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Foreign relations of Senegal

President Léopold Senghor advocated close relations with France and negotiation and compromise as the best means of resolving international differences. To a large extent, the two succeeding presidents have carried on Senghor's policies and philosophies. Senegal has long supported functional integration among French-speaking West African states through the West African Economic and Monetary Union. Senegal has a high profile in many international organizations and was a member of the UN Security Council in 1988–89, it was elected to the UN Commission on Human Rights in 1997. Friendly to the West to France and to the United States, Senegal is a vigorous proponent of more assistance from developed countries to the Third World. Senegal enjoys cordial relations with its neighbors. In spite of clear progress on other fronts with Mauritania, there remains the problem of an estimated 30,000 Afro-Mauritanian refugees living in Senegal. Senegal is a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military.

Senegal was regarded as Senegambia before the arrival of Europeans, where a number of independent kingdoms settled. By the 15th century, when the first Europeans arrived, Senegambia was linked to intra and inter-regional trade networks that extended throughout the coast. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the African slave trade took advantage of autonomous kingdoms such as, the Wolof and Jolof kingdoms; the establishment of French colonies coupled with the competing hegemonic power between local ethnic groups within the Wolof kingdom led to a power void after traditional rulers could not prevent the French from impeding the establishments in place by politicians and elites. The change from slave trade to the trade of cash crops set the precedent for the collapse of states within both empires; the French used Senegal's advantageous geographic location, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, to safeguard their interest in the trade of groundnuts. The foreign policy of Senegal is characterized by the religious values and beliefs of Islam.

The spiritual traditions and foundations of Senegal represent another facet of foreign policy in and outside of the region. Political and diplomatic actors are determined by marabouts that intercede on behalf of the people to Allah; some marabouts establish loyalist relationships of patron with political leaders. Marabouts do not make policy. Senegalese independence began in 1960 with Léopold Sedar Sénghor as the first president and was succeeded by Abdou Diouf in 1980. There are four sets of principles key to conceptualizing foreign policy in Senegal; the first is a French term, reminiscent of colonial roots, called la francophonie, a part of a larger foreign policy initiative to self-affirm the values and cultures of African people while rejecting French colonialism and orientalist attitudes through the concept of Négritude and Pan-Africanism. The promotion of this concept played a key role in the formation of worldwide summits, such as the Franco-African Summit, that allowed Senegal to emerge as a leader within the francophone movement in Africa African consolidation and cooperation are at the center of Sengalese foreign policy.

Senegelese diplomats in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs believe that West Africa must unite in order to not only remain competitive in an international economy dominated by superpowers like China and the United States, but promote and consolidate economic development within West Africa. Sengalese policy officials prioritize and use the individual strengths of surrounding African countries in order to strengthen regional economies and weaken regional dependency on foreign actors; this combative approach for western influence is underscored in the Senegalese constitution in clause four of the preamble: “must spare no effort in the fulfillment of African Unity”. These efforts have been pursued through formal diplomatic agreements with neighboring countries, such as the Mali Foundation in 1960, the Federation with Gambia from 1982 to 1989, as well as informal forms of cooperation such as the The Inter-State Authority in the Fight Against Drought in the Sahel, The Economic Community of West African States, The Joint African and Malagasy Organization, the Organization for the Development of the Gambia River Valley, the Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley.

Senegal is regarded on the international stage as one of the most stable democracies in Africa as a result of three peaceful power-transitions since 1960. Sengalese policy making is based on immediate neighbors, the remainder of Africa, the Arab world and other Muslim states, western democracies and revolves around Mauritania, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia. A source of conflict between Senegal and surrounding nations has been the management and development of shared border resources. Senegalese foreign policy revolves around Senegal's involvement in the internal affairs of other African nations and the desire to take and establish a lead role in a myriad of organizations committed to promoting regional integration and African unity. International commitments are a distinctive aspect of


