Vassar College is a private, liberal arts college in the town of Poughkeepsie, New York. Founded in 1861 by Matthew Vassar, it was the second degree-granting institution of higher education for women in the United States following Elmira College, it became coeducational in 1969, now has a gender ratio at the national average. The school is one of the historic Seven Sisters, the first elite female colleges in the U. S. and has a historic relationship with Yale University, which suggested a merger with the college before coeducation at both institutions. The college offers B. A. degrees in more than 50 majors and features a flexible curriculum designed to promote a breadth of studies. Student groups at the college include theater and comedy organizations, acappella groups, club sports teams and service groups, a circus troupe. Vassar College's varsity sports teams, known as the Brewers, play in the NCAA's Division III as members of the Liberty League. Vassar tied for the 11th best liberal arts college in the nation in the 2018 annual ranking of U.
S. News & World Report, with admissions described as "most selective". For the freshman class entering fall 2017, the college had an acceptance rate of 22.8%. The total number of students attending the college is around 2,450; the Vassar campus comprises over 1,000 acres and more than 100 buildings, including two National Historic Landmarks and an additional National Historic Place. A designated arboretum, the campus features more than 200 species of trees, a native plant preserve, a 530-acre ecological preserve. Vassar was founded as a women's school under the name Vassar Female College in 1861, its first president was Milo P. Jewett, but after only a year, its founder, Matthew Vassar, had the word Female cut from the name, prompting some residents of the town of Poughkeepsie, New York to quip that its founder believed it might one day admit male students. The college became coeducational in 1969. Vassar was the second of the Seven Sisters colleges, higher education schools that were strictly for women, sister institutions to the Ivy League.
It was chartered by its namesake, brewer Matthew Vassar, in 1861 in the Hudson Valley, about 70 miles north of New York City. The first person appointed to the Vassar faculty was the astronomer Maria Mitchell, in 1865. Vassar adopted coeducation in 1969; however following World War II, Vassar accepted a small number of male students on the G. I. Bill; because Vassar's charter prohibited male matriculants, the graduates were given diplomas via the University of the State of New York. These were reissued under the Vassar title; the formal decision to become co-ed came after its trustees declined an offer to merge with Yale University, its sibling institution, in the wave of mergers between the all-male colleges of the Ivy League and their Seven Sisters counterparts. In its early years, Vassar was associated with the social elite of the Protestant establishment. E. Digby Baltzell writes that "upper-class WASP families educated their children at colleges such as Harvard, Princeton and Vassar." A select and elite few of Vassar's students were allowed entry into the school's secret society Delta Sigma Rho, started in 1922.
Before becoming President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a Trustee. 2,450 students attend Vassar, 98% live on campus. About 60% come from public high schools, 40% come from private schools. Vassar is 56% women and 44% men, at national average for national liberal arts colleges. Students are taught by more than 336 faculty members all holding the doctorate degree or its equivalent; the student-faculty ratio is 8:1, average class size, 17. In recent freshman classes, students of color constituted 32–38% of matriculants. International students from over 60 countries make up 8-10% of the student body. In May 2007, in keeping with its commitment to diverse and equitable education, Vassar returned to a need-blind admissions policy wherein students are admitted by their academic and personal qualities, without regard to financial status. Vassar president Frances D. Fergusson served for two decades, she retired in the spring of 2006, was succeeded by Catharine Bond Hill, former provost at Williams College, who served for 10 years until she departed in 2016.
Hill was replaced by Elizabeth Howe Bradley in 2017. Vassar's campus an arboretum, is 1,000 acres and has more than 100 buildings, ranging in style from Collegiate Gothic to International, with several buildings of architectural interest. At the center of campus stands Main Building, one of the best examples of Second Empire architecture in the United States; when it was opened, Main Building was the largest building in the U. S. in terms of floor space. It housed the entire college, including classrooms, museum and dining halls; the building was designed by Smithsonian architect James Renwick Jr. and was completed in 1865. It was preceded on campus by the original observatory. Both buildings are National Historic Landmarks. Rombout House was purchased by the college in 1915 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Many original brick buildings are scattered throughout the campus, but there are several modern and contemporary structures of architectural interest. Ferry House, a student cooperative, was designed by Marcel Breuer in 1951.
