Palo Alto, California
Palo Alto is a charter city located in the northwest corner of Santa Clara County, United States, in the San Francisco Bay Area. Palo Alto means tall stick in Spanish; the city was established by Leland Stanford Sr. when he founded Stanford University, following the death of his son, Leland Stanford Jr. Palo Alto includes portions of Stanford University and shares its borders with East Palo Alto, Mountain View, Los Altos, Los Altos Hills, Portola Valley, Menlo Park; as of the 2010 census, the city's total resident population is 64,403. Palo Alto is one of the five most expensive cities in the United States to live in and its residents are among the highest educated in the country. Palo Alto is headquarters to a number of high-technology companies, including Hewlett-Packard, Space Systems/Loral, VMware, Ford Research and Innovation Center, PARC, IDEO, Palantir Technologies and Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center. Palo Alto has served as an incubator and as headquarters to several other prominent high-technology companies such as Apple, Facebook, Intuit and PayPal.
Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Ohlone lived on the San Francisco peninsula. The area of modern Palo Alto was first recorded by the 1769 party of Gaspar de Portolà, a 63-man, 200-horse expedition from San Diego to Monterey; the group overshot Monterey in the fog and when they reached modern-day Pacifica, ascended Sweeney Ridge and saw the San Francisco Bay. Portolà descended from Sweeney Ridge southeast down San Andreas Creek to Laguna Creek and the Filoli estate, thence to the San Francisquito Creek watershed camping from November 6–11, 1769 by a tall redwood to be known as El Palo Alto. Thinking the bay was too wide to cross, the group retraced their journey to Monterey, never became aware of the Golden Gate entrance to the Bay. In 1777, Father Junipero Serra established the Mission Santa Clara de Asis, whose northern boundary was San Francisquito Creek and whose lands included modern Palo Alto; the area was under the control of the viceroy of Mexico and under the control of Spain. On November 29, 1777, Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe was established by order of the viceroy despite the displeasure of the local mission.
The Mexican War of Independence ending in 1821 led to Mexico becoming an independent country, though San Jose did not recognize rule by the new Mexico until May 10, 1825. Mexico proceeded to grant much of the mission land. During the Mexican–American War, the United States seized Alta California in 1846. Mexican citizens in the area could choose to become United States citizens, their land grants were to be recognized if they chose to do so; the land grant, Rancho Rinconada del Arroyo de San Francisquito, of about 2,230-acre on the lower reaches of San Francisquito Creek was given to Maria Antonia Mesa in 1841. She and her husband Rafael Soto had settled in 1835 near present day Newell and Middlefield roads and sold supplies. In 1839, their daughter María Luisa Soto married John Coppinger, to be, in 1841, the grantee of Rancho Cañada de Raymundo. Upon Coppinger's death in 1847, Maria inherited it and married a visiting boat captain, John Greer. Greer owned a home on the site, now Town & Country Village on Embarcadero and El Camino Real.
Greer Avenue and Court are named for him. To the south of the Sotos, the brothers Secundino and Teodoro Robles in 1849 bought Rancho Rincon de San Francisquito from José Peña, the 1841 grantee; the grant covered the area south of Rancho Rinconada del Arroyo de San Francisquito to more or less present day Mountain View. The grant was bounded on the south by Mariano Castro's Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas grant across San Antonio Road; this became the Robles Rancho, which constitutes about 80% of Palo Alto and Stanford University today. In 1863, it was whittled down in the courts to 6,981 acres. Stories say the grand hacienda was built on the former meager adobe of José Peña near Ferne off San Antonio Road, midway between Middlefield and Alma Street, their hacienda hosted fiestas and bull fights. It was ruined in the 1906 earthquake and its lumber was used to build a large barn nearby, said to have lingered until the early 1950s. On April 10, 1853, 250 acres, comprising the present day Barron Park, Matadero Creek and Stanford Business Park, was sold for $2,000 to Elisha Oscar Crosby, who called his new property Mayfield Farm.
