A supervisor, when the meaning sought is similar to foreman, boss, cell coach, facilitator, area coordinator, or sometimes gaffer, is the job title of a low level management position, based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace. A supervisor can be one of the most senior in the staff at the place of work, such as a Professor who oversees a PhD dissertation. Supervision, on the other hand, can be performed by people without this formal title, for example by parents; the term supervisor itself can be used to refer to any personnel who have this task as part of their job description. An employee is a supervisor if he/she has the power and authority to do the following actions: Give instructions and/or orders to subordinates. Be held responsible for the work and actions of other employees. If an employee cannot do the above he or she is not a supervisor, but in some other category, such as a work group leader or lead hand. A supervisor is first and foremost an overseer whose main responsibility is to ensure that a group of subordinates get out the assigned amount of production, when they are supposed to do it and within acceptable levels of quality and safety.
A supervisor is responsible for the productivity and actions of a small group of employees. The supervisor has several manager-like roles and powers. Two of the key differences between a supervisor and a manager are the supervisor does not have "hire and fire" authority, the supervisor does not have budget authority. Lacking "hire and fire" authority means that a supervisor may not recruit the employees working in the supervisor's group nor does the supervisor have the authority to terminate an employee; the supervisor may participate in the hiring process as part of interviewing and assessing candidates, but the actual hiring authority rests in the hands of a Human Resource Manager. The supervisor may recommend to management that a particular employee be terminated and the supervisor may be the one who documents the behaviors leading to the recommendation but the actual firing authority rests in the hands of a manager. Lacking budget authority means that a supervisor is provided a budget developed by management within which constraints the supervisor is expected to provide a productive environment for the employees of the supervisor's work group.
A supervisor will have the authority to make purchases within specified limits. A supervisor is given the power to approve work hours and other payroll issues. Budget affecting requests such as travel will require not only the supervisor's approval but the approval of one or more layers of management; as a member of management, a supervisor's main job is more concerned with orchestrating and controlling work rather than performing it directly. Supervisors are uniquely positioned through direct daily employee contact to respond to employee needs and satisfaction. Supervisors are the direct link between management and the work force and can be most effective in developing job training, safety attitudes, safe working methods and identifying unsafe acts Carry out policies passed down a hierarchy from the level above. Plan short-range action-steps to carry out goals set by the level above. Organize the work group. Assign jobs to subordinates. Delegate projects to subordinates. Direct tasks and projects.
Train subordinates. Enforce rules. Lead and motivate subordinates. Develop group cohesiveness. Solve routine daily problems. Control or evaluate performance of subordinates and the department - performance appraisals. Discipline subordinates."Doing" can take up to 70% of the time -. Supervisors do not require any formal education on how they are to perform their duties but are most given on-the-job training or attend company sponsored courses. Many employers have supervisor handbooks. Supervisors must be aware of their legal responsibilities to ensure that their employees work safely and that the workplace that they are responsible for meets government standards. In academia, a supervisor is a senior scientist or scholar who, along with their own responsibilities and guides a postdoctoral researcher, postgraduate research student or undergraduate student in their research project; the term is used in several countries for the doctoral advisor of a graduate student. In colloquial British English, "gaffer" means a foreman, is used as a synonym for "boss".