Noyes House was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen. A good example of an attempt to use passive solar design can be seen in the Seeley G. Mudd Ch
Daily Herald (Arlington Heights)
The Daily Herald is a daily newspaper based in Arlington Heights, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. The newspaper is distributed in the northern and western suburbs of Chicago; the paper started in 1871 and is independently owned and run by four generations of the Paddock family. The paper's longtime slogan has been "To fear God, tell the truth, make money." The Daily Herald serves Cook, DuPage, Lake, McHenry counties and has a coverage area of about 1,300 square miles. It is the third-largest newspaper in Illinois; the Daily Herald was founded in 1872 as the "Cook County Herald". It was tailored to the business needs of the then-rural northwestern portion of Cook County. Hosea C. Paddock, a former teacher, bought the newspaper in 1889 for $175, his sons and Charles, took over the paper in 1920 and renamed it the "Arlington Heights Herald" in 1926. For its first century, it was a weekly publication. In 1898, Hosea Paddock bought the Palatine Enterprise, the first of many purchases of newspapers in the northern suburbs by the Paddock family.
The Daily Herald counts 1898 as its founding date. The paper grew along with northwestern Cook County after World War II, as four-lane highways turned it into a suburban area, it became a tri-weekly in 1967. The paper's real growth began in 1968, when Stuart Jr. took over the paper. A year the paper began publishing five days a week; this move came out of necessity. A brutal one-year circulation war ensued; that year, the paper dropped Arlington Heights from its masthead after merging with its sister publications and expanding into Lake County. It began publishing on Saturdays in 1975, it became the Daily Herald in 1977 and began publishing on Sundays in 1978. During the second half of the 1980s, it expanded into Kane and McHenry counties, its growth has continued to this day. Stuart Paddock, Jr. died in 2002. Today, the Daily Herald's motto is. Local Focus" because it covers both international and national news as well as news local to its circulation area. "June 2013 Top Media Outlets: Newspapers, Consumer Magazines, Websites & Social Networks".
BurrellesLuce. June 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-21. "Daily Herald Media Kit". Daily Herald. Retrieved 2007-03-02. "Daily Herald: About Us". Daily Herald. Retrieved 2007-03-02. Daily Herald website
Laura Phillips "Laurie" Anderson is an American avant-garde artist, composer and film director whose work spans performance art, pop music, multimedia projects. Trained in violin and sculpting, Anderson pursued a variety of performance art projects in New York during the 1970s, focusing on language and visual imagery, she became more known outside the art world when her single "O Superman" reached number two on the UK singles chart in 1981. She starred in and directed the 1986 concert film Home of the Brave. Anderson is a pioneer in electronic music and has invented several devices that she has used in her recordings and performance art shows. In 1977, she created a tape-bow violin that uses recorded magnetic tape on the bow instead of horsehair and a magnetic tape head in the bridge. In the late 1990s, she developed a talking stick, a six-foot long baton-like MIDI controller that can access and replicate sounds. Anderson met Lou Reed in 1992, was married to him from 2008 until his death in 2013.
Anderson was born in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, on June 5, 1947, the daughter of Mary Louise and Arthur T. Anderson, she graduated from Glenbard West High School. She attended Mills College in California, graduated in 1969 from Barnard College with a B. A. magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa, studying art history. In 1972, she obtained an M. F. A. in sculpture from Columbia University. Her first performance-art piece—a symphony played on automobile horns—was performed in 1969. In 1970, she drew the underground comix Baloney Moccasins, published by George DiCaprio. In the early 1970s, she worked as an art instructor, as an art critic for magazines such as Artforum, illustrated children's books—the first of, titled The Package, a mystery story in pictures alone, she lives in Tribeca. She performed in New York during the 1970s. One of her most-cited performances, Duets on Ice, which she conducted in New York and other cities around the world, involved her playing the violin along with a recording while wearing ice skates with the blades frozen into a block of ice.
