Times Union (Albany)
The Times Union is an American daily newspaper, serving the Capital Region of New York. Although the newspaper focuses on Albany and its suburbs, it covers all parts of the four-county area, including the cities of Troy and Saratoga Springs, it is owned by Hearst Communications. The paper was founded in 1857 as the Morning Times, becoming Times-Union by 1891, was purchased by William Randolph Hearst in 1924; the newspaper has been online since 1996. The editor of the Times Union is Rex Smith, who has held the post since July 2002, he had been the paper's managing editor. George Hearst is the publisher; the newspaper is printed in its Colonie headquarters by the Hearst Corporation's Capital Newspapers Division. The daily edition costs $2 and the Sunday/Thanksgiving Day edition costs $3. Home delivery prices are lower; the Times Union announced in May 2006 that it would pay $3.5 million over 10 years for the naming rights of the Pepsi Arena in downtown Albany. On January 1, 2007, the arena was renamed the Times Union Center.
Front Section: The Times Union's A section contains national, world and celebrity news, editorials, an editorial cartoon and letters to the editor. In 2007, the paper reorganized its daily sections and began placing late-breaking local news stories in the front section. Capital Region: The local section contains news relating to the Capital District, obituaries, a calendar of events, the weather report, it contains columns by Fred LeBrun, Paul Grondahl and Chris Churchill. Sports: The sports section covers local and national sports events at high school and professional levels. Outdoor activities are represented. Business: The business section contains local and national business news and mutual fund tables, classified advertisements, a crossword puzzle. Perspective: The Perspective section includes editorials and letters to the editor. In addition to the above, the Thursday edition contains: Preview: A tabloid section covering movies, dance and other entertainment topics, it contains movie reviews in brief, a calendar of events, a review of an inexpensive restaurant.
In addition to the daily sections, the Sunday edition contains: Perspective: Contains opinion commentaries, editorials, an editorial cartoon, letters to the editor, a report of Congressional votes. Spaces: A tabloid section with real estate listings and articles on housing topics. Travel/Books: A two-part section with the first portion covering travel and the second covering books, it contains travel articles, weekly airfares, book reviews, the New York Times Bestseller List. Parade Magazine: The Sunday Times Union includes this national magazine covering lifestyle and celebrity topics. Arts/Events: The arts section has articles on classical music, the visual arts, theater, it contains a calendar of events and gallery listings, a Broadway theater directory. The Sunday paper has numerous advertising circulars and coupon pages; the Times Union's editorial board consists of: George R. Hearst III—Publisher Rex Smith—Editor Jay Jochnowitz—Editorial Page Editor Michael V. Spain—Associate Editor Tena Tyler—Senior Editor.
Engagement Harry Rosenfeld—Editor-at-LargeSource: TimesUnion.com The paper is mentioned as the employer of Jane Fonda's character in the film, "Sundays in New York". She states. Alan Chartock The Media Project Times Union Center WAMC "Guide to the Times Union opinion pages". Archived from the original on Sep 27, 2007. Official website Legacy of Change, History of the TU on its 150th anniversary Editor's Column Capitaland Quarterly Times Union profile at Hearst Corporation
In folklore, a ghost is the soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear to the living. In ghostlore, descriptions of ghosts vary from an invisible presence to translucent or visible wispy shapes, to realistic, lifelike visions; the deliberate attempt to contact the spirit of a deceased person is known as necromancy, or in spiritism as a séance. The belief in the existence of an afterlife, as well as manifestations of the spirits of the dead, is widespread, dating back to animism or ancestor worship in pre-literate cultures. Certain religious practices—funeral rites and some practices of spiritualism and ritual magic—are designed to rest the spirits of the dead. Ghosts are described as solitary, human-like essences, though stories of ghostly armies and the ghosts of animals rather than humans have been recounted, they are believed to haunt particular locations, objects, or people they were associated with in life. According to a 2009 study by the Pew Research Center, 18 % of Americans say.