Tetramethylurea is the organic compound with the formula 2CO. It is a substituted urea; this colorless liquid is used as an aprotic-polar solvent for aromatic compounds and is used e. g. for Grignard reagents. The synthesis and properties of tetramethylurea were comprehensively described; the reaction of dimethylamine with phosgene in the presence of e. g. 50 % sodium hydroxide solution and subsequent extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane yields tetramethylurea in 95% yield. The reactions with dimethylcarbamoyl chloride or phosgene are exothermic and the removal of the resulting dimethylamine hydrochloride requires some effort; the reaction of diphenylcarbonate with dimethylamine in an autoclave is effective. Tetramethylurea is formed in the reaction of dimethylcarbamoyl chloride with anhydrous sodium carbonate in a yield of 96.5%. Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride reacts with excess dimethylamine forming tetramethylurea. Though the product is contaminated and smelly it may be purified by addition of calcium oxide and subsequent fractional distillation.

Tetramethylurea is formed during the oxidation of tetrakisethylene, a electron-rich alkene and a strong reducing agent, available from trismethane by pyrolysis or from chlorotrifluoroethene and dimethylamine. Tetrakisethylene reacts with oxygen in a cycloaddition reaction to a 1,2-dioxetane which decomposes to electronically excited tetramethylurea; this returns to the ground state. Tetramethylurea is a clear, colorless liquid with mild aromatic odor, miscible with water and many organic solvents. Unusual for an urea is the liquid state of tetramethylurea in a range of > 170 °C. Tetramethylurea is miscible with a variety of organic compounds, including acids such as acetic acid or bases such as pyridine and an excellent solvent for organic substances such as ε-caprolactam or benzoic acid and dissolves some inorganic salts such as silver nitrate or sodium iodide. Due to its distinct solvent properties tetramethylurea is used as a replacement for the carcinogenic hexamethylphosphoramide. Tetramethylurea is suitable as a reaction medium for the polymerization of aromatic diacid chlorides and aromatic diamines to aramids such as poly The polymerization of 4-amino benzoic acid chloride hydrochloride in tetramethylurea provides isotropic viscous solutions of poly, which can be directly spun into fibers.

In a tetramethylurea-LiCl mixture stable isotropic solutions can be obtained up to a PPB polymer concentration of 14%. Tetramethylurea dissolves cellulose ester and swells other polymers such as polycarbonates, polyvinyl chloride or aliphatic polyamides at elevated temperature. Strong and hindered non-nucleophilic guanidine bases are accessible from tetramethylurea in a simple manner, which are in contrast to the fused amidine bases DBN or DBU not alkylated. A modification of the Koenigs-Knorr reaction for building glycosides from 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl bromide originates from S. Hanessian who used the silver salt silver trifluoromethanesulfonate and as a proton acceptor tetramethylurea; this process variant is characterized by a simplified process control, high anomeric purity and high yields of the products. If the reaction is carried out with acetobromoglucose and silver triflate/tetramethylurea at room temperature tetramethylurea reacts not only as a base, but with the glycosyl to form a good isolable uroniumtriflates in 56% yield.

The acute toxicity of tetramethylurea is moderate. However, it is embryotoxic and teratogenic towards several animal species


Watoosh! is the only studio album released in 1999 from the Canadian band Pezz before the band changed the name to Billy Talent. Pezz had changed their band name in 1999 after an American band with the same name threatened to sue them; the album was re-released in 2005 through Atlantic Records. All tracks are written by Pezz except. Track 13 is an instrumental, while tracks 11, 12 and 14-16 are blank; the track "M & M" is about a group of gothic kids that used to come into the HMV where Kowalewicz worked. Benjamin Kowalewicz - lead vocals Ian D'Sa - lead guitar, backing vocals, Cover Art Jonathan Gallant - bass, backing vocals Aaron Solowoniuk - drums Brad Nelson - Producer Daryl Smith - Engineer/Mixing Brett Zilahi - Mastering Billy Talent Dudebox