The name of Mayfield was attached to the community that started nearby. On September 23, 1856, the Crosby land was transferred to Sarah Wallis to satisfy a debt he owed her. In 1880, Secundino Robles, father to twenty-nine children, still lived just south of Palo Alto, near the location of the present-day San Antonio Shopping Center in Mountain View. Many of the Spanish names in the Palo Alto area represent the local heritage, descriptive terms and former residents. Pena Court, Miranda Avenue, Foothill Expwy, was the married name of Juana Briones and the name occurs in Courts and Avenues and other street names in Palo Alto and Mountain View in the quadrant where she owned vast areas between Stanford University, Grant Road in Mountain View and west of El Camino Real. Yerba Buena was to her credit. Rinconada wa
A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine, refers to any discrete number of molecular components that produce quasi-mechanical movements in response to specific stimuli. In biology, macromolecular machines perform tasks essential for life such as DNA replication and ATP synthesis; the expression is more applied to molecules that mimic functions that occur at the macroscopic level. The term is common in nanotechnology where a number of complex molecular machines have been proposed that are aimed at the goal of constructing a molecular assembler. For the last several decades and physicists alike have attempted, with varying degrees of success, to miniaturize machines found in the macroscopic world. Molecular machines research is at the forefront with the 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry being awarded to Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa for the design and synthesis of molecular machines. Molecular machines can be divided into two broad categories. In general, artificial molecular machines refer to molecules that are artificially designed and synthesized whereas biological molecular machines can be found in nature.
A wide variety of artificial molecular machines have been synthesized by chemists which are rather simple and small compared to biological molecular machines. The first AMM, a molecular shuttle, was synthesized by Sir J. Fraser Stoddart. A molecular shuttle is a rotaxane molecule where a ring is mechanically interlocked onto an axle with two bulky stoppers; the ring can move between two binding sites with various stimuli such as light, pH, ions. As the authors of this 1991 JACS paper noted: “Insofar as it becomes possible to control the movement of one molecular component with respect to the other in a rotaxane, the technology for building molecular machines will emerge.”, mechanically interlocked molecular architectures spearheaded AMM design and synthesis as they provide directed molecular motion. Today a wide variety of AMMs exists as listed below. Molecular motors are molecules that are capable of rotary motion around a double bond. Single bond rotary motors are fueled by chemical reactions whereas double bond rotary motors are fueled by light.
The rotation speed of the motor can be tuned by careful molecular design. Carbon nanotube nanomotors have been produced. A molecular propeller is a molecule that can propel fluids when rotated, due to its special shape, designed in analogy to macroscopic propellers, it has several molecular-scale blades attached at a certain pitch angle around the circumference of a nanoscale shaft. See molecular gyroscope. A molecular switch is a molecule; the molecules may be shifted between the states in response to changes in pH, temperature, an electric current, microenvironment, or the presence of a ligand. A molecular shuttle is a molecule capable of shuttling molecules or ions from one location to another. A common molecular shuttle consists of a rotaxane where the macrocycle can move between two sites or stations along the dumbbell backbone. Nanocars are single molecule vehicles that resemble macroscopic automobiles and are important for understanding how to control molecular diffusion on surfaces; the first nanocars were synthesized by James M. Tour in 2005.
They had 4 molecular wheels attached to the four corners. In 2011, Ben Feringa and co-workers synthesized the first motorized nanocar which had molecular motors attached to the chassis as rotating wheels; the authors were able to demonstrate directional motion of the nanocar on a copper surface by providing energy from a scanning tunneling microscope tip. In 2017, worlds first Nanocar race took place in France. A molecular balance is a molecule that can interconvert between two and more conformational or configurational states in response to the dynamic of multiple intra- and intermolecular driving forces, such as hydrogen bonding, solvophobic/hydrophobic effects, π interactions, steric and dispersion interactions. Molecular tweezers are host molecules capable of holding items between their two arms; the open cavity of the molecular tweezers binds items using non-covalent bonding including hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, π interactions, or electrostatic effects.
Examples of molecular tweezers have been reported that are constructed from DNA and are considered DNA machines. A molecular sensor is a molecule. Molecular sensors combine molecular recognition with some form of reporter, so the presence of the item can be observed. A molecular logic gate is a molecule that performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. Unlike a molecular sensor, the molecular logic gate will only output when a particular combination of inputs are present. A molecular assembler is a molecular machine able to guide chemical reactions by positioning reactive molecules with precision. A molecular hinge is a molecule that can be selectively switched from one configuration to another in a reversible fashion; such configurations must have distinguishable geometries, for instance, Cis or Trans isomers of a V-shape molecule. Azo compounds perform Cis–trans isomerism upon receiving UV-Vis light; the most complex macromolecular machines are found within cells in the form of multi-protein complexes.
Some biological machines are motor proteins, such as myosin, responsible for muscle contraction, which moves cargo inside cells away from the nucleus along microtubules, and
Richard Phillips Feynman was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model. For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, jointly with Julian Schwinger and Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. Feynman developed a used pictorial representation scheme for the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles, which became known as Feynman diagrams. During his lifetime, Feynman became one of the best-known scientists in the world. In a 1999 poll of 130 leading physicists worldwide by the British journal Physics World he was ranked as one of the ten greatest physicists of all time, he assisted in the development of the atomic bomb during World War II and became known to a wide public in the 1980s as a member of the Rogers Commission, the panel that investigated the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.
