Thomas Ball (artist)
Thomas Ball was an American sculptor and musician. His work has had a influence on monumental art in the United States. He was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, to Thomas Ball and his father died when he was twelve. After several odd jobs to support his family he spent three years working at the Boston Museum, which he described as a place of amusement rather than an art museum. There he entertained the visitors by drawing portraits, playing the violin, and singing and he became an apprentice for the museum wood-carver Abel Brown. He taught himself oil painting by copying prints and casts in the studio of the museum superintendent, Ball was an accomplished musician and from his teenage years worked as a paid singer in Boston churches. On a visit to Boston years he performed the role in Bostons first performance of Beethovens Ninth Symphony with the Germania Orchestra on April 2,1853. As commissions started to come in he moved from studio to studio until he settled in a studio in Tremont Row where he remained for twelve years, there he painted several religious pictures and a portrait of Cornelia Wells Richards, editor of the Boston Evening Transcript.
He turned his attention to sculpture and his earliest work was a bust of Jenny Lind, whom he saw on her 1850 tour of the United States. Copies of his Lind work and his bust of Daniel Webster sold widely before being copied by others. His work includes many early cabinet busts of musicians and his first statue of a figure was a two-foot high statue of Daniel Webster, on which he worked from photographs and engravings until he managed to see him pass his studio shortly before his death. At thirty-five he went to Florence for study, the notables he met in Europe included Franz Liszt, whom he met at the Vatican in 1865 and of whom he produced a portrait bust. He made it a practice never to attend the unveiling of any of his public works. Once in Boston he managed to avoid receiving the invitation to the dedication of his statue of Gov. Andrew and instead went to see the work later. He wrote, It was a thing to do. I am ashamed of it now, but I could not bring myself to stand on that platform, Dartmouth College awarded him an honorary degree of Master of Arts.
When he returned to America he lived in Montclair, New Jersey, in 1880, Ball published an autobiographical volume, My Threescore Years, which he updated in 1890 as My Three Score Years and Ten. Ball died at the Montclair home of his daughter, Eliza Chickering Ball, Bust of Jenny Lind, New York Historical Society, New York City
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the marble to refer to metamorphosed limestone, however. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material and this stem is the basis for the English word marmoreal, meaning marble-like. In Hungarian it is called márvány, Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the carbonate rock have typically been modified or destroyed. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure limestone or dolomite protolith, green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally magnesium-rich limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure, examples of historically notable marble varieties and locations, White marble has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times.
This preference has to do with its softness, which made it easier to carve, relative isotropy and homogeneity, construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish. More generally in construction, specifically the dimension stone trade, the marble is used for any crystalline calcitic rock useful as building stone. For example, Tennessee marble is really a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician limestone that geologists call the Holston Formation. Ashgabat, the city of Turkmenistan, was recorded in the 2013 Guinness Book of Records as having the worlds highest concentration of white marble buildings. According to the United States Geological Survey, U. S. domestic marble production in 2006 was 46,400 tons valued at about $18.1 million, compared to 72,300 tons valued at $18.9 million in 2005. Crushed marble production in 2006 was 11.8 million tons valued at $116 million, of which 6.5 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate.
For comparison,2005 crushed marble production was 7.76 million tons valued at $58.7 million, of which 4.8 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate, U. S. dimension marble demand is about 1.3 million tons. The DSAN World Demand for Marble Index has shown a growth of 12% annually for the 2000–2006 period, the largest dimension marble application is tile. In 1998, marble production was dominated by 4 countries that accounted for almost half of production of marble
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is in the region of Jalisco in the Western-Pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,495,189 it is Mexicos fourth most populous municipality, the municipality is the second most densely populated in Mexico, the first being Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in the State of Mexico. It is a business and economic center in the Bajio region. Guadalajara is the 10th largest city in Latin America in population, urban area, the city is named after the Spanish city of Guadalajara, the name of which came from the Andalusian Arabic wād l-ḥijāra, meaning river/valley of stones. Other, more industries, such as shoes, textiles. Guadalajara, one of the most popular clubs in Mexico. This city was named the American Capital of Culture for 2005, Guadalajara hosted the 2011 Pan American Games. The city was established in five other places before moving to its current location, the first settlement in 1532 was in Mesa del Cerro, now known as Nochistlán, Zacatecas.