Ketyconus is a synonym of the subgenus Conus Iredale, 1930 represented as Conus Linnaeus, 1758. These are sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies; the Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Ketyconus from Conus in the following ways: Genus Conus sensu stricto Linnaeus, 1758Shell characters The basic shell shape is conical to elongated conical, has a deep anal notch on the shoulder, a smooth periostracum and a small operculum. The shoulder of the shell is nodulose and the protoconch is multispiral. Markings include the presence of tents except for black or white color variants, with the absence of spiral lines of minute tents and textile bars. Radular tooth The radula has an elongated anterior section with serrations and a large exposed terminating cusp, a non-obvious waist, blade is either small or absent and has a short barb, lacks a basal spur. Geographical distribution These species are found in the Indo-Pacific region. Feeding habits These species eat other gastropods including cones.

Subgenus Ketyconus da Motta, 1991Shell characters The shell is turgid in shape with subangulate shoulders. The protoconch is paucispiral; the whorl tops are not concave, are ornamented with cords, nodules are absent. The anal notch is shallow, an anterior notch is absent, a dentiform plait may be present; the periostracum is smooth, the operculum is moderate in size. Radular tooth The anterior section of the radular tooth is longer than the posterior section, the blade is short being less than one-third the length of the anterior section. A basal spur is present, the barb is short; the radular tooth has one or two rows of large serrations flanked by multiple rows of smaller serrations. Geographical distribution The only species in this genus is endemic to the South African region. Feeding habits These cone snails are presumed to be vermivorous, meaning that the cones prey on polychaete worms, based upon the radular tooth morphology; this list of species is based on the information in the World Register of Marine Species list.

Species within the genus Ketyconus include: Ketyconus ardisiaceus: synonym of Conus ardisiaceus Kiener, 1850 Ketyconus tinianus: synonym of Conus tinianus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 Kohn A. A.. Chronological Taxonomy of Conus, 1758-1840". Smithsonian Institution Press and London. Monteiro A.. The Cone Collector 1: 1-28. Berschauer D.. Technology and the Fall of the Mono-Generic Family The Cone Collector 15: pp. 51-54 Puillandre N. Meyer C. P. Bouchet P. and Olivera B. M. Genetic divergence and geographical variation in the deep-water Conus orbignyi complex, Zoologica Scripta 40 350-363. To World Register of Marine Species Conidae setting forth the genera recognized therein

Imperial Bank of India

The Imperial Bank of India was the oldest and the largest commercial bank of the Indian subcontinent, was subsequently transformed into the State Bank of India in 1955. As per its royal charter, it acted as the central bank for British India prior to the formation of the Reserve Bank of India in 1935; the Imperial Bank of India came into existence on 27 January 1921 through the reorganisation and amalgamation of the three Presidency Banks of colonial India into a single banking entity, spearheaded by John Maynard Keynes. The Presidency Banks were the Bank of Bengal, established on 2 June 1806, the Bank of Bombay, the Bank of Madras; the Imperial Bank was 80% owned while the rest were owned by the state. The Imperial Bank of India performed all the normal functions which a commercial bank was expected to perform. In the absence of any central banking institution in India until 1935, the Imperial Bank of India performed a number of functions which are carried out by a central bank. In 1924, at Apollo Street called Mumbai Samachar Marg, Mumbai, a magnificent stone structure with fretted windows, was constructed to house a branch of the Imperial Bank of India.