The overwhelming consensus of science is. Their existence is impossible to falsify, ghost hunting has been classified as pseudoscience. Despite centuries of investigation, there is no scientific evidence that any location is inhabited by spirits of the dead. Research has indicated that ghost sightings may be related to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Older reports linked carbon monoxide poisoning to ghost-like hallucinations; the English word ghost continues Old English gāst, from Proto-Germanic *gaistaz. It is common to West Germanic; the prior Proto-Indo-European form was *ǵʰéysd-os, from the root *ǵʰéysd- denoting "fury, anger" reflected in Old Norse geisa "to rage". The Germanic word is recorded as masculine only, but continues a neuter s-stem; the original meaning of the Germanic word would thus have been an animating principle of the mind, in particular capable of excitation and fury. In Germanic paganism, "Germanic Mercury", the Odin, was at the same time the conductor of the dead and the "lord of fury" leading the Wild Hunt.
Besides denoting the human spirit or soul, both of the living and the deceased, the Old English word is used as a synonym of Latin spiritus in the meaning of "breath" or "blast" from the earliest attestations. It could denote any good or evil spirit, such as angels and demons. From the Old English period, the word could denote the spirit of God, viz. the "Holy Ghost". The now-prevailing sense of "the soul of a deceased person, spoken of as appearing in a visible form" only emerges in Middle English; the modern noun does, retain a wider field of application, extending on one hand to "soul", "spirit", "vital principle", "mind", or "psyche", the seat of feeling and moral judgement. The synonym spook is a Dutch loanword, akin to Low German spôk. Alternative words in modern usage include spectre, the Scottish wraith and apparition; the term shade in classical mythology translates Greek σκιά, or Latin umbra, in reference to the notion of spirits in the Greek underworld. "Haint" is a synonym for ghost used in regional English of the southern United States, the "haint tale" is a common feature of southern oral and literary tradition.
The term poltergeist is a German word a "noisy ghost", for a spirit said to manifest itself by invisibly moving and influencing objects. Wraith is a Scots word for spectre, or apparition, it appeared in Scottish Romanticist literature, acquired the more general or figurative sense of portent or omen. In 18th- to 19th-century Scottish literature, it applied to aquatic spirits; the word has no accepted etymology. An association with the verb writhe was the etymology favored by J. R. R. Tolkien. Tolkien's use of the word in the naming of the creatures known as the Ringwraiths has influenced usage in fantasy literature. Bogey or bogy/bogie is a term for a ghost, appears in Scottish poet John Mayne's Hallowe'en in 1780. A revenant is a deceased person returning from the dead to haunt the living, either as a disembodied ghost or alternatively as an animated corpse. Related is the concept of a fetch, the visible ghost or spirit of a person yet alive. A notion of the transcendent, supernatural, or numinous involving entities like ghosts, demons, or deities, is a cultural universal.
In pre-literate folk religions, these beliefs are summarized under animism and ancestor worship. Some people believe the ghost or spirit never leaves Earth until there is no-one left to remember the one who died. In many cultures, restless ghosts are distinguished from the more benign spirits involved in ancestor worship. Ancestor worship involves rites intended to prevent revenants, vengeful spirits of the dead, imagined as starving and envious of the living. Strategies for preventing revenants may either include sacrifice, i.e. giving the dead food and drink to pacify them
A headstone, tombstone, or gravestone is a stele or marker stone, placed over a grave. They are traditional for burials in the Christian and Muslim religions, among others. In most cases they have the deceased's name, date of birth, date of death inscribed on them, along with a personal message, or prayer, but they may contain pieces of funerary art details in stone relief. In many parts of Europe insetting a photograph of the deceased in a frame is common; the stele, as it is called in an archaeological context, is one of the oldest forms of funerary art. A tombstone was the stone lid of a stone coffin, or the coffin itself, a gravestone was the stone slab, laid over a grave. Now all three terms are used for markers placed at the head of the grave; some graves in the 18th century contained footstones to demarcate the foot end of the grave. This sometimes developed into full kerb sets. Footstones were annotated with more than the deceased's initials and year of death, sometimes a memorial mason and plot reference number.