In the UK, the term commonly refers to sports coaches. The term is sometimes used colloquially to refer to an old man, an elderly rustic; the word is a shortening of "godfather", with "ga" from association with "grandfather". The female equivalent, "gammer", came to refer colloquially to a gossip; the use of gaffer in this way can be seen, for example, in J. R. R. Tolkien's character Gaffer Gamgee. In 16th century English a "gaffer" was a man, the head of any organized group of labourers. In 16th and 17th century rural England, it was used as a title inferior to "Master", similar to "Goodman", was not confined to elderly men; the chorus of a famous Australian shearer's song, The Backblocks' Shearer, written by W. Tully at Nimidgee, NSW, refers to a gaffer: Hurrah, me boys, my shears are set, I feel both fit and well. With Hayden's patent thu
A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool. The word most applies to livestock-raising operations in Mexico, the Western United States and Western Canada, though there are ranches in other areas. People who own or operate a ranch are called cattlemen, or stockgrowers. Ranching is a method used to raise less common livestock such as elk, American bison or ostrich and alpaca. Ranches consist of large areas, but may be of nearly any size. In the western United States, many ranches are a combination of owned land supplemented by grazing leases on land under the control of the federal Bureau of Land Management or the United States Forest Service. If the ranch includes arable or irrigated land, the ranch may engage in a limited amount of farming, raising crops for feeding the animals, such as hay and feed grains. Ranches that cater to tourists are called guest ranches or, colloquially, "dude ranches."
Most working ranches do not cater to guests, though they may allow private hunters or outfitters onto their property to hunt native wildlife. However, in recent years, a few struggling smaller operations have added some dude ranch features, such as horseback rides, cattle drives or guided hunting, in an attempt to bring in additional income. Ranching is part of the iconography of the "Wild West" as seen in Western rodeos; the person who owns and manages the operation of a ranch is called a rancher, but the terms cattleman, stockgrower, or stockman are sometimes used. If this individual in charge of overall management is an employee of the actual owner, the term foreman or ranch foreman is used. A rancher who raises young stock sometimes is called a cow-calf operator or a cow-calf man; this person is the owner, though in some cases where there is absentee ownership, it is the ranch manager or ranch foreman. The people who are employees of the rancher and involved in handling livestock are called a number of terms, including cowhand, ranch hand, cowboy.
People involved with handling horses are sometimes called wranglers. Ranching and the cowboy tradition originated in Spain, out of the necessity to handle large herds of grazing animals on dry land from horseback. During the Reconquista, members of the Spanish nobility and various military orders received large land grants that the Kingdom of Castile had conquered from the Moors; these landowners were to defend the lands put into their control and could use them for earning revenue. In the process it was found that open-range breeding of sheep and cattle was the most suitable use for vast tracts in the parts of Spain now known as Castilla-La Mancha and Andalusia; when the Conquistadors came to the Americas in the 16th century, followed by settlers, they brought their cattle and cattle-raising techniques with them. Huge land grants by the Spanish government, part of the hacienda system, allowed large numbers of animals to roam over vast areas. A number of different traditions developed related to the original location in Spain from which a settlement originated.
For example, many of the traditions of the Jalisco charros in central Mexico come from the Salamanca charros of Castile. The vaquero tradition of Northern Mexico was more organic, developed to adapt to the characteristics of the region from Spanish sources by cultural interaction between the Spanish elites and the native and mestizo peoples; as settlers from the United States moved west, they brought cattle breeds developed on the east coast and in Europe along with them, adapted their management to the drier lands of the west by borrowing key elements of the Spanish vaquero culture. However, there were cattle on the eastern seaboard. Deep Hollow Ranch, 110 miles east of New York City in Montauk, New York, claims to be the first ranch in the United States, having continuously operated since 1658; the ranch makes the somewhat debatable claim of having the oldest cattle operation in what today is the United States, though cattle had been run in the area since European settlers purchased land from the Indian people of the area in 1643.
Although there were substantial numbers of cattle on Long Island, as well as the need to herd them to and from common grazing lands on a seasonal basis, the cattle handlers lived in houses built on the pasture grounds, cattle were ear-marked for identification, rather than being branded. The only actual "cattle drives" held on Long Island consisted of one drive in 1776, when the island's cattle were moved in a failed attempt to prevent them from being captured by the British during the American Revolution, three or four drives in the late 1930s, when area cattle were herded down Montauk Highway to pasture ground near Deep Hollow Ranch; the prairie and desert lands of what today is Mexico and the western United States were well-suited to "open range" grazing. For example, American bison had been a mainstay of the diet for the Native Americans in the Great Plains for centuries. Cattle and other livestock were turned loose in the spring after their young were born and allowed to roam with little supervision and no fences rounded up in the fall, with the mature animals driven to market and the breeding stock brought close to the ranch headquarters for greater protection in the winter.
