South America. It is known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Suriname, it is locally common on hillsides and other well-drained areas in red clay, from near sea level to 400 m in elevation. The seed is surrounded by two endocarps which fall litter the ground below. To those who live where it grows, it is known as cedro caracolito, the "little snail cedar", because the larger of the two endocarps resembles a small shell; the wood of Ruptiliocarpon is light and used in cabinet-making, but is overlooked by wood harvesters. Ruptiliocarpon was named and described by Barry Hammel and Nelson Zamora in the journal Novon in 1993, they saw that it was a close relative of Lepidobotrys and made it the second member of Lepidobotryaceae. In the same paper, they wrote a reassessment of the family. Novon published two other studies of Ruptiliocarpon in the same issue.

They confirmed that Ruptiliocarpon was related to Lepidobotrys, but came to no firm conclusions on the relationships of this pair to other groups of rosids. One study found that the wood anatomy of Ruptiliocarpon was much like that of Lepidobotrys and shared some traits with the wood anatomy of Trichilia, a member of the family Meliaceae; the wood of Ruptiliocarpon was different from the wood of all others to which it was compared in having vestured pits on the walls of its xylem cells. Another study found some similarities in flower structure with Meliaceae, but found that ovule and seed morphology suggested a relationship with Phyllanthaceae, a family that the authors did not consider to be separate from Euphorbiaceae. Cedro caracolito is not a cedar in the strictest sense, but in Spanish, the term cedro is applied to a wide variety of trees. In Costa Rica, where most of the specimens were collected, the term cedro, with a qualifying adjective, is applied to Carapa, Cedrela and Calophyllum.

Ruptiliocarpon caracolito has long been known to local inhabitants, but it was not named and described in the botanical literature until 1993, when sufficient material for such a description was collected. At that time, Barry Hammel and Nelson Zamora named it Ruptiliocarpon caracolito, basing their description on specimens from Costa Rica. Ruptiliocarpon is a Latin-Greek hybrid name. Ruptilio, in Latin, means "to split irregularly", "carpon" is the Greek word for fruit; the name describes the characteristic opening of the fruit and is an obvious difference from Lepidobotrys, the other member of the family. Though some language purists frown on the creation of hybrid names, the ICBN discourages it, Hammel and Zamora created this name because, as they said, "we consider the purely Greek or Latin options decidedly inelegant"; when Hammel and Zamora described Ruptiliocarpon, two other detailed studies of its anatomy were published at the same time. These studies confirmed that Ruptiliocarpon was placed in Lepidobotryaceae, but they were inconclusive about the relationships of Lepidobotryaceae to other families.

The authors suggested possible relationships to the Meliaceae and Phyllanthaceae, but it is now known that Lepidobotryaceae belongs in Celastrales. In Costa Rica, R. caracolito blooms in late March and early April, soon after the emergence of new leaves. The flowers are small and green and they attract little attention; because of this, because of the short flowering time, flowering material has been collected. The fruits remain on the tree into February. Trees are grown from seed; because R. caracolito was not botanically described until 1993, descriptions of Lepidobotryaceae from before that time are obsolete. The type material for the species is on the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica, it has been reported that the flowers of the South American trees are quite different from those of the Costa Rican trees, but flowering specimens from South America have not been collected. Ruptiliocarpon caracolito is a tree, 20 to 30 m, or 40 m tall; the trunk is straight and 50 to 90 cm in diameter at breast height.

The leaves are arranged alternately in two rows along the stem. The leaf blade is elliptic in shape and the margin is entire; the leaves appear simple, but are compound and unifoliate. The leaf consists of a single leaflet on the end of a rachis; the petiolule is swollen for its entire length and a conspicuous joint separates it from the rachis. This joint bears a elongate stipel. There is a pair of fused stipules at the base of the petiole; the stipel and stipules soon fall away. The inflorescence is an irregular arrangement of several spikes attached opposite a leaf; the flowers are green with five sepals and five petals that are nearly alike. The flower bud opens only producing a small hole in its end; the male and female flowers are only different in appearance, with each tree bearing flowers of only one sex. The 10 stamens are united into a tube. Five anthers are attached to the top of the tube, between them, five more are mounted on short filaments; the ovary has two compartments. The ovules are attached near its top.

