Foreign relations of Tajikistan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Emblem of Tajikistan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Tajikistan
Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan portal

Foreign relations of Tajikistan are based on a desire to secure foreign investment and promote regional security while ensuring Tajikistan's independence. Sirodjidin Aslov is the current Foreign Minister of Tajikistan.[1]

Disputes[edit]

Outstanding boundary negotiations include talks begun with Uzbekistan to demine and delimit border; however, disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Kyrgyzstan.[2]

Bilateral relations[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan See Afghanistan–Tajikistan relations

Relations with neighboring Afghanistan began in 1992 and are generally satisfactory; the areas which form the two countries were once connected, especially during the Samanid, Ghaznavid, and Timurid periods. After a friendship treaty in 1750 between Ahmad Shah Durrani of Afghanistan and Mohammad Murad Beg of Bukhara, the Amu Darya (Oxus River) became the official border of Afghanistan; the Persian language is widely used in both countries, and there are slightly more Tajiks in Afghanistan than Tajikistan.[3]

In January 2007, with funding from the United States, Afghanistan and Tajikistan opened a bridge over the Pyanj River linking the two countries. Although the goal is to improve trade, the president of Tajikistan expressed concern that it could also increase drug traffic.[4] In March 2008, Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan issued a joint communique for expanding economic and cultural relations, including improving security.[5] In January 2009, the Afghan government agreed that Tajikistan owned 3,000 hectares of disputed land along the Pyanj River; the issue arose when the river shifted course, leaving several Tajik cotton fields on the Afghan side of the river.[6]

 Andorra 9 November 2007
 Armenia 21 October 1992 See Armenia–Tajikistan relations
 Australia

Australia is represented in Tajikistan by its embassy in Moscow.[12].

 Azerbaijan

Although both member of CIS, the economic relations between Azerbaijan and Tajikistan stays at a marginal level. However, in July 2012, Tajik Aluminium Company (TALCO) and Azerbaijani company Azeraluminium signed a cooperation agreement during the official visit of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon to the Republic of Azerbaijan for the construction of an oil refinery in the south of Tajikistan.[13]

 Belize 21 December 2017

Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 21, 2017[14].

 Bhutan 4 January 2013

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 January 2013.[15].

 Canada 1992
 China See China–Tajikistan relations

At the time of independence, portions of the Tajik boundary with the People's Republic of China were not defined; this boundary dispute was settled in agreements signed in 2002 that would cede 1,000 km² of the Pamir mountain range to China in return for China relinquishing claims to 28,000 km² of Tajik lands.

In 2016 the official press agency of the People's Republic of China announced that the state will set up an anti-terrorism alliance with Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.[17]

 Croatia 1 April 1999
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 April 1999.[18][19]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Cyprus
  • Both countries have a bilateral agreements on Cooperation in the Fields of Public Health and Medical Science [20].
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Dominica 14 April 2011

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 April 2011.[21]

 Estonia 2006
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 2006[22].
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Georgia
  • Georgia is represented in Tajikistan by its embassy in Tashkent.[23].
  • Tajikistan is represented in Georgia by its embassy in Baku.[24]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Greece 1992 See Greece–Tajikistan relations
  • Greece is accredited to Tajikistan from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[25]
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Greece from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 India See India-Tajikistan relations

Diplomatic relations between India and Tajikistan were established soon after Tajikistan gained independence following the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union. Tajikistan occupies a strategically important position in Central Asia, bordering Afghanistan and the People's Republic of China and separated by a small strip of Afghan territory from Pakistan. India's role in fighting the Taliban and al-Qaeda and its strategic rivalry with both China and Pakistan have made its ties with Tajikistan important to its strategic and security policies. India's military presence and activities have been significant, beginning with India's extensive support to the anti-Taliban Afghan Northern Alliance (ANA).