Along with his work in theoretical physics, Feynman has been credited with pioneering the field of quantum computing and introducing the concept of nanotechnology. He held the Richard C. Tolman professorship in theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology. Feynman was a keen popularizer of physics through both books and lectures including a 1959 talk on top-down nanotechnology called There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom and the three-volume publication of his undergraduate lectures, The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Feynman became known through his semi-autobiographical books Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman! and What Do You Care What Other People Think? and books written about him such as Tuva or Bust! by Ralph Leighton and the biography Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman by James Gleick. Feynman was born on May 11, 1918, in Queens, New York City, to Lucille née Phillips, a homemaker, Melville Arthur Feynman, a sales manager from Minsk in Belarus. Both were Lithuanian Jews.
Feynman was a late talker, did not speak until after his third birthday. As an adult he spoke with a New York accent strong enough to be perceived as an affectation or exaggeration—so much so that his friends Wolfgang Pauli and Hans Bethe once commented that Feynman spoke like a "bum"; the young Feynman was influenced by his father, who encouraged him to ask questions to challenge orthodox thinking, and, always ready to teach Feynman something new. From his mother, he gained the sense of humor; as a child, he had a talent for engineering, maintained an experimental laboratory in his home, delighted in repairing radios. When he was in grade school, he created a home burglar alarm system while his parents were out for the day running errands; when Richard was five his mother gave birth to a younger brother, Henry Phillips, who died at age four weeks. Four years Richard's sister Joan was born and the family moved to Far Rockaway, Queens. Though separated by nine years and Richard were close, they both shared a curiosity about the world.
Though their mother thought women lacked the capacity to understand such things, Richard encouraged Joan's interest in astronomy, Joan became an astrophysicist. Feynman's parents were not religious, by his youth, Feynman described himself as an "avowed atheist". Many years in a letter to Tina Levitan, declining a request for information for her book on Jewish Nobel Prize winners, he stated, "To select, for approbation the peculiar elements that come from some Jewish heredity is to open the door to all kinds of nonsense on racial theory", adding, "at thirteen I was not only converted to other religious views, but I stopped believing that the Jewish people are in any way'the chosen people'". In his life, during a visit to the Jewish Theological Seminary, he encountered the Talmud for the first time and remarked that it contained a medieval kind of reasoning and was a wonderful book. Feynman attended Far Rockaway High School, a school in Far Rockaway, attended by fellow Nobel laureates Burton Richter and Baruch Samuel Blumberg.
Upon starting high school, Feynman was promoted into a higher math class. A high-school-administered IQ test estimated his IQ at 125—high, but "merely respectable" according to biographer James Gleick, his sister Joan did better. Years he declined to join Mensa International, saying that his IQ was too low. Physicist Steve Hsu stated of the test: I suspect that this test emphasized verbal, as opposed to mathematical, ability. Feynman received the highest score in the United States by a large margin on the notoriously difficult Putnam mathematics competition exam... He had the highest scores on record on the math/physics graduate admission exams at Princeton... Feynman's cognitive abilities might have been a bit lopsided... I recall looking at excerpts from a notebook Feynman kept while an undergraduate... contained a number of misspellings and grammatical errors. I doubt Feynman cared much about such things; when Feynman was 15, he taught himself trigonometry, advanced algebra, infinite series, analytic geometry, both differential and integral calculus.
Before entering college, he was experimenting with and deriving mathematical topics such as the half-derivative using his own notation. He created special symbols for logarithm, sine and tangent functions so they did not look like three variables multiplied together, for the derivative, to remove the temptation of canceling out the d's. A member
Molecular nanotechnology is a technology based on the ability to build structures to complex, atomic specifications by means of mechanosynthesis. This is distinct from nanoscale materials. Based on Richard Feynman's vision of miniature factories using nanomachines to build complex products, this advanced form of nanotechnology would make use of positionally-controlled mechanosynthesis guided by molecular machine systems. MNT would involve combining physical principles demonstrated by biophysics, other nanotechnologies, the molecular machinery of life with the systems engineering principles found in modern macroscale factories. While conventional chemistry uses inexact processes obtaining inexact results, biology exploits inexact processes to obtain definitive results, molecular nanotechnology would employ original definitive processes to obtain definitive results; the desire in molecular nanotechnology would be to balance molecular reactions in positionally-controlled locations and orientations to obtain desired chemical reactions, to build systems by further assembling the products of these reactions.
