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Foreign relations of Tanzania

Tanzania's first president, Julius Nyerere was one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, during the Cold War era, Tanzania played an important role in regional and international organisations, such as the Non-Aligned Movement, the front-line states, the G-77, the Organisation of African Unity. One of Africa's best-known elder statesmen, Nyerere was active in many of these organisations, served chairman of the OAU and chairman of six front-line states concerned with eliminating apartheid in Southern Africa. Nyerere was involved with peace negotiations in Burundi until his death. Nyerere's death, on 14 October 1999, is still commemorated annually. Tanzania known as the United Republic of Tanzania, enjoys good relations with its neighbours in the region and in recent years has been an active participant in efforts to promote the peaceful resolution of disputes. Tanzania is helping to broker peace talks to end conflict in Burundi and supports the Lusaka agreement concerning the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

In March 1996, Tanzania and Kenya revived discussion of economic and regional cooperation. These talks culminated with the signing of an East African Cooperation Treaty in September 1999, which should in time lead to economic integration through the development of the East African Community. Tanzania is the only country in East Africa, a member of the Southern African Development Community. Tanzania has played an active role in hosting refugees from neighbouring countries including Mozambique, DR Congo and Rwanda; this has been done in partnership with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. AU, ACP, AfDB, C, EAC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PMAESA SADC, United Nations, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website

Tanzania has been a Commonwealth republic since 1964, when the Republic of Tanganyika and the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba united after the Zanzibar Revolution. List of diplomatic missions in Tanzania List of diplomatic missions of Tanzania CIA World Factbook 2000

Harold R. Kaufman

Harold R. Kaufman was an American physicist, noted for his development of electrostatic ion thrusters for NASA during the 1950s and 1960s. Kaufman developed a compact ion source based on electron bombardment, the "Kaufman Ion Source," a variant of the duoplasmatron, for the purpose of spacecraft propulsion. Born in Audubon, Iowa, USA, in 1926, Kaufman grew up in a suburb of Chicago, he trained in electrical engineering during World War II through an electronic technician program in the US Navy. After the war ended, he took a B. S. degree in mechanical engineering from Northwestern University. After college he joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the predecessor of NASA, working on turbo jet engines at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, he moved to a group studying electric space propulsion. After concluding that a Von Ardenne source was insufficient, he developed the electron bombardment source in 1958/59, and was responsible for the development of two ion thrusters that were tested in space.

The Kaufman ion source is now used for other applications, such as ion implanters used in semiconductor processing. He was awarded an Exceptional Scientific Achievement Award by NASA in 1971. Kaufman was awarded a Ph. D. from Colorado State University in 1970, joining the university as staff in 1974. He left academia in 1984 to work at Kaufman & Robinson, Inc. in Fort Collins and invented the end-Hall ion source in 1989. In 1991, the AVS awarded him its Albert Nerkin Award. In September 2016, Kaufman was inducted into the NASA Hall of Fame for his advances in ion propulsion, he was a Professor Emeritus of the CSU department of physics. Harold R. Kaufman with his electron bombardment ion thruster

Battle of Xuge

The Battle of Xuge was a battle which took place in 707 BC, between the State of Zheng and the Zhou Dynasty. The defeat of the Zhou forces, representing the Son of Heaven, destroyed any residual prestige that the Zhou court had since establishing itself in Luoyang, allowed for the rise of the feudal states that would characterise the Spring and Autumn period; this battle is an early example of a pincer movement being employed against an enemy. After its eastward flight from Chengzhou to Luoyi, the Zhou kings retained some of their prestige but no longer had the power to assert its will over the regional vassal lords; the state of Zheng had been one of the key protectors of the Zhou court in Luoyang, moving its capital eastwards as well to Xinzheng and serving as a buffer state to the east. During the rule of Duke Zhuang, Zheng grew strong and began to assert its independence, allying with Lu and Qi and conquering other small vassals in the Central Plains. Since Zheng was in close proximity to the Zhou court, these actions increased tension between the two powers.

Despite being the nominal overlord, King Ping of Zhou exchanged hostages with Duke Zhuang in an attempt to secure peace, but this only led to increased mistrust. When King Huan succeeded to the throne, he removed Duke Zhuang from the post of court minister. In retaliation, Duke Zhuang refused to pay tribute to the Zhou court. In 707 BC, King Huan determined to lead a punitive expedition against Zheng; the Zhou court had weakened to the extent that it required a coalition to produce the required army, gathering several other Central Plains feudal states against their common enemy. He took personal command of the central. Duke Zhuang's advisor, offered the analysis that the troops of Chen were in disarray due to civil war, while the troops of Cai and Wey had been defeated by Zheng before and feared them. Duke Zhuang took this advice, the plan succeeded; the wounding of the Son of Heaven, the failure of a royal expedition, destroyed any remaining prestige the Zhou court once had over its vassals.