This site was settled by Cristóbal de Oñate as commissioned by Nuño de Guzmán, with the purpose of securing recent conquests, the settlement did not last long at this spot due to the lack of water, in 1533 it was moved to a location near Tonalá. Four years later, Guzmán ordered that the village be moved to Tlacotán, while the settlement was in Tlacotán, the Spanish king Charles I granted the coat of arms that the city still has today. This settlement was attacked during the Mixtón War in 1543 by Caxcan, Portecuex. The war was initiated by the due to the cruel treatment of Indians by Nuño de Guzmán. Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza had to control of the campaign to suppress the revolt after the Spanish were defeated in several engagements. The conflict ended after Mendoza made some concessions to the Indians such as freeing the Indian slaves, the village of Guadalajara barely survived the war, and the villagers attributed their survival to the Archangel Michael, who remains the patron of the city.
It was decided to move the city again, this time to Atemajac. The city has remained there to this day, in 1542, records indicate that 126 people were living in Guadalajara and, in the same year, the status of city was granted by the king of Spain. Guadalajara was officially founded on February 14,1550 in the Valley of Atemajac, the settlements name came from the Spanish hometown of Nuño de Guzmán
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. It is often used in art or as interior decoration. Most mosaics are made of small, roughly square, pieces of stone or glass of different colors, especially floor mosaics, are made of small rounded pieces of stone, and called pebble mosaics. Others are made of other materials, mosaics have a long history, starting in Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC. Pebble mosaics were made in Tiryns in Mycenean Greece, mosaics with patterns and pictures became widespread in classical times, Early Christian basilicas from the 4th century onwards were decorated with wall and ceiling mosaics. Mosaic fell out of fashion in the Renaissance, though artists like Raphael continued to practise the old technique and Byzantine influence led Jews to decorate 5th and 6th century synagogues in the Middle East with floor mosaics. Mosaic was widely used on buildings and palaces in early Islamic art, including Islams first great religious building, the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
Mosaic went out of fashion in the Islamic world after the 8th century, modern mosaics are made by professional artists, street artists, and as a popular craft. Many materials other than stone and ceramic tesserae may be employed, including shells, glass. The earliest known examples of made of different materials were found at a temple building in Abra, Mesopotamia. They consist of pieces of colored stones and ivory, excavations at Susa and Chogha Zanbil show evidence of the first glazed tiles, dating from around 1500 BC. However, mosaic patterns were not used until the times of Sassanid Empire, mythological subjects, or scenes of hunting or other pursuits of the wealthy, were popular as the centrepieces of a larger geometric design, with strongly emphasized borders. Pliny the Elder mentions the artist Sosus of Pergamon by name, describing his mosaics of the left on a floor after a feast. Both of these themes were widely copied, most recorded names of Roman mosaic workers are Greek, suggesting they dominated high quality work across the empire, no doubt most ordinary craftsmen were slaves.
Splendid mosaic floors are found in Roman villas across North Africa, in such as Carthage. The tiny tesserae allowed very fine detail, and an approach to the illusionism of painting, often small panels called emblemata were inserted into walls or as the highlights of larger floor-mosaics in coarser work. The normal technique was opus tessellatum, using larger tesserae, which was laid on site, there was a distinct native Italian style using black on a white background, which was no doubt cheaper than fully coloured work. In Rome and his architects used mosaics to cover surfaces of walls and ceilings in the Domus Aurea, built 64 AD
Venetian glass is a type of glass object made in Venice, primarily on the island of Murano. It is world-renowned for being colorful and skillfully made, many of the important characteristics of these objects had been developed by the thirteenth century. Toward the end of century, the centre of the Venetian glass industry moved to Murano. Byzantine craftsmen played an important role in the development of Venetian glass, when Constantinople was sacked by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, some fleeing artisans came to Venice. This happened again when the Ottomans took Constantinople in 1453, supplying Venice with still more glassworkers, by the sixteenth century, Venetian artisans had gained even greater control over the colour and transparency of their glass, and had mastered a variety of decorative techniques. Despite efforts to keep Venetian glassmaking techniques within Venice, they became known elsewhere, some of the most important brands of glass in the world today, including Venini, Barovier & Toso and Seguso, are still produced in the historical glass factories on Murano.
Barovier & Toso is considered to be one of the 100 oldest companies in operation in the world. Though the Republic ordered the destruction of the foundries, it authorised and encouraged construction outside the city, and by the late 13th century, Murano glass is still interwoven with Venetian glass. Muranos glassmakers were soon the island’s most prominent citizens, by the 14th century, glassmakers were allowed to wear swords, enjoyed immunity from prosecution by the Venetian state and found their daughters married into Venice’s most affluent families. Of course there was a catch, Glassmakers were not allowed to leave the Republic, many craftsmen took this risk and set up glass furnaces in surrounding cities and as far afield as England and the Netherlands. Today, the artisans of Murano are still employing these centuries-old techniques, crafting everything from contemporary art glass and glass jewelry to Murano glass chandeliers, the process of making Murano glass is rather complex. The glass is made from silica, which becomes liquid at high temperatures, as the glass passes from a liquid to a solid state, there is an interval when the glass is soft before it hardens completely.