The two stigmas attached directly to the apex of the ovary. The fruit is a capsule, 2.5 to 3.5 cm long and 1.5 to 2.5 cm wide, containing one, or two seeds. The capsule breaks up and its pieces fall, leaving the seed and the surrounding endocarps; the endocarps fall, leaving the seeds hanging on the tree. The seed is shiny and black with its lower thi

Gerhard Schick

Gerhard Schick is a German economist and finance expert who heads Finance Watch Deutschland. He served as a member of the German Bundestag for the Green Party. After completing his secondary school education in 1991 at the Gymnasium Hechingen, Schick completed his Community Service and graduated in 1992. Between 1992 and 1998 Schick continued with his economics education at the University of Bamberg, University of Freiburg and Complutense University of Madrid where he was awarded his Diplom in Economics. Subsequently, until 2001 he was a research associate at the Walter Eucken Institute Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg and from 2001 to 2004 the Market Economy Foundation in Berlin. In 2002 he was awarded a Ph. D. in Finance from the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg for his work on "Dual Federalism in Europe". In 2004 he joined the Bertelsmann Foundation in Gütersloh as a project manager. Schick has been a member of the German Parliament since the 2005 federal elections, representing Baden-Württemberg.

He has been elected from the land list, having unsuccessfully contested the Mannheim constituency. Schick has been the Alliance'90/The Greens parliamentary group’s spokesman on financial policy since 2007. From its inception in 2008, he has been a member of the Financial Markets Panel, which provides parliamentary oversight of the Financial Market Stabilization Agency. Following the 2013 federal elections, he was elected deputy chairman of the Finance Committee. October 2008 - Member of the Alliance 90/The Greens Party Council. September 2007 - Speaker of the fiscal Alliance 90/The Greens parliamentary group. April 2006 - Member of the Parliamentary Advisory Council for Sustainable Development. February 2006 - February 2007 - Member of the Commission in the federal executive of Alliance 90/The Greens to reduce bureaucracy. October 2005 - Member of the German Bundestag Bündnis 90/Die Grünen. June 2005 - Member of the Program Committee of the Bundestag Program 2005. November 2004 - February 2006 - Member of the Commission on Demographic Change of Alliance 90/The Greens.

July 2003 - September 2004 - Member of the Economic Policy Commission of Alliance 90/The Greens. November 2002 - May 2003 - Member of the Social Commission of Alliance 90/The Greens. September / October 2002 - Member of the negotiating teams for Economic and Labor in the coalition negotiations between Bündnos90/The Greens and the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands. April 2001 - June 2007 - Speaker of the Federal Association for Economic and Financial Affairs of Alliance 90/The Greens. February 2000 - May 2001 - Speaker of the State Association of Economy and Finance of Alliance 90/The Greens in Baden-Wuerttemberg. October 1999 - Candidacy for Freiburg Council. Since October 1996 - Member of Alliance 90/The Greens. Additional to this he has written several publications. In September 2018, Schick announced, he resigned by the end of 2018. Schick led the creation of a new nongovernmental Organisation called "Bürgerbewegung Finanzwende". Nuclear Waste Disposal Fund, Alternate Member of the Board of Trustees Institut Solidarische Moderne, Member Website by Gerhard Schick Biography in the German Bundestag Online Biography about him on the website of the Green Parliamentary Group in the German Bundestag

Linnean Society of New South Wales

The Linnean Society of New South Wales promotes the Cultivation and Study of the Science of Natural History in all its Branches and was founded in Sydney, New South Wales in 1874 and incorporated in 1884. The Society succeeded the Entomological Society of New South Wales, founded in 1862 which folded in 1872, with James Charles Cox as its first president; the first issue of Proceedings was in 1875. The establishment of the Society was due to the dedication and financial support of its first President, Sir William Macleay. Joseph James Fletcher was director and librarian from 1885 and edited 33 volumes of the Proceedings of the society. In September 1882, a fire destroyed the library and a part of the scientific material of the society; the efforts of William Macleay made it possible for the society to continue its activities. In 1903, the Society created the Macleay bursary which, has since helped many students of the University of Sydney to continue their studies and to engage of the significant research tasks in the fields of botany, zoology or geology.

Notable members and position holders include: The Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales The Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales Linnean Society of London Robertson, R. N.. ""A Society of Natural History. I hope they may succeed." – the first hundred years'". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 99: 69–78. Official website Archived March 19, 2005, at the Wayback Machine Presidential addresses, Proceedings at the Wayback Machine Linnean Society of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales Proceedings, ISSN 0370-047X 1876, Internet Archive The Macleay memorial volume ed. J. J. Fletcher, OCLC 5110548