The Battle of Xuge confirmed the de facto independence of the feudal states and laid the foundation for the struggles towards hegemony. Zhou was so impoverished by the defeat that, after the death of King Huan in 697 BC, it took ten years to get the funds required to hold a fitting royal funeral; the ascendancy of the State of Zheng did not last for long. Duke Zhuang died in 701 BC, his sons fought a two-decade civil war over the throne, weakening the state permanently

Ruslan Bernikov

Ruslan Bernikov is a Russian former professional ice hockey right winger. Bernikov began his career with Dynamo Moscow in the Russian Superleague during the 1996–97 season, playing two games, he spent a season with Dinamo-Energija Yekaterinburg before splitting the 1998–99 season with four different teams, playing one game for CSKA Moscow, six for Dynamo Moscow, twenty for Krylya Sovetov Moscow and five Severstal Cherepovets. The following season, he had another short spell with Dynamo, playing six games, before suiting up for Amur Khabarovsk for fourteen games. Bernikov was selected in the 5th round of the 2000 NHL Entry Draft by the Dallas Stars though he remained in Russia and never played in North America, he would spend the next two seasons with Amur Khabarovsk before returning to Krylya Sovetov in 2002 for one season. In 2003, Bernikov joined Lada Togliatti, he returned ro Severstal Cherepovets midway through the 2004–05 season before spending the following season with three different teams, Ak Bars Kazan, Khimik Moscow Oblast and Salavat Yulaev Ufa.

For the 2007–08 season, Bernikov joined Sibir Novosibirsk, but left mid-season and Neftekhimik Nizhnekamsk. It turned out to be the final season of the Superleague as it would be replaced by the Kontinental Hockey League, he would split the inaugural KHL season with Neftekhimik Vityaz. After a brief return with Amur Khabarovsk the following year where he played nine games, Bernikov played six games for Torpedo Nizhny Novgorod during the 2010–11 season, his 14th and last top-tier Russian team. After spending the next three seasons in the second-tier Supreme Hockey League for Kazzinc-Torpedo and Buran Voronezh, Bernikov finished his career playing four seasons in Asia League Ice Hockey, three season with the Russian-based Sakhalin and one final season with the South Korean team Anyang Halla before retiring in 2018. Biographical information and career statistics from, or The Internet Hockey Database

Möbius inversion formula

In mathematics, the classic Möbius inversion formula was introduced into number theory on 1832 by August Ferdinand Möbius. A large generalization of this formula applies to summation over an arbitrary locally finite ordered set, with Möbius' classical formula applying to the set of the natural numbers ordered by divisibility: see incidence algebra; the classic version states that if g and f are arithmetic functions satisfying g = ∑ d ∣ n f for every integer n ≥ 1 f = ∑ d ∣ n μ g for every integer n ≥ 1 where μ is the Möbius function and the sums extend over all positive divisors d of n. In effect, the original f can be determined given g by using the inversion formula; the two sequences are said to be Möbius transforms of each other. The formula is correct if f and g are functions from the positive integers into some abelian group. In the language of Dirichlet convolutions, the first formula may be written as g = f ∗ 1 where ∗ denotes the Dirichlet convolution, 1 is the constant function 1 = 1.

The second formula is written as f = μ ∗ g. Many specific examples are given in the article on multiplicative functions; the theorem follows because ∗ is associative, 1 ∗ μ = ε, where ε is the identity function for the Dirichlet convolution, taking values ε = 1, ε = 0 for all n > 1. Thus μ ∗ g = μ ∗ = ∗ f = ε ∗ f = f. Let a n = ∑ d ∣ n b d so that b n = ∑ d ∣ n μ a d is its transform; the transforms are related by means of series: the Lambert series ∑ n = 1 ∞ a n x n = ∑ n = 1 ∞ b n x n 1 − x n and the Dirichlet series: ∑ n = 1 ∞ a n n s = ζ ∑ n = 1 ∞ b n n s where ζ is the Riemann zeta function. Given an arithmetic function, one can generate a bi-infinite sequence of other arithmetic functions by applying the first summation. For example, if one starts with Euler's totient function φ, applies the transformation process, one obtains: φ the totient function φ ∗ 1 = I, where I = n is the identity function I ∗ 1 = σ1 = σ, the divisor functionIf the starting function is the Möbius function itself, the list of functions is: μ, the Möbius function μ ∗ 1 = ε where ε = { 1, if n = 1 0, if n > 1 is the unit function ε ∗ 1 = 1, the constant function 1 ∗ 1 = σ0 = d = τ, where d = τ is the number of divisors of n.

Both of these lists of functions extend infinitely in both directions. The Möbius inversion formula enables these lists to be traversed backwards; as an example the sequence starting with φ is: f n = { μ ∗ … ∗ μ ⏟ − n factors ∗ φ if n < 0 φ if n = 0 φ ∗ 1 ∗ … ∗

Luigi Miceli

Luigi Miceli, was an Italian patriot, politician and a military figure, a capitan in the conflicts of the Risorgimento and a leading military figure to the Italian Liberation and Unification in 1861. Luigi Miceli was a young 22-year-old lawyer when he became a member of Giovane Italia, he was the leading figure in the preparation to the Calabrian insurrection in 1847 and 1848; the same year The Calabrian insurrection failed, he escaped at first to Rome and to Genoa under the protection of The Republica Romana. He was condemned to death in absentia at his trial in 1854. Before the Liberation of Italy in 1861, he became a member of the Società nazionale italiana, participated at the second war of independence with the Cacciatori delle Alpi, he was at the right hand of Garibaldi at San Fermo. In 1860, he was among a capitan of the Expedition of the Thousand, he led the occupation of Palermo. Soon after The Unification of Italy he became a politician, in 1878 he became minister of Agriculture and Minister of Industry and Commerce and a Senator.

Luca Addante, "Luigi Miceli" in Cosenza e i cosentini: un volo lungo tre millenni. Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino Editore, 2001, pp. 86–87, ISBN 88-498-0127-0, ISBN 978-88-498-0127-9