Two early pieces, "New York Social Life" and "Time to Go", are included in the 1977 compilation New Music for Electronic and Recorded Media, along with works by Pauline Oliveros and others. Two other pieces were included on a collection of audio pieces by various artists, she recorded a lecture for Vision, a set of artist's lectures released by Crown Point Press as a set of 6 LPs. Many of Anderson's earliest recordings remain unreleased, or were only issued in limited quantities, such as her first single, "It's Not the Bullet that Kills You"; that song, along with "New York Social Life" and about a dozen others, were recorded for use in an art installation that consisted of a jukebox that played the different Anderson compositions, at the Holly Solomon Gallery in New York City. Among the musicians on these early recordings are Peter Gordon on saxophone, Scott Johnson on guitar, Ken Deifik on harmonica, Joe Kos on drums. Photographs and descriptions of many of these early performances were included in Anderson's retrospective book, Stories from the Nerve Bible.
During the late 1970s, Anderson made a number of additional recordings that were released either or included on compilations of avant-garde music, most notably releases by the Giorno Poetry Systems label run by New York poet John Giorno, an early intimate of Andy Warhol. Among the Giorno-released recordings was You're the Guy I Want to Share My Money With, a double-album shared with Giorno and William Burroughs. In 1978, she performed at The Nova Convention, a major conference involving many counter-culture figures and rising avant-garde musical stars, including William S. Burroughs, Philip Glass, Frank Zappa, Timothy Leary, Malcolm Goldstein, John Cage, Allen Ginsberg, she worked with comedian Andy Kaufman in the late 1970s. In 1980 Anderson was awarded an honorary doctorate from the San Francisco Art Institute. In 1982 she was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship for Creative Arts—Film. Anderson became known outside the art world in 1981 with the single "O Superman" released in a limited quantity by B.
George's One Ten Records, which reached number two in the British charts. The sudden influx of orders from the UK led to Anderson signing a seven-album deal with Warner Bros. Records, which re-released the single."O Superman" was part of a larger stage work titled United States and was included on the album Big Science. Prior to the release of Big Science, Anderson returned to Giorno Poetry Systems to record the album You're the Guy I Want to Share My Money With; this was followed by the back-to-back releases of her albums Mister Heartbreak and United States Live, the latter of, a five-LP recording of her 2-evening stage show at the Brooklyn Academy of Music. She appeared in a television special produced by Nam June Paik broadcast on New Years Day 1984, entitled "Good Morning, Mr. Orwell", she next starred in and directed the 1986 concert film Home of the Brave and composed the soundtracks for the Spalding Gray films Swimming to Cambodia and Monster in a Box. During this time she contributed music to Robert Wilson's "Alcestis" at the A
Illinois High School Association
The Illinois High School Association is a state high school association in the United States that regulates competition in most interscholastic sports and some interscholastic activities at the high school level. It is a charter member of the National Federation of State High School Associations; the IHSA regulates 14 sports for boys, 15 sports for girls, eight co-educational non-athletic activities. More than 760 public and private high schools in the state of Illinois are members of the IHSA; the Association's offices are in Illinois. In its over 100 years of existence, the IHSA has been at the center of many controversies; some of these controversies have had national resonance, or paralleled the struggles seen in other states across the country. Other controversies are more of a local focus; the Illinois High School Association is governed according to the rules of its constitution. This constitution covers the broadest policies of the Association, such as membership, governance and their duties, meeting requirements.