Many cemeteries and churchyards have removed those extra stones to ease grass cutting by machine mower. Note that in some UK cemeteries the principal, indeed only, marker is placed at the foot of the grave. Owing to soil movement and Downhill creep on gentle slopes, older headstones and footstones can be found tilted at an angle. Over time, this movement can result in the stones being sited several metres away from their original location. Graves, any related memorials are a focus for mourning and remembrance; the names of relatives are added to a gravestone over the years, so that one marker may chronicle the passing of an entire family spread over decades. Since gravestones and a plot in a cemetery or churchyard cost money, they are a symbol of wealth or prominence in a community; some gravestones were commissioned and erected to their own memory by people who were still living, as a testament to their wealth and status. In a Christian context, the wealthy erected elaborate memorials within churches rather than having external gravestones.
Crematoria offer similar alternatives to families who do not have a grave to mark, but who want a focus for their mourning and for remembrance. Carved or cast commemorative plaques inside the crematorium for example may serve this purpose. A cemetery may follow national codes of practice or independently prescribe the size and use of certain materials in a conservation area; some may limit the placing of a wooden memorial to six months after burial, after which a more permanent memorial must be placed. Others may require stones of a certain position to facilitate grass-cutting. Headstones of granite and other kinds of stone are created and repaired by monumental masons. Cemeteries require regular inspection and maintenance, as stones may settle, topple and, on rare occasions and injure people. Restoration is a specialized job for a monumental mason. Overgrowth removal requires care to avoid damaging the carving. For example, ivy should only be cut at the base roots and left to die off, never pulled off forcefully.
Many materials have been used as markers. Fieldstones; the earliest markers for graves were natural fieldstone, some unmarked and others decorated or incised using a metal awl. Typical motifs for the carving included the deceased's name and age. Granite. Granite requires skill to carve by hand. Modern methods of carving include using computer-controlled rotary bits and sandblasting over a rubber stencil. Leaving the letters and emblems exposed on the stone, the blaster can create any kind of artwork or epitaph. Marble and limestone. Both limestone and marble take carving well. Marble is a recrystallised form of limestone; the mild acid in rainwater can dissolve marble and limestone over time, which can make inscriptions unreadable. Portland stone was a type of limestone used in England—after weathering, fossiliferous deposits tend to appear on the surface. Marble became popular from the early 19th century. Sandstone. Sandstone is soft enough to carve easily; some sandstone markers are so well preserved that individual chisel marks are discernible, while others have delaminated and crumbled to dust.
Delamination occurs. As it freezes and expands the layers flake off. In the 17th century, sandstone replaced field stones in Colonial America. Yorkstone was a common sandstone material used in England. Slate. Slate can have a pleasing texture but is porous and prone to delamination, it takes lettering well highlighted with white paint or gilding. Iron. Iron grave markers and decorations were popular during the Victorian era in the United Kingdom and elsewhere being produced by specialist foundries or the local blacksmith. Cast iron headstones have lasted for generations while wrought ironwork only survives in a rusted or eroded state. In eastern Värmland, iron crosses instead of stones have been popular since the 18th century. White bronze. Sand cast zinc, but called white bronze for marketing purposes. All, if not all, zinc grave markers were made by the Monumental Bronze Company of Bridgeport, CT, between 1874 and 1914, they are in cemeteries of the period all across the U. S. and Canada. They were sold as more durable than marble, about progressive.
Wood. This was a popular material during the Georgian and Victorian era, and
Troy, New York
Troy is a city in the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Rensselaer County. The city is located on the western edge of Rensselaer County and on the eastern bank of the Hudson River. Troy has close ties to the nearby cities of Albany and Schenectady, forming a region popularly called the Capital District; the city is one of the three major centers for the Albany Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 1,170,483. At the 2010 census, the population of Troy was 50,129. Troy's motto is Ilium fuit. Troja est, which means "Ilium was, Troy is". Today, Troy is home to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the oldest private engineering and technical university in the US, founded in 1824. Due to the confluence of major waterways and a geography that supported water power, the American industrial revolution took hold in this area making Troy reputedly the fourth wealthiest city in America around the turn of the 20th century. Troy, therefore, is noted for a wealth of Victorian architecture downtown and elaborate private homes in various neighborhoods.