This is when the glass-master can shape the material, the other raw materials, called ceramic fluxes or melting agents, allow the glass to soften at lower temperatures. The more sodium oxide present in the glass, the slower it solidifies and this is important for hand-working because it allows the glassmaker more time to shape the material. The various raw materials an artisan might add to a mixture are sodium and arsenic. Colours and materials vary depending upon the look a glassmaker is trying to achieve, aquamarine is created through the use of copper and cobalt compounds, whereas ruby red uses a gold solution as a colouring agent. Murrine technique begins with the layering of coloured glass, which is stretched into long rods called canes. When cold, these canes are sliced in cross-section, which has the layered pattern, the better-known term millefiori is a style of murrine that is defined by each layer of molten colour being shaped by a mold into a star and layered again
The Aztec or Mexica calendar is the calendar system that was used by the Aztecs as well as other Pre-Columbian peoples of central Mexico. It is one of the Mesoamerican calendars, sharing the basic structure of calendars from throughout ancient Mesoamerica, the calendar consisted of a 365-day calendar cycle called xiuhpohualli and a 260-day ritual cycle called tonalpohualli. These two cycles formed a 52-year century, sometimes called the calendar round. The xiuhpohualli is considered to be the calendar, since it is based on the sun. The tonalpohualli consists of a cycle of 260 days, each day signified by a combination of a number from 1 to 13 and this cycle of number and day signs would continue similarly until the 20th week, which would start on 1 Rabbit, and end on 13 Flower. It would take a full 260 days for the two cycles to realign and repeat the sequence back on 1 Crocodile, the set of day signs used in central Mexico is identical to that used by Mixtecs, and to a lesser degree similar to those of other Mesoamerican calendars.
Each of the day signs bears an association with one of the four cardinal directions, there is some variation in the way the day signs were drawn or carved. Those here were taken from the Codex Magliabechiano and Rain are represented by images of their associated gods and Tlaloc. Other marks on the stone showed the current world and the worlds before this one, each world was called a sun, and each sun had its own species of inhabitants. The Aztecs believed that they were in the sun and like all of the suns before them they would eventually perish due to their own imperfections. The 260 days of the calendar were grouped into twenty periods of thirteen days each. Scholars usually refer to these weeks as trecenas, using a Spanish term derived from trece thirteen. The original Nahuatl term is not known, each trecena is named according to the calendar date of the first day of the thirteen days in that trecena. In addition, each of the twenty trecenas in the 260-day cycle had its own deity, In ancient times the year was composed of eighteen months.
The days of the year were counted twenty by twenty, Diego Durán Xiuhpohualli is the Aztec year count. One year consists of 360 named days and 5 nameless and these extra days are thought to be unlucky. The year was broken into 18 periods of twenty days each, the Aztec word for moon is metztli but whatever name was used for these periods is unknown. Through Spanish usage, the 20-day period of the Aztec calendar has become known as a veintena
The Hollywood Hills are a part of the Santa Monica Mountains and a hillside neighborhood of the same name in the central region of the city of Los Angeles, California. The Hollywood Hills are the part of the Santa Monica Mountains and it includes Forest Lawn Memorial Park, the Hollywood Reservoir, the Hollywood Sign, the Hollywood Bowl and the John Anson Ford Theater. Hollywood Hills is bisected southeast-northwest by US101, relation of the Hollywood Hills to nearby areas, The neighborhood of Hollywood Hills includes the Hollywood Bowl and Forest Lawn Memorial Park as well as two private and three public schools. The population was estimated at 22,988 in 2008, the median age for residents was 37, considered old for the city and the county. The percentages of residents aged 19 through 64 were among the countys highest, the neighborhood is not particularly diverse for the city, the diversity index being 0.433, and the percentage of white people is considered high, at 74. 1%. Latinos make up 9.