The IHSA is led by an eleven-member Board of Directors. All eleven members are high school principals from member schools. Seven of the ten are elected to three-year terms from seven geographic regions within the state of Illinois. Three other board members are elected at-large. A treasurer, who does not vote, is appointed by the Board; the Board of Directors employs an executive director and staff. They work with the Illinois General Assembly, the Illinois State Board of Education, the Illinois Principals Association, the Illinois Association of School Boards, the Illinois Association of School Administrators, the Illinois Athletic Directors Association and the North Central Association; the IHSA has a 35-member Legislative Commission, consisting of 21 high school principals, seven high school athletic directors elected from each of the seven state regions, seven at-large members. The commission reviews amendment proposals to the IHSA Constitution and By-laws, determines which are passed on to a vote of the member schools.
Each school receives one vote on any amendments, with voting taking place annually in December. Changes are passed by simple majority of member schools; the day-to-day running of the Association is charged to an administrative staff of nine, one of whom acts in the position of Executive Director. This group is directly responsible for setting up and running the individual state playoff series in each sport and activity, they supervise annual meetings with advisory committees from each sport and activity to review possible changes in the rules. They coordinate committees on issues from sportsmanship and sports medicine to media relations and corporate sponsorship. Subordinate to the Constitution and By-Laws are a number of policies; these policies are of greater interest to the public, as they more deal with issues that affect the day-to-day operation of sports and activities. Examples of policies include individual athlete eligibility, rules governing the addition of new sports and activities, the classification of schools, media relations.
The key policy, a cornerstone to the IHSA is its policy on grouping and seeding tournaments: 1. The State Series is designed to determine a State Champion; the State Series is not intended to advance the best teams in the state to the State Final. The IHSA is built upon the concept of geographic representation in its state playoff series; the IHSA was founded on December 1900, at a rump session of the Illinois Principals Association. Known as the Illinois High School Athletic Association for the first 40 years of its existence, the IHSA is the second oldest of the 52 state high school associations. Only the Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association outdates it, by two years. For the greater part of a decade, the IHSA was concerned with establishing school control over interscholastic athletic programs and setting eligibility standards for competition. Ringers were a persistent problem, among schoolboy sports, football was a special concern. In this period, severe injuries and deaths were not uncommon, there was much talk of banning football completely.
In 1908, the IHSA's mission expanded in an unforeseen direction when its board was convinced by Lewis Omer of Oak Park and River Forest High School to sponsor a statewide basketball tournament. Although a handful of other state associations had sponsored track meets, none had attempted to organize a statewide basketball tournament; the first tournament, an 11-team invitational held at the Oak Park YMCA, was a financial success. Subsequent state tournaments, which were open to all member schools, provided the IHSA with fiscal independence, an important new vehicle to spread its message, ever-increasing name recognition among the public. By 1922, the affairs of the Association became so time-consuming that its board hired a full-time manager, C. W. Whitten; as vice president of the Board, Whitten had reorganized the basketball tournament and reduced the size of the state finals from 21 teams to four. About the same time, the IHSA became a charter member of the National Federation of State High School Associations.
In addition to his IHSA responsibilities, Whitten ran the business affairs of the NFHS, at first unofficially, after 1927 with the official title of general manager. From this dual stage and his assistant manager at the IHSA, H. V. Porter, exe
Arlington International Racecourse is a horse race track in the Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights, Illinois. Horse racing in the Chicago region has been a popular sport since the early days of the city in the 1830s, at one time Chicago had more horse racing tracks than any other major metropolitan area. Arlington International was the site of the first thoroughbred race with a million-dollar purse in 1981, it is located near the Illinois Route 53 expressway. The premier event at Arlington Park is the International Festival of Racing, held in early August, which features three Grade 1 races on turf: the Arlington Million Stakes, Beverly D. Stakes and Secretariat Stakes. Arlington International Racecourse was founded as Arlington Park by California businessman Harry D. "Curly" Brown who would serve as president of Oriental Park Racetrack in Havana, Cuba. The track opened in 1927 to 20,000 spectators. Jockey Joe Bollero, who became a successful trainer, rode Luxembourg to victory in the first race run at Arlington.