Several churches boast a concentrated collection of stained glass windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany. Troy is home to the world renowned "Troy Music Hall" the "Troy Savings Bank Music Hall" dating from the 1870s, said to have superb acoustics in a combination of restored and well preserved performance space; the area had long been occupied by the Mahican Indian tribe, but Dutch settlement began in the mid 17th century. The patroon Kiliaen van Rensselaer called the region Pafraets Dael, after his mother; the Dutch colony was conquered by the English in 1664, in 1707 Derick Van der Heyden purchased a farm near today's downtown area. In 1771, Abraham Lansing had his farm in today's Lansingburgh laid out into lots. Sixteen years Van der Heyden's grandson Jacob had his extensive holdings surveyed and laid out into lots, naming the new village Vanderheyden. In 1789, Troy adopted its present name following a vote of the people. Troy was incorporated as a town two years and extended east across the county to the Vermont line, including Petersburgh.
In 1796, Troy became a village and in 1816, it became a city. Lansingburgh, to the north, became part of Troy in 1900. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Mohican Indians had a number of settlements along the Hudson River near the confluence with the Mohawk River; the land comprising the Poesten Kill and Wynants Kill areas were owned by two Mohican groups. The land around the Poesten Kill was called Panhooseck; the area around the Wynants Kill, was known as Paanpack, was owned by Peyhaunet. The land between the creeks, which makes up most of downtown and South Troy, was owned by Annape. South of the Wynants Kill and into present-day North Greenbush, the land was owned by Pachquolapiet; these parcels of land were sold to the Dutch between 1630 and 1657 and each purchase was overseen and signed by Skiwias, the sachem at the time. In total, more than 75 individual Mohicans were involved in deed signings in the 17th century; the site of the city was a part of Rensselaerswyck, a patroonship created by Kiliaen van Rensselaer.
Dirck Van der Heyden was one of the first settlers. In 1707, he purchased a farm of 65 acres. An early local legend that a Dutch girl had been kidnapped by an Indian male who did not want her to marry someone else gained some credence when two skeletons were found in a cave under Poestenkill Falls in the 1950s. One skeleton was Caucasian with an iron ring; the other was male. The name Troy was adopted in 1789 before which it had been known as Ashley's Ferry, the region was formed into the Town of Troy in 1791 from part of the Manor of Rensselaerswyck; the township included Grafton. Troy became a village in 1801 and was chartered as a city in 1816. In 1900, the city of Lansingburgh was merged into Troy. In the post-Revolutionary War years, as central New York was first settled, there was a strong trend to classical names, Troy's naming fits the same pattern as the New York cities of Syracuse, Utica, Ithaca, or the towns of Sempronius, Manlius, or dozens of other classically named towns to the west of Troy.
Northern and Western New York was a theater of the War of 1812, militia and regular army forces were led by Stephen Van Rensselaer of Troy. Quartermaster supplies were shipped through Troy. A local butcher and meat-packer named Samuel Wilson supplied the military, according to an unprovable legend, barrels stamped "U. S." were jokingly taken by the troops to stand for "Uncle Sam" meaning Wilson. Troy has since claimed to be the historical home of Uncle Sam. Through much of the 19th and into the early 20th century, Troy was not only one of the most prosperous cities in New York State, but one of the most prosperous cities in the entire country. Prior to its rise as an industrial center, Troy was the transshipment point for meat and vegetables from Vermont, which were sent by the Hudson River to New York City; the Federal Dam at Troy is the head of the tides in the Hudson River and Hudson River sloops and steamboats plied the river on a regular basis. This trade was vastly increased after the construction of the Erie Canal, with its eastern terminus directly across the Hudson from Troy at Cohoes in 1825.