A roadmap for the development of MNT is an objective of a broadly based technology project led by Battelle and the Foresight Institute. The roadmap was scheduled for completion by late 2006, but was released in January 2008; the Nanofactory Collaboration is a more focused ongoing effort involving 23 researchers from 10 organizations and 4 countries, developing a practical research agenda aimed at positionally-controlled diamond mechanosynthesis and diamondoid nanofactory development. In August 2005, a task force consisting of 50+ international experts from various fields was organized by the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology to study the societal implications of molecular nanotechnology. One proposed application of MNT is so-called smart materials; this term refers to any sort of material designed and engineered at the nanometer scale for a specific task. It encompasses a wide variety of possible commercial applications. One example would be materials designed to respond differently to various molecules.
Another is the idea of self-healing structures, which would repair small tears in a surface in the same way as self-sealing tires or human skin. A MNT nanosensor would resemble a smart material, involving a small component within a larger machine that would react to its environment and change in some fundamental, intentional way. A simple example: a photosensor might passively measure the incident light and discharge its absorbed energy as electricity when the light passes above or below a specified threshold, sending a signal to a larger machine; such a sensor would cost less and use less power than a conventional sensor, yet function usefully in all the same applications — for example, turning on parking lot lights when it gets dark. While smart materials and nanosensors both exemplify useful applications of MNT, they pale in comparison with the complexity of the technology most popularly associated with the term: the replicating nanorobot. MNT nanofacturing is popularly linked with the idea of swarms of coordinated nanoscale robots working together, a popularization of an early proposal by K. Eric Drexler in his 1986 discussions of MNT, but superseded in 1992.
In this early proposal, sufficiently capable nanorobots would construct more nanorobots in an artificial environment containing special molecular building blocks. Critics have doubted both the feasibility of self-replicating nanorobots and the feasibility of control if self-replicating nanorobots could be achieved: they cite the possibility of mutations removing any control and favoring reproduction of mutant pathogenic variations. Advocates address the first doubt by pointing out that the first macroscale autonomous machine replicator, made of Lego blocks, was built and operated experimentally in 2002. While there are sensory advantages present at the macroscale compared to the limited sensorium available at the nanoscale, proposals for positionally controlled nanoscale mechanosynthetic fabrication systems employ dead reckoning of tooltips combined with reliable reaction sequence design to ensure reliable results, hence a limited sensorium is no handicap. Advocates address the second doubt by arguing that bacteria are evolved to evolve, while nanorobot mutation could be prevented by common error-correcting techniques.
Similar ideas are advocated in the Foresight Guidelines on Molecular Nanotechnology, a map of the 137-dimensional replicator design space published by Freitas and Merkle provides numerous proposed methods by which replicators could, in principle, be safely controlled by good design. However, the concept of suppressing mutation raises the question: How can design evolution occur at the nanoscale without a process of random mutation and deterministic selection? Critics argue that MNT advocates have not provided a substitute for such a process of evolution in this nanoscale arena where conventional sensory-based selection processes are lacking; the limits of the sensorium available at the nanoscale could make it difficult or impossible to winnow successes from failures. Advocates argue that design evolution should occur deterministically and under human control, using the conventional engineering paradigm of modeling, prototyping, testing and redesign. In any event, since 1992 technical proposals for MNT do not include self-replicating nan
Utility fog is a hypothetical collection of tiny robots that can replicate a physical structure. As such, it is a form of self-reconfiguring modular robotics. Hall thought of it as a nanotechnological replacement for car seatbelts; the robots would be microscopic, with extending arms reaching in several different directions, could perform three-dimensional lattice reconfiguration. Grabbers at the ends of the arms would allow the robots to mechanically link to one another and share both information and energy, enabling them to act as a continuous substance with mechanical and optical properties that could be varied over a wide range; each foglet would have substantial computing power, would be able to communicate with its neighbors. In the original application as a replacement for seatbelts, the swarm of robots would be spread out, the arms loose, allowing air flow between them. In the event of a collision the arms would lock into their current position, as if the air around the passengers had abruptly frozen solid.
The result would be to spread any impact over the entire surface of the passenger's body. While the foglets would be micro-scale, construction of the foglets would require full molecular nanotechnology. Hall suggests; each arm would have four degrees of freedom. The foglets' bodies would be made of aluminum oxide rather than combustible diamond to avoid creating a fuel air explosive. Hall and his correspondents soon realised that utility fog could be manufactured en masse to occupy the entire atmosphere of a planet and replace any physical instrumentality necessary to human life. By foglets exerting concerted force an object or human could be carried from location to location. Virtual buildings could be constructed and dismantled within moments, enabling the replacement of existing cities and roads with farms and gardens. While molecular nanotech might replace the need for biological bodies, utility fog would remain a useful peripheral with which to perform physical engineering and maintenance tasks.
