Foresight Institute

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Foresight Institute is a Palo Alto, California-based research non-profit that promotes the development of nanotechnology and other emerging technologies.[1] The institute holds conferences on molecular nanotechnology and awards yearly prizes for developments in the field;[2][3] the Foresight Institute and its founder Eric Drexler have been criticized for technological utopianism and unrealistic expectations.[4]

History[edit]

The Foresight Institute was founded in 1986 by Christine Peterson,[2] K. Eric Drexler, and James C. Bennett to support the development of nanotechnology. Many of the institute's initial members came to it from the L5 Society, who were hoping to form a smaller group more focused on nanotechnology.[5] In 1991, the Foresight Institute created two suborganizations with funding from tech entrepreneur Mitch Kapor; the Institute for Molecular Manufacturing and the Center for Constitutional Issues in Technology.[5] In the 1990s, the Foresight Institute launched several initiatives to provide funding to developers of nanotechnology.[6] In 1993, it created the Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology, named after physicist Richard Feynman.[7] In May 2005, the Foresight Institute changed its name to "Foresight Nanotech Institute", [3] though it reverted back to its original name in June 2009.

Prizes[edit]

The Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology is an award given by the Foresight Institute for significant advances in nanotechnology. Between 1993 and 1997, one prize was given biennially. Since 1997, two prizes have been given each year, divided into the categories of theory and experimentation;[8][8][9][10][11] the prize is named in honor of physicist Richard Feynman, whose 1959 talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom is considered to have inspired and informed the start of the field of nanotechnology.[8] Author Colin Milburn refers to the prize as an example of "fetishizing" its namesake Feynman, due to his "prestige as a scientist and his fame among the broader public."[3]

The Foresight Institute also offers the Feynman Grand Prize, a $250,000 award to the first persons to create both a nanoscale robotic arm capable of precise positional control and a nanoscale 8-bit adder, with both conditions conforming to given specifications; the Feynman Grand Prize is intended to emulate historical prizes such as the Longitude prize, Orteig Prize, Kremer prize, Ansari X Prize, and two prizes that were offered by Richard Feynman personally as challenges during his 1959 There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom talk.[12][13][14] In 2004, X-Prize Foundation founder Peter Diamandis was selected to chair the Feynman Grand Prize committee.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Guston, David H. (2010). Encyclopedia of nanoscience and society. London: SAGE. p. 253. ISBN 978-1452266176. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b Oliver, By Richard W. (2003). The biotech age: the business of biotech and how to profit from it (2nd ed., rev. ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 86. ISBN 978-0071414890. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  3. ^ a b c Milburn, Colin (2008). Nanovision: Engineering the future. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0822391487.
  4. ^ Byrne (December 8, 1999). "Sidebar: Looking at Foresight". SF Weekly. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  5. ^ a b McCray, W. Patrick (2012). The visioneers: how a group of elite scientists pursued space colonies, nanotechnologies, and a limitless future. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691139838.
  6. ^ Berube, David M. Nano-Hype: The Truth Behind the Nanotechnology Buzz. Prometheus Books. ISBN 9781615922369.
  7. ^ Marcovich, Anne; Shinn, Terry (2014). Toward a New Dimension: Exploring the Nanoscale. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198714613.
  8. ^ a b c Marcovich, Anne; Shinn, Terry (December 1, 2010). "Socio/intellectual patterns in nanoscale research: Feynman Nanotechnology Prize laureates, 1993–2007". Social Science Information. 49 (4): 615–638. doi:10.1177/0539018410377581.
  9. ^ Feynman Prize: Dr Amanda Barnard, ABC (Australia), 2015-04-30, retrieved 2018-05-12
  10. ^ Finkel, Elizabeth (2016-09-26). "Michelle Simmons: a quantum queen". Cosmos Magazine. Retrieved 2018-05-08.
  11. ^ Heinze, Thomas; Shapira, Philip; Senker, Jacqueline; Kuhlmann, Stefan (2007-01-01). "Identifying creative research accomplishments: Methodology and results for nanotechnology and human genetics". Scientometrics. 70 (1): 125–152. doi:10.1007/s11192-007-0108-6. hdl:10419/28525. ISSN 0138-9130.
  12. ^ a b "Diamandis to chair Feynman Grand Prize committee | Solid State Technology". electroiq.com. Retrieved 2018-05-01.
  13. ^ Nicolau, D.E.; Phillimore, J.; Cross, R.; Nicolau, D.V (July 2000). "Nanotechnology at the crossroads: the hard or the soft way?". Microelectronics Journal. 31 (7): 611–616. doi:10.1016/s0026-2692(00)00036-7. ISSN 0026-2692.
  14. ^ Davidian, Ken (2005). "Prize Competitions and NASA's Centennial Challenges Program" (PDF). International Lunar Conference. Retrieved 2018-05-18.

Further reading[edit]

  • Smith, Richard Hewlett. "A Policy Framework for Developing a National Nanotechnology Program", Master of Science thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1998, available at Digital Library and Archives

External links[edit]