4%, Asians are at 6. 7%, African American at 4. 6%, the median household income in 2008 dollars was $69,277, considered high for the city but about average for the county. The percentage of households earning $125,000 or more was high, the average household size of 1.8 people was relatively low. Renters occupied 56. 5% of the units, and homeowners the rest. In 2000, there were 270 families headed by single parents, or 6. 9%, in 2000,54. 8% of residents aged 25 and older held a four-year degree, considered high when compared with the city and the county as a whole. Davies, Los Angeles City Council member, 1943–51, active against gravel extraction in the hills Los Angeles Times Los Angeles Times Hollywood Hills crime map and statistics
Universal City, California
Universal City is an unincorporated area within the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States. This 70 percent portion of the property remains unincorporated to avoid the City of Los Angeles business taxes, located within the area of Universal City is the Universal Studios Hollywood film studio and theme park and the Universal CityWalk shopping and entertainment center. Within the Los Angeles city limits are 10 Universal City Plaza, a 36-floor office building for Universal and NBC, the Sheraton Universal, the Metro Red Line underground station of the same name is located opposite the 10 Universal Plaza. A Los Angeles County Sheriffs Department station is located at Universal CityWalk, the Los Angeles County Fire Department Station 51 is of special significance to Universal, as Station 51 was the fictional setting of the Universal and Jack Webb television series Emergency. Universal Citys ZIP code is 91608, and the community is inside area code 818, Carl Laemmle officially opened the Second Universal City on March 15,1915, on the 230-acre Taylor Ranch property.
See how slapstick comedies are made, see your favorite screen stars do their work. See how we make the people laugh or cry or sit on the edge of their chairs the world over, stated a poster touting Universals opening. Universal Pictures founder was a German immigrant who opened his first nickelodeon in Chicago in 1906 and he moved to New York City, where he soon joined with half a dozen small motion picture companies to create the movie company he called Universal Pictures. In 1912, Laemmle briefly operated three small studios - Bison and Oak Crest Ranch, after a court battle with New York Motion Picture Company, control of the Bison lot was returned to the New York Motion Picture Company. The court allowed Carl Laemmle to retain use of the name Bison as Bison 101 for his westerns, the Oak Crest Ranch is where Laemmle filmed the western At Old Fort Dearborn. The Providencia Land and Water company, called Oak Crest Ranch in the trade papers, in 1913, Laemmle decided to consolidate the Nestor studio and Oak Crest ranch property.
His first Universal City was too small, so he ordered a search for a new and larger property in the valley, Laemmle leased Providencia ranchland in the San Fernando Valley in 1912. Other studio chiefs laughed, calling the place Laemmles Folly and jeering that it was so far out of town that Laemmle could film scenery for free anywhere he wanted, Laemmle himself had second thoughts and worried that maybe he had made a huge mistake. But he was to live his greatest dreams. Success was found all around with his city containing streets, sets, in the meantime, Laemmle added a zoo to the Oak Crest Ranch – which was open to visitors to generate free advertising by word of mouth. The Rotarians of Los Angeles were one of the groups permitted to visit the Oak Crest - Universal City. The Oak Crest ranch being too small for his larger Universal City, Laemmle bought the Lankershim Land and Water property, in 1914, operations at The Oak Ranch were moved to the Taylor ranch. The Universal ranch zoo was moved to the Back Ranch of the Lankershim property, the new Universal City was opened for Universal staff in 1914
Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L. A. is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2015 population of 3,971,883, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The citys inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos, historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was founded on September 4,1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence, in 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,1850, the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city.
The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles has an economy in culture, fashion, sports, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area has a gross metropolitan product of $831 billion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Los Angeles area hosted the 1994 FIFA mens World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA womens World Cup final match, the mens event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide.
The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva, a Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning poison oak place. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2,1769, in 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by 1820. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, during Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta Californias regional capital
The Mixtec region and the Mixtec peoples are traditionally divided into three groups, two based on their original economic caste and one based on the region they settled. High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the class and generally richer. In recent times, a reversal or equalizing has been seen. The third group is Coastal Mixtecs mixteco de la costa whose language is related to that of the Low Mixtecs, they currently inhabit the Pacific slope of Oaxaca. The Mixtec languages form a branch of the Otomanguean language family. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other, like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbia Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million, today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are large populations in the United States. The term Mixtec comes from the Nahuatl word mixtecah, cloud people, there are many names that the Mixtecs have for naming themselves, ñuù savi, nayívi savi, ñuù davi, nayivi davi. etc.