Thus, utility fog came to be known as ″the machine of the future". Claytronics Grey goo Molecular machines Nanorobotics Nanotechnology Programmable matter Self-reconfiguring modular robotics Smartdust Synthetic biology The Invincible, a 1964 science fiction novel with intrigue centered on nanobotic swarms Utility Fog at Nanotech Now, many links
Christine Peterson is an American forecaster, the co-founder of Foresight Institute. She is credited with suggesting the term "open source". Peterson holds a bachelor's degree in chemistry from MIT. In 1991 she coauthored Unbounding the Future: the Nanotechnology Revolution with Gayle Pergamit and Eric Drexler. Which sketches nanotechnology's potential environmental and medical benefits as well as possible abuses. In 1997 she coauthored Leaping the Abyss: Putting Group Genius to Work with Gayle Pergamit. "Thinking Longer Term about Technology", 2009. Foresight Institute web page
Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within society at large; the press was founded by Whitney Darrow, with the financial support of Charles Scribner, as a printing press to serve the Princeton community in 1905. Its distinctive building was constructed in 1911 on William Street in Princeton, its first book was a new 1912 edition of John Witherspoon's Lectures on Moral Philosophy. Princeton University Press was founded in 1905 by a recent Princeton graduate, Whitney Darrow, with financial support from another Princetonian, Charles Scribner II. Darrow and Scribner purchased the equipment and assumed the operations of two existing local publishers, that of the Princeton Alumni Weekly and the Princeton Press; the new press printed both local newspapers, university documents, The Daily Princetonian, added book publishing to its activities. Beginning as a small, for-profit printer, Princeton University Press was reincorporated as a nonprofit in 1910.
Since 1911, the press has been headquartered in a purpose-built gothic-style building designed by Ernest Flagg. The design of press’s building, named the Scribner Building in 1965, was inspired by the Plantin-Moretus Museum, a printing museum in Antwerp, Belgium. Princeton University Press established a European office, in Woodstock, north of Oxford, in 1999, opened an additional office, in Beijing, in early 2017. Six books from Princeton University Press have won Pulitzer Prizes: Russia Leaves the War by George F. Kennan Banks and Politics in America from the Revolution to the Civil War by Bray Hammond Between War and Peace by Herbert Feis Washington: Village and Capital by Constance McLaughlin Green The Greenback Era by Irwin Unger Machiavelli in Hell by Sebastian de Grazia Books from Princeton University Press have been awarded the Bancroft Prize, the Nautilus Book Award, the National Book Award. Multi-volume historical documents projects undertaken by the Press include: The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau The Papers of Woodrow Wilson The Papers of Thomas Jefferson Kierkegaard's WritingsThe Papers of Woodrow Wilson has been called "one of the great editorial achievements in all history."
Princeton University Press's Bollingen Series had its beginnings in the Bollingen Foundation, a 1943 project of Paul Mellon's Old Dominion Foundation. From 1945, the foundation had independent status and providing fellowships and grants in several areas of study, including archaeology and psychology; the Bollingen Series was given to the university in 1969. Annals of Mathematics Studies Princeton Series in Astrophysics Princeton Series in Complexity Princeton Series in Evolutionary Biology Princeton Series in International Economics Princeton Modern Greek Studies The Whites of Their Eyes: The Tea Party's Revolution and the Battle over American History, by Jill Lepore The Meaning of Relativity by Albert Einstein Atomic Energy for Military Purposes by Henry DeWolf Smyth How to Solve It by George Polya The Open Society and Its Enemies by Karl Popper The Hero With a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell The Wilhelm/Baynes translation of the I Ching, Bollingen Series XIX. First copyright 1950, 27th printing 1997.
Anatomy of Criticism by Northrop Frye Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature by Richard Rorty QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter by Richard Feynman The Great Contraction 1929–1933 by Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz with a new Introduction by Peter L. Bernstein Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle by Stephen Biddle Banks, Eric. "Book of Lists: Princeton University Press at 100". Artforum International. Staff of Princeton University Press. A Century in Books: Princeton University Press, 1905–2005. ISBN 9780691122922. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Official website Princeton University Press: Albert Einstein Web Page Princeton University Press: Bollingen Series Princeton University Press: Annals of Mathematics Studies Princeton University Press Centenary Princeton University Press: New in Print