Troy's one-time great wealth was produced in the steel industry, with the first American Bessemer converter erected on the Wyantskill, a stream with a falls in a small valley at the south end of the city. The industry first used iron ore from the Adirondacks. On, ore and coal from the Midwest was shipped on the Erie Canal to Troy, there processed before being sent on down the Hudson to New York City; the iron an
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred. The word cemetery implies that the land is designated as a burial ground and applied to the Roman catacombs; the term graveyard is used interchangeably with cemetery, but a graveyard refers to a burial ground within a churchyard. The intact or cremated remains of people may be interred in a grave referred to as burial, or in a tomb, an "above-ground grave", a mausoleum, niche, or other edifice. In Western cultures, funeral ceremonies are observed in cemeteries; these ceremonies or rites of passage differ according to religious beliefs. Modern cemeteries include crematoria, some grounds used for both, continue as crematoria as a principal use long after the interment areas have been filled. Taforalt cave in Morocco is the oldest known cemetery in the world, it was the resting place of at least 34 Iberomaurusian individuals, the bulk of which have been dated to 15,100 to 14,000 years ago. Neolithic cemeteries are sometimes referred to by the term "grave field".
They are one of the chief sources of information on ancient and prehistoric cultures, numerous archaeological cultures are defined by their burial customs, such as the Urnfield culture of the European Bronze Age. From about the 7th century, in Europe a burial was under the control of the Church and could only take place on consecrated church ground. Practices varied, but in continental Europe, bodies were buried in a mass grave until they had decomposed; the bones were exhumed and stored in ossuaries, either along the arcaded bounding walls of the cemetery or within the church under floor slabs and behind walls. In most cultures those who were vastly rich, had important professions, were part of the nobility or were of any other high social status were buried in individual crypts inside or beneath the relevant place of worship with an indication of their name, date of death and other biographical data. In Europe, this was accompanied by a depiction of their coat of arms. Most others were buried in graveyards again divided by social status.
Mourners who could afford the work of a stonemason had a headstone engraved with a name, dates of birth and death and sometimes other biographical data, set up over the place of burial. The more writing and symbols carved on the headstone, the more expensive it was; as with most other human property such as houses and means of transport, richer families used to compete for the artistic value of their family headstone in comparison to others around it, sometimes adding a statue on the top of the grave. Those who could not pay for a headstone at all had some religious symbol made from wood on the place of burial such as a Christian cross; some families hired a blacksmith and had large crosses made from various metals put on the place of burial. Starting in the early 19th century, the burial of the dead in graveyards began to be discontinued, due to rapid population growth in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, continued outbreaks of infectious disease near graveyards and the limited space in graveyards for new interment.
In many European states, burial in graveyards was outlawed altogether through government legislation. Instead of graveyards new places of burial were established away from populated areas and outside of old towns and city centers. Many new cemeteries became municipally owned or were run by their own corporations, thus independent from churches and their churchyards. In some cases, skeletons were moved into ossuaries or catacombs. A large action of this type occurred in 18th century Paris when human remains were transferred from graveyards all over the city to the Catacombs of Paris; the bones of an estimated 6 million people are to be found there. An early example of a landscape-style cemetery is Père Lachaise in Paris; this embodied the idea of state- rather than church-controlled burial, a concept that spread through the continent of Europe with the Napoleonic invasions. This could include the opening of cemeteries by joint stock companies; the shift to municipal cemeteries or those established by private companies was accompanied by the establishing of landscaped burial grounds outside the city.
In Britain the movement was driven by public health concerns. The Rosary Cemetery in Norwich was opened in 1819 as a burial ground for all religious backgrounds. Similar private non-denominational cemeteries were established near industrialising towns with growing populations, such as Manchester and Liverpool; each cemetery required a separate Act of Parliament for authorisation, although the capital was raised through the formation of joint-stock companies. In the first 50 years of the 19th century the population of London more than doubled from 1 million to 2.3 million. The small parish churchyards were becoming dangerously overcrowded, decaying matter infiltrating the water supply was causing epidemics; the issue became acute after the cholera epidemic of 1831, which killed 52,000 people in Britain alone, putting unprecedented pressure on the country's burial capacity. Concerns were raised about the potential public health hazard arising from the inhalation of gases generated from human putrefaction under the prevailing miasma theory of disease.
Legislative action was slow in coming, but in 1832 Parliament acknowledged the need for the establishment of large municipal cemeter