This all denominations can be translated as people of the rain, the historic homeland of Mixtec people is La Mixteca, called in Mixtec language Ñuu Savi, Ñuu Djau, Ñuu Davi, etc. depending on the local variant. They call their language saan davi, daan davi or tuun savi, in pre-Columbian times, the Mixtec were one of the major civilizations of Mesoamerica. Important ancient centres of the Mixtec include the ancient capital of Tilantongo, as well as the sites of Achiutla, Huajuapan, Tlaxiaco, Juxtlahuaca, the Mixtec made major constructions at the ancient city of Monte Albán. The work of Mixtec artisans who produced work in stone, according to West, the Mixtec of Oaxaca. were the foremost goldsmiths of Mesoamerica, which included the lost-wax casting of gold and its alloys. At the height of the Aztec Empire, many Mixtecs paid tribute to the Aztecs and they put up resistance to Spanish rule until they were subdued by the Spanish and their central Mexican allies led by Pedro de Alvarado. Mixtecs have migrated to parts of both Mexico and the United States.
In recent years a large exodus of indigenous peoples from Oaxaca, such as the Zapotec, as of 2011, an estimated 150,000 Mixteco people were living in California, and 25,000 to 30,000 in New York City. Large Mixtec communities exist in the cities of Tijuana, Baja California, San Diego and Tucson. Mixtec communities are generally described as trans-national or trans-border because of their ability to maintain, there is considerable documentation in the Mixtec native language for the colonial era, which has been studied as part of the New Philology. There is considerable Mixtec documentation for land issues, but sparse for market activity, long distance trade existed in the prehispanic era and continued in indigenous hands in the early colonial
George Washington was an American politician and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and he is popularly considered the driving force behind the nations establishment and came to be known as the father of the country, both during his lifetime and to this day. Washington was widely admired for his leadership qualities and was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College in the first two national elections. Washingtons incumbency established many precedents still in use today, such as the system, the inaugural address. His retirement from office two terms established a tradition that lasted until 1940 when Franklin Delano Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term. The 22nd Amendment now limits the president to two elected terms and he was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia to a family of wealthy planters who owned tobacco plantations and slaves, which he inherited.
In his youth, he became an officer in the colonial militia during the first stages of the French. In 1775, the Second Continental Congress commissioned him as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, in that command, Washington forced the British out of Boston in 1776 but was defeated and nearly captured that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the middle of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause and his strategy enabled Continental forces to capture two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. In battle, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies, after victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism. Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which devised a new form of government for the United States.
Following his election as president in 1789, he worked to unify rival factions in the fledgling nation and he supported Alexander Hamiltons programs to satisfy all debts and state, established a permanent seat of government, implemented an effective tax system, and created a national bank. In avoiding war with Great Britain, he guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795 and he remained non-partisan, never joining the Federalist Party, although he largely supported its policies. Washingtons Farewell Address was a primer on civic virtue, warning against partisanship, sectionalism. He retired from the presidency in 1797, returning to his home, upon his death, Washington was eulogized as first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen by Representative Henry Lee III of Virginia. He was revered in life and in death and public polling consistently ranks him among the top three presidents in American history and he has been depicted and remembered in monuments, public works and other dedications to the present day.
He was born on February 11,1731, according to the Julian calendar, the Gregorian calendar was adopted within the British Empire in 1752, and it renders a birth date of February 22,1732. Washington was of primarily English gentry descent, especially from Sulgrave and his great-grandfather John Washington emigrated to Virginia in 1656 and began accumulating land and slaves, as did his son Lawrence and his grandson, Georges father Augustine
Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and served as the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second Vice President of the United States, Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry and educated in colonial Virginia. He graduated from the College of William & Mary and briefly practiced law and he became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, and subsequently the nations first Secretary of State in 1790–1793 under President George Washington. Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System, as President, Jefferson pursued the nations shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He organized the Louisiana Purchase, almost doubling the countrys territory, as a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces.
Jeffersons second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr, American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U. S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory. Jefferson mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and he was a proven architect in the classical tradition. Jeffersons keen interest in religion and philosophy earned him the presidency of the American Philosophical Society and he shunned organized religion, but was influenced by both Christianity and deism. He was well versed in linguistics and spoke several languages and he founded the University of Virginia after retiring from public office. He was a letter writer and corresponded with many prominent and important people throughout his adult life. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson owned several plantations which were worked by hundreds of slaves.
Most historians now believe that, after the death of his wife in 1782, he had a relationship with his slave Sally Hemings and fathered at least one of her children. Various modern scholars are more critical of Jeffersons private life, pointing out the discrepancy between his ownership of slaves and his political principles, for example. Presidential scholars, consistently rank Jefferson among the greatest presidents, Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13,1743, at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children. He was of English and possibly Welsh descent and was born a British subject and his father Peter Jefferson was a planter and surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen, his mother was Jane Randolph. Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of a friend who had named him guardian of his children, the Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757, his estate was divided between his sons Thomas and Randolph.
Thomas inherited approximately 5,000 acres of land, including Monticello and he assumed full authority over his property at age 21