In 2002, India undertook a US$10 million project to upgrade an old Soviet military base in Ayni, Tajikistan which would support the Northern Alliance forces;[26] the base also had a hospital to treat injured anti-Taliban forces.[27] India provided extensive counter-insurgency military training to Tajikistan and also supplied them with new aircraft.[28] In 2003, the two countries also held a military exercise, the first such war-game by Indian troops in Central Asia.[29] Following the downfall of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, the two countries signed a military agreement to increase military cooperation. Under this agreement, India has deployed 17 Mil Mi-17 helicopters and 150 Indian Army personnel at the Farkhor Air Base with a plan to deploy at least 12 IAF MiG-29s.[30][31]

Despite their common efforts, bilateral trade has been comparatively low, valued at US$12.09 million in 2005; India's exports to Tajikistan were valued at US$6.2 million and its imports at US$5.89 million.[32] A Tajik proposal to transmit electric power to India is currently under review.[33] India gave US$2 million worth emergency aid to Tajikistan during the 2008 Central Asia energy crisis.[34]

 Iran 1991 See Iran–Tajikistan relations

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan has enjoyed a close relationship with Iran, helped along via a shared Persian identity. Iran was the first nation to establish an embassy in Dushanbe, it was also one of the first countries to extend diplomatic recognition of the newly independent Tajikistan in 1991. Iran provided diplomatic assistance and built new mosques within Tajikistan. Due to the resurgence of Iranian culture within Tajikistan, Iran helped encourage cultural exchange through conferences, media, and film festivals. Iranian television programs, magazines, and books became increasingly common in Tajikistan.

However, despite the many things the nations have in common, there are also vast differences. Tajikistan's post communist government is secular while Iran's is Islamic. Furthermore, Iran is a predominantly Shia nation while Tajikistan is Sunni; the leading figures of the Islamic revival movement in Tajikistan have stated that Iran would not be a model for whatever Islamic government they advocate for Tajikistan.

As of 2011 Iran is the second largest investor in Tajikistan after China.

 Israel April 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations in April 1992[35].

 Japan 2 February 1992

Diplomatic relations between Japan and Tajikistan were established on 2 February 1992. Japan opened an embassy at Dushanbe in January 2002, and Tajikistan opened an embassy in Tokyo in November 2007.[36]

 Latvia 11 May 1994
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 May 1994[37].
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Lithuania 13 April 1992
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 August 1992[38].
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Malaysia 11 March 1992 See Malaysia–Tajikistan relations

Both countries have been enjoying warm diplomatic relations since the relations were established on 11 March 1992, and are willing to make constructive efforts towards progress.[39]

 Malta 25 September 2007
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 September 2007.[40].
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Mexico 14 January 1992
 Mongolia 24 April 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 April 1992.[42].

 Montenegro 23 August 2006.
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 August 2006.[43].
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
   Nepal 13 September 2005

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 September 2005.[44]

 Pakistan See Pakistan–Tajikistan relations

Relations between the two states were established when the republic of Tajikistan became independent following the collapse of the USSR. Trade and cooperation has steadily grown between the two nations, with several summits being held on how to improve trade between the two nations.[45][46] Although relations between the two countries had been strained by the situation in Afghanistan which shares a border with both countries.[47]

In March 2008 Said Saidbaig, the Tajik Ambassador, announced that his country would be able to export cheap electricity to Pakistan and Iran.[48]

There are hundreds of thousands Tajiks living in Pakistan, although nearly all are from Afghanistan, not Tajikistan.

 Romania 20 July 1992
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 July 1992[49].
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Russia See Russia–Tajikistan relations
Embassy of Tajikistan in Moscow

Until 2005, Russia had 11,000 border guards manning the Tajik frontier with Afghanistan. In September 2012, and after months of negotiating, Russia and Tajikistan have reached an agreement on what Russia will pay for its bases in Tajikistan and extended the lease to 20 or 29 years; the bases are used for 9,000 Russian troops of the 201st Motor Rifle Division. The new deal with Tajikistan makes it worthwhile for Russia to upgrade the four army camps and one air base they occupy. To get the long lease, Russia agreed to sell Tajikistan weapons and military equipment at a sharp discount and train Tajik officers in Russian schools, for free, for the duration of the deal. Tajikistan also promises to help keep the heroin out of Russia.[50]

 Serbia 9 September 1995
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 9 September 1995.[51]
  • In 2011, the total trade value amounted EUR 5,64 million.[52]
 South Africa 5 May 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 May 1992[53].

 South Korea

From 1992 to 1993 South Korea has provided Tajikistan with $50,000 worth of aid and with $500,000 worth of equipment during the Afghanistan crisis.[54]

  Switzerland 9 December 1992
 Ukraine 24 April 1993
 United States See Tajikistan–United States relations
Embassy of Tajikistan in Washington, D.C.