Benjamin F. Lindheimer acquired control of Arlington Park in 1940 and owned it until his death in 1960. Long involved with the business, adopted daughter Marjorie Lindheimer Everett took over management of the racetrack. Respected Hall of Fame trainer Jimmy Jones of Calumet Farms was quoted by Sports Illustrated as saying that Lindheimer "was the savior of Chicago racing" and that "Arlington Park became the finest track in the world—certainly the finest I've been on." Benjamin Lindheimer is well remembered as the person who promoted the 1955 match race broadcast by CBS Television in which Preakness and Belmont Stakes winner Nashua defeated Kentucky Derby winner, Swaps. Arlington was the first track to install a public-address system and employed the pioneering race caller Clem McCarthy to describe the action, it added the first electric totalisator which allowed a credible tote board and decreased time between races, in 1933. In 1936 it added a photo finish camera, it introduced the first electric starting gate in 1940 and the largest closed circuit TV system in all of sports in 1967.
In June 1973, Arlington organized a race for 3-year-olds, the Arlington Invitational, to lure Secretariat to the mid-west. Secretariat won and Arlington created the Secretariat Stakes for 3-year-olds but on the turf, in his honor. In 1981 Arlington was the home of the world's first million dollar thoroughbred race: The Arlington Million; the result of that race is immortalized in bronze at the top of the paddock at Arlington, where a statue of jockey Bill Shoemaker riding John Henry to a thrilling come-from-behind victory over 40-1 long shot The Bart celebrates Thoroughbred racing's inaugural million dollar race. Arlington entered a new era when Richard L. Duchossois led an Illinois investment group to purchase the track from its former owners and made a pledge to continue presenting championship racing; that was tested on July 31, 1985, when a small fire spread out of control and destroyed the grandstand and clubhouse. Unsure of the future of Arlington, the meet, yet it was announced. On August 25, 1985 they did just that by using temporary bleachers.
The track reopened in 1989. It used the name "Arlington International Racecourse" before reverting to the old name, "Arlington Park". Arlington Park reverted to using Arlington International Racecourse starting in 2013. In 2000, Arlington reopened after a two-year shutdown. In September of that year, Churchill Downs Incorporated completed its purchase of the track. Arlington hosted the 2002 Breeders' Cup World Thoroughbred Championships at their track. On May 14, 2010, Lee DeWyze, a citizen of Mount Prospect, Illinois and a contestant on American Idol, performed a concert at Arlington Park for 41,000 fans. A year on May 14, 2011, Haley Reinhart, of Wheeling, Illinois made the top 3 on American Idol. She, like DeWyze, had a hometown concert at the track for nearly 30,000 of her own fans and supporters; the track has a one-mile turf oval. The track is capable of seating at least 50,000 with extension. There is stabling on the backstretch for over 2,000 horses. Arlington replaced its dirt course with a synthetic track prior to the opening of the 2007 season.
Caton Bredar Lynne Snierson Christine Gabriel John G. Dooley Molly Ryan Liane Davis Zoe Cadman Lauren Massarella Joe Kristufek Jessica Pacheco Alyssa Ali Gabby Gaudet Arlington's live racing season runs from the first Friday in May to the second to last Saturday in September. Since 2001, races at Arlington have been commentated by Karl Ravech; the following graded stakes are run at Arlington Park: Grade I Arlington Million Beverly D. Stakes Secretariat StakesGrade II American DerbyGrade III Arlington Classic Stakes Arlington Handicap Arlington Oaks Arlington-Washington Futurity Stakes Arlington-Washington Lassie Stakes Chicago Handicap Hanshin Cup Handicap Modesty Handicap Pucker Up Stakes Sea o'Erin Stakes Stars and Stripes Turf Handicap Washington Park HandicapListed Arlington Sprint Handicap Isaac Mu
Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light. It is an achromatic color a color without hue, like white and gray, it is used symbolically or figuratively to represent darkness, while white represents light. Black and white have been used to describe opposites. Since the Middle Ages, black has been the symbolic color of solemnity and authority, for this reason is still worn by judges and magistrates. Black was one of the first colors used by artists in neolithic cave paintings. In the 14th century, it was worn by royalty, clergy and government officials in much of Europe, it became the color worn by English romantic poets and statesmen in the 19th century, a high fashion color in the 20th century. In the Roman Empire, it became the color of mourning, over the centuries it was associated with death, evil and magic. According to surveys in Europe and North America, it is the color most associated with mourning, the end, magic, violence and elegance.