The use of livestock branding allowed the cattle owned by different ranchers to be identified and sorted. Beginning with the settlement of Texas in the 1840s, expansion both north and west from that time, through the Civil War and into the 1880s, ranching dominated wes
Foreman is a small city in Little River County, United States. The population was 1,011 at the 2010 census. Foreman is located at 33°43′16″N 94°23′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, of which 2.0 square miles is land and 0.51% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,125 people, 490 households, 297 families residing in the city; the population density was 573.7 people per square mile. There were 566 housing units at an average density of 288.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 67.29% White, 27.29% Black or African American, 1.96% Native American, 1.07% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races. 2.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 490 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.7% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.2% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,176, the median income for a family was $29,231. Males had a median income of $26,944 versus $18,229 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,202. About 18.2% of families and 26.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.9% of those under age 18 and 34.3% of those age 65. Carved out of parts of Sevier County and Hempstead County, Little River County was established in 1867 by an act of the Arkansas legislature; the new county gave citizens a easier journey to their county seat of government. Because of the area’s close proximity to the Little River, which flows into the Red River near Texarkana, it took the name of Little River County.
This county is located in the southwest corner of the state and is surrounded by Sevier, Hempstead and Miller counties in Arkansas and by counties in Texas and Oklahoma. The two rivers form major parts of the boundary of Little River County; the land in and around Little River County is fertile. It contains an abundance of lime formations in some areas near White Cliffs and Foreman. In 1893, because of the available limestone, the Western Portland Cement Company once thrived at White Cliffs, though now only its ruins exist. Much because of the track of limestone running through Little River County, Sevier County, Hempstead County, Ideal Cement Company was built in Okay, it made a quality cement for years but was sold to a German company which did not want to make the costly repairs that were needed. At the same time that Ideal Cement Company was operating full scale, Foreman Cement Company, owned by Arkansas Louisiana Gas Company, was producing an abundance of quality cement. Foreman Cement Company became the leading producer of cement in the southwest region of Arkansas.
Today, it is still a thriving plant owned by Ash Grove Cement Company of Kansas. Some Caddo settlements existed in the area that would become Little River County, but the Caddo moved south out of the Great Bend area by 1778; the land continued to be regarded as Caddo territory, until a treaty in 1835. A Quapaw reservation included parts of southwest Arkansas between 1820 and 1825, but that land was exchanged for lands west of the territorial border. Before treaties with the Native Americans were signed, white settlers were squatting on the land, after the completion of these treaties, more settlements and communities developed. Pioneers had begun settling in the area in the early 1800s; the first town to be plotted was Laynesport in 1836, on land donated for development by Benjamin Layne. By 1845, Willow Springs renamed Rocky Comfort, in the western part of the county, began to flourish, by 1854, the community of Richmond had begun to thrive; as they did throughout America, people suffered during the Civil War.
They experienced mental anguish and hardships because of the loss of lives and financial security. People in the South suspended raising cotton. Many lost experienced displacement. After the legal establishment of Little River County in 1867, the first courthouse and jail in the county were located near the area, now known as Alleene on land owned by the first sheriff, William M. Freeman. In 1868, Powell Clayton, governor of Arkansas, had all county records moved to established headquarters in Rocky Comfort. In 1880, citizens of Richmond built a new courthouse; the property on which the courthouse was to be built was deeded to the county on the condition that Richmond would remain the county seat. After this courthouse burned, citizens of Richmond built another courthouse at no cost to the county because they wanted to keep the county seat in Richmond. In 1902, the county seat was moved from Richmond to Foreman called Rocky Comfort. Foreman and Ashdown competed for the county seat; when an election was held in 1906, Ashdown won the most votes to become the new county seat.