U.S.-Tajik relations have developed considerably since September 11, 2001. The two countries now have a broad-based relationship, cooperating in such areas as counter-narcotics, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation, and regional growth and stability. In light of the Russian border forces' withdrawal from the Tajik-Afghan border, the U.S. Government leads an international donor effort to enhance Tajikistan's territorial integrity, prevent the transit of narcotics and material or technology related to weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and support a stable, peaceful Tajikistan in order to prevent the spread of influence and activities of radical groups and terrorists.

 Vietnam 14 July 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 July 1992[58][59].

Inter-governmental organisation membership[edit]

Tajikistan is a member of the following international organisations:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Aslov Sirodjidin Muhridinovich - Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan". The Embassy of the Republic of Tajikistan to the Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
  2. ^ CIA World Factbook 2000 says, "territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southwestern boundary in Isfara Valley area; periodic target of Islamic terrorists from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan"
  3. ^ "Tajiks of Afghanistan". Afghan Network. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
  4. ^ "Tajikistan, Afghanistan Open New Border Bridge". Javno.com. August 26, 2007. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
  5. ^ "Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan to bolster economic, cultural ties". Parvand. 2008-03-26. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
  6. ^ "Afghanistan Cedes Disputed Land To Tajikistan". Radio Free Europe. January 30, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ [3]
  10. ^ [4]
  11. ^ [5]
  12. ^ [6]
  13. ^ "Azerbaijan Intends to Build Oil Refinery in Tajikistan". he Gazette of Central Asia. Satrapia. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  14. ^ [7]
  15. ^ [8]
  16. ^ Embassy of Canada in Kazakhstan
  17. ^ Reuters (4 August 2016). "China joins Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan in security alliance". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  18. ^ [9]
  19. ^ "Overview of Bilateral Treaties of the Republic of Croatia by Country - Tajikistan". REPUBLIC OF CROATIA - Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs.
  20. ^ [10]
  21. ^ [11]
  22. ^ [12]
  23. ^ [13]
  24. ^ [14]
  25. ^ Embassy of Greece in Russia
  26. ^ "Asia Times Online :: South Asia news - India makes a soft landing in Tajikistan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  27. ^ "Defence & Security Intelligence & Analysis - IHS Jane's 360". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  28. ^ India, Tajikistan to boost military cooperation. Expressindia.com (2002-04-27). Retrieved on 2010-10-21.
  29. ^ India, Tajikistan to hold military exercises - news. Siliconindia.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-21.
  30. ^ India's first overseas 'military base' taking shape in Tajikistan
  31. ^ Asia Times Online :: South Asia news, business and economy from India and Pakistan. Atimes.com (2008-02-01). Retrieved on 2010-10-21.
  32. ^ India, Tajikistan To Develop Bilateral Trade
  33. ^ [15] Archived June 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ India offers $2 million aid to cold-hit Tajikistan. Thaindian.com (2008-03-04). Retrieved on 2010-10-21.
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-20. Retrieved 2014-07-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) of Japan
  37. ^ [16]
  38. ^ [17]
  39. ^ "Relations of Tajikistan with Malaysia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tajikistan. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  40. ^ [18]
  41. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Iran
  42. ^ [19]
  43. ^ [20]
  44. ^ [21]
  45. ^ Pakistan, Tajikistan agree to boost trade
  46. ^ Musharraf leaves for Tajikistan on Sunday
  47. ^ "BBC News - South Asia - Tajikistan warns Pakistan over Taleban". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  48. ^ "Tajikistan to supply cheap power to Pakistan". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  49. ^ [22]
  50. ^ "Russians Continue to Guard the Tajik Border with Afghanistan". The Gazette of Central Asia. Satrapia. 21 September 2012.
  51. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.rs/en/foreign-policy/bilateral-issues/96-bilateral-issues/12373-tajikistan
  52. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.rs/en/foreign-policy/bilateral-issues/96-bilateral-issues/12373-tajikistan
  53. ^ [23]
  54. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/europe/countries/20070803/1_24633.jsp?menu=m_30_40
  55. ^ [24]
  56. ^ Embassy of Tajikistan in the United States
  57. ^ Embassy of the United States in Tajikistan
  58. ^ [25]
  59. ^ [26]

External links[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State document "Tajikistan".. State.gov (2010-09-22). Retrieved on 2010-10-21.