Black ink is the most common color used for printing books and documents, as it provides the highest contrast with white paper and thus the easiest color to read. Black text on a white screen is the most common format used on computer screens; the word black comes from Old English blæc, from Proto-Germanic *blakkaz, from Proto-Indo-European *bhleg-, from base *bhel-, related to Old Saxon blak, Old High German blach, Old Norse blakkr, Dutch blaken, Swedish bläck. More distant cognates include Latin flagrare, Ancient Greek phlegein; the Ancient Greeks sometimes used the same word to name different colors, if they had the same intensity. Kuanos' could mean both dark black; the Ancient Romans had two words for black: ater was a flat, dull black, while niger was a brilliant, saturated black. Ater has vanished from the vocabulary, but niger was the source of the country name Nigeria the English word Negro and the word for "black" in most modern Romance languages. Old High German had two words for black: swartz for dull black and blach for a luminous black.
These are parallelled in Middle English by the terms swart for dull black and blaek for luminous black. Swart still survives as the word swarthy. In heraldry, the word used for the black color is sable, named for the black fur of the sable, an animal. Black was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. They began by using charcoal, made more vivid black pigments by burning bones or grinding a powder of manganese oxide. For the ancient Egyptians, black had positive associations, it was the color of Anubis, the god of the underworld, who took the form of a black jackal, offered protection against evil to the dead. For the ancient Greeks, black was the color of the underworld, separated from the world of the living by the river Acheron, whose water was black; those who had committed the worst sins were sent to the deepest and darkest level. In the center was the palace of Hades, the king of the underworld, where he was seated upon a black ebony throne.
Black was one of the most important colors used by ancient Greek artists. In the 6th century BC, they began making black-figure pottery and red figure pottery, using a original technique. In black-figure pottery, the artist would paint figures with a glossy clay slip on a red clay pot; when the pot was fired, the figures painted with the slip would turn black, against a red background. They reversed the process, painting the spaces between the figures with slip; this created magnificent red figures against a glossy black background. In the social hierarchy of ancient Rome, purple was the color reserved for the Emperor; the black they wore was not rich. In Latin, the word for black, ater and to darken, were associated with cruelty and evil, they were the root of the English words "atrocious" and "atrocity". Black was the Roman color of death and mourning. In the 2nd century BC Roman magistrates began to wear a dark toga, called a toga pulla, to funeral ceremonies. Under the Empire, the family of the deceased wore dark colors for a long period.
In Roman poetry, death was called the black hour. The German and Scandinavian peoples worshipped their own goddess of the night, Nótt, who crossed the sky in a chariot drawn by a black horse, they feared Hel, the goddess of the kingdom of the dead, whose skin was black on one side and red on the other. They held sacred the raven, they believed that Odin, the king of the Nordic pantheon, had two black ravens and Muninn, who served as his agents, traveling the world for him and listening. In the early Middle Ages, black was associated with darkness and evil. In Medieval paintings, the devil was depicted as havin
Forensic linguistics, legal linguistics, or language and the law, is the application of linguistic knowledge and insights to the forensic context of law, crime investigation and judicial procedure. It is a branch of applied linguistics. There are principally three areas of application for linguists working in forensic contexts: understanding language of the written law, understanding language use in forensic and judicial processes, the provision of linguistic evidence; the discipline of forensic linguistics is not homogenous. The phrase forensic linguistics first appeared in 1968 when Jan Svartvik, a professor of linguistics, used it in an analysis of statements by Timothy John Evans, it was in regard to re-analyzing the statements given to police at Notting Hill police station, England, