Foreign trade of India

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Foreign trade in India includes all imports and exports to and from India. At the level of Central Government it is administered by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.[1] Foreign trade accounted for 48.8% of India's GDP in 2015.[2]

History[edit]

There are records throughout history of India's trade with foreign countries. Even before independence, the Government of India maintained semi-autonomous diplomatic relations, it had colonies (such as the Aden Settlement), who sent and received full missions,[3] and was a founder member of both the League of Nations[4] and the United Nations.[5] After India gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, it soon joined the Commonwealth of Nations and strongly supported independence movements in other colonies, like the Indonesian National Revolution,[6] the partition and various territorial disputes, particularly that over Kashmir, would strain its relations with Pakistan for years to come. During the Cold War, India adopted a foreign policy of not aligning itself with any major power bloc. However, India developed close ties with the Soviet Union and received extensive military support from it.

Around 100CE[edit]

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea is a document written by an anonymous sailor from Alexandria about 100CE describing trade between countries, including India.

Around 1500[edit]

In 1498 Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed in Calicut (modern day Kozhikode in Kerala) as the first European to ever sail to India. The tremendous profit made during this trip made the Portuguese eager for more trade with India and attracted other European navigators and tradesmen.[7]

Pedro Álvares Cabral left for India in 1500 and established Portuguese trading posts at Calicut and Cochin (modern day Kochi), returning to Portugal in 1501 with pepper, ginger, cinnamon, cardamom, nutmeg, mace, and cloves. The profits made from this trip were huge.[8]

1991 economic reform[edit]

Prior to the 1991 economic liberalisation,India was a closed economy due to the average tariffs exceeding 200 percent and the extensive quantitative restrictions on imports. Foreign investment was strictly restricted to only allow Indian ownership of businesses, since the liberalisation, India's economy has improved mainly due to increased foreign trade.[9]

Exports and imports[edit]

India exports approximately 7500 commodities to about 190 countries, and imports around 6000 commodities from 140 countries.[10] India exported US$318.2 billion and imported $462.9 billion worth of commodities in 2014.[11][12]

Summary table of recent India Foreign Trade:[13][14]

Year Export Import Trade Deficit
1999 36.3 50.2 -13.9
2000 43.1 60.8 -17.7
2001 42.5 54.5 -12.0
2002 44.5 53.8 -9.3
2003 48.3 61.6 -13.3
2004 57.24 74.15 -16.91
2005 69.18 89.33 -20.15
2006 76.23 113.1 -36.87
2007 112.0 187.9 -75.9
2008 176.4 305.5 -129.1
2009 168.2 274.3 -106.1
2010 201.1 327.0 -125.9
2011 299.4 461.4 -162.0
2012 298.4 500.4 -202.0
2013 313.2 467.5 -154.3
2014 318.2 462.9 -144.7
2015[15] 310.3 447.9 -137.6

The top 10 commodity exports in 2014 were as follows:

Rank Commodity HS Code Value (US$ billion) Share (%)
1 Refined Petroleum 27 61.2 19.2
2 Gems, precious metals, coins 71 41.2 13
3 Vehicles 87 14.5 4.6
4 Machines, engines, pumps 85 13.6 4.3
5 Organic chemicals 29 12.1 3.8
6 Pharmaceuticals 30 11.7 3.7
7 Cereals 10 10.1 3.2
8 Iron and steel 72 9.1 2.9
9 Clothing (not knit or crotchet) 58 9.1 2.9
10 Electronics 85 9.1 2.8

The top 10 commodity imports in 2014 were as follows:

Rank Commodity HS Code Value (US$ billion) Share (%)
1 Oil 27 177.5 38.3
2 Gems, precious metals, coins 71 60 13
3 Electronics 85 32 6.9
4 Machines, engines, pumps 85 31.2 6.7
5 Organic chemicals 29 18.3 4
6 Plastics 39 11.8 2.6
7 Iron and steel 72 11.4 2.5
8 Animal/vegetable fats and oils 15 10.7 2.3
9 Ores, slag and ash 26 7.4 1.6
10 Medical and technical equipment 90 7.1 1.5

Trading partners[edit]

India's largest trading partners in descending order of value of total trade are the United Arab Emirates, China, the United States, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland, Singapore, Germany, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iraq and Japan.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Country comparison: Exports". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  2. ^ "Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations Development Program. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  3. ^ High Commission of India in Australia: India Australia Relations. Hcindia-au.org (20 April 2011). Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  4. ^ First Assembly, Geneva, 15 November – 18 December 1920. Indiana.edu (18 December 1920). Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  5. ^ UN list of members by admission Archived July 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Un.org. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  6. ^ [1][dead link]
  7. ^ John, K. C.; Kevin, S (2004). Traditional Exports of India: Performance and Prospects. Delhi: New Century Publications. p. 59. ISBN 81-7708-062-8. 
  8. ^ John, K. C.; Kevin, S (2004). Traditional Exports of India: Performance and Prospects. Delhi: New Century Publications. p. 59. ISBN 81-7708-062-8. 
  9. ^ "International Economics & Trade - India: Foreign Trade Policy". worldbank.org. 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  10. ^ https://books.google.co.in/books?id=MvudnXqAPWAC&pg=PA358&lpg=PA358&dq=india+export+190+countries&source=bl&ots=yvkMPIweC9&sig=G5gqTQbX1BsMLkQoWIpdj4I4544&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjY6v70lsrJAhVBfaYKHSFYA4UQ6AEIHTAB#v=onepage&q=india%20export%20190%20countries&f=false
  11. ^ "Top India Exports". www.worldsrichestcountries.com. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  12. ^ "Top India Imports". www.worldsrichestcountries.com. Retrieved 2015-12-07. 
  13. ^ "India - Imports - Historical Data Graphs per Year". Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  14. ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  15. ^ "Total Trade". commerce.nic.in. Department of Commerce. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 

External links[edit]