In 1933, Sir Badridas Goenka, an important public figure and business tycoon of his time, a prominent member of Marwari community of Calcutta, became the first Indian to be appointed as the Chairman of the Imperial Bank of India. The Reserve Bank of India, the central bank of India, acquired a controlling interest in the Imperial Bank of India in 1955, renamed on 30 April 1955 to the State Bank of India; this transformation from the Imperial Bank of India to the State Bank of India was given legal recognition through an Act of the Parliament of India, which came into force from 1 July 1955. On that day, the bank had sub-offices, as well as three local head offices; the branch network of the State Bank of India has since grown to 24050 branches as of 31 March 2018. In 2007, the Reserve Bank of India transferred its stake in the State Bank of India to the Indian Government; the Evolution of the State Bank of India Volume III Edited by State Bank of India THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE BANK OF INDIA, Volume 1 — The Roots 1806-1876 by Amiya Kumar Bagchi Indian banking

John Beresford Leathes

John Beresford Leathes DSc, MA, FRS, FRCS, FRCP was a British physiologist and an early biochemist. He was the son of Hebrew scholar Stanley Leathes, the brother of the poet and First Civil Service Commissioner Sir Stanley Mordaunt Leathes; the son of the Rev. Stanley Leathes, the Professor of Hebrew at King's College London and his wife Matilda, a descendant of a Dr. Butt, a physician to Henry VIII, his older brother was the poet and senior Civil Servant Sir Stanley Mordaunt Leathes. John Beresford Leathes was educated in the Classics at Winchester College from 1878 to 1883; the College at that time possessed no science facilities, so he received little science teaching there. When Gladstone visited the College Leathes, welcoming him formally Ad Portas as Prefect of Hall, delivered a speech to him in Latin, to which Gladstone responded in English. In 1884 he went up to Oxford where he obtained a second-class degree in Classics. Rejecting his father's wishes to become ordained in the Church of England, Leathes instead studied Medicine at Guy's Hospital, walking 12 miles there and back each day from his aunt's home in Highgate.

He qualified BMBCh in 1893, in 1894 passed FRCS. Leathes was a student demonstrator in Anatomy at Guy's, during 1894–95 was a demonstrator there in Physiology under his friend Ernest Starling, he could not train as a surgeon owing to his poor eyesight. In 1895 he was elected a member of The Physiological Society. From 1895 to 1897 Leathes was studying in Berne before moving to Strasbourg where he studied under Oswald Schmiedeberg. On returning to London in 1899 Leathes was appointed Lecturer in Physiology at St Thomas's Hospital Medical School. For some eight years he held a part-time appointment at the Lister Institute. In 1909 he became Honorary Secretary of The Physiological Society, but had to resign the post when he moved to Canada in the year when he was appointed to the newly created Chair in Pathological Chemistry at the University of Toronto. While here he founded a local Medical Research Society and when, in 1912, a new building beside the Toronto General Hospital was opened housing the Department of Pathology and Bacteriology and the Department of Pathological Chemistry Leathes established laboratories there for graduate students interested in a course of teaching and research in chemical medicine.

He remained in Toronto until 1914 when he returned to the UK to take up the post of Professor of Physiology at the University of Sheffield, where he served two terms as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. During World War I he was in charge of the nephritis wards at the Northern General Hospital in Sheffield and was appointed to the staff of the hospital as Honorary Physiologist in addition to being responsible for the establishment of biochemical laboratories at the two general hospitals in the city in 1919, he represented Sheffield University on the General Medical Council from 1919 to 1938, for 10 years was an editor of The Journal of Physiology. Leathes remained at Sheffield until his retirement in 1933. Leathes was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1911. In 1921 he was made a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of London, where in 1923 he delivered the Croonian Lecture, in 1930 the Harveian Oration, he was awarded Honorary Doctor of Science degrees by the University of Manchester and the University of Sheffield.

After leaving Sheffield Leathes moved firstly to Wantage and to the University of Oxford where he worked for a short period with Professor John Mellanby, FRS in the laboratory of physiology. He married Sonia Marie Natanson, a Russian, in London in 1896, their daughter Margaret Leathes married Lionel Penrose MD, FRS, Professor of Genetics at University College, London in 1928, was the mother of Oliver Penrose, the theoretical physicist. Problems in Animal Metabolism. Portrait of Leathes in the National Portrait Gallery Collection