After this election, records were moved from Foreman to a vacant building, known as the Mizell Building. A new courthouse was constructed in Ashdown in 1907. On October 24, 1929, the New York stock market crash brought about the Great Depressi
USS Foreman (DE-633)
USS Foreman, a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of Ensign Andrew L. Foreman, killed in action aboard the heavy cruiser USS New Orleans during the Battle of Tassafaronga on 30 November 1942. Ensign Foreman remained at his station to help in saving his ship until asphyxiated by gas generated by the explosion, he was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for his heroic self-sacrifice. Foreman was launched on 1 August 1943 at the Bethlehem Steel Company, in San Francisco, sponsored by Miss Nadine Foreman, sister of Ensign Foreman. Foreman arrived at Funafuti, Ellice Islands on 28 January 1944 to begin nine months of convoy escort duty in the southwest Pacific, she guarded the movement of men and supplies as well as of larger combatant ships in the lengthy series of operations necessary to consolidate Allied control of the northern Solomon Islands and western New Guinea. Several times she served on anti-submarine patrol. Sailing for Sydney, for upkeep on 29 September, Foreman returned to Hollandia on 18 October, put to sea on 26 October to escort two hospital transports to newly assaulted Leyte, arriving on 30 October.
One of the transports was loaded that day, before midnight and this transport sailed for Kossol Roads. After escorting a resupply convoy to San Pedro Bay in the first week of November 1944, Foreman began duty escorting combatant ships and merchantmen between the Manus base and Hollandia, Eniwetok and Ulithi. From 9–19 March 1945, the escort served as station ship at Kossol Roads sailed to Ulithi to stage for the attack on Okinawa. Foreman sortied from Ulithi on 21 March, arrived off Okinawa on 25 March, she spent the next five days with a fire support unit bombarding the island in anticipation of the landings on 1 April. On 27 March, when her task force first came under air attack, she fired on a Japanese plane which crashed close aboard on her bow, inflicting no casualties. After the landings, Foreman was assigned to anti-submarine patrol off the entrance to the transport anchorage at Kerama Retto. Here on 3 April, she suffered a direct hit; the bomb passed through her bottom to explode about 30 ft below.
All power and light were lost, one of her firerooms flooded to the waterline, two sailors were killed. Within 30 minutes, damage was under control, repairs had been made to allow her to make her way under her own power into Kerama Retto for emergency repairs. Repaired at Ulithi between 17 April and 29 May 1945, Foreman returned to patrol off Okinawa on 3 June. Eight days she shot down a kamikaze with the aid of a sister destroyer escort before it could crash her. On 29 June, she was assigned to escort duty with a force covering minesweeping operations in the East China Sea and flying air strikes on Chinese targets, serving with this task force until returning to Okinawa on 16 August for brief overhaul. Escort duty from Buckner Bay followed until 26 September, when she sailed from Wakayama, with homeward bound servicemen. Arriving at San Diego on 17 October, she sailed on to the east coast. Foreman was decommissioned at Green Cove Springs, Florida on 28 June 1946. Foreman received five battle stars for World War II service.
This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entries can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Foreman at NavSource Naval History
A construction foreman is the worker or tradesman, in charge of a construction crew. This role is assumed by a senior worker; the foreman is a construction worker with many years of experience in a particular trade, charged with organizing the overall construction of a particular project for a particular contractor. The foreman is a person with specialist knowledge of a given trade who has moved into the position and is now focused on an overall management of his trade on the job site, he or she is responsible for providing proper documentation to his workers so they can proceed with tasks. Not to be confused with a Project Manager, Project Supervisor, General Foreman, or a "Firstman". A good foreman is said by many engineers to be the keystone of their projects. A foreman may train employees under his or her supervision, ensure appropriate use of equipment by employees, communicate progress on the project to a supervisor and maintain the employee schedule. Foremen may arrange for materials to be at the construction site and evaluate plans for each construction job.
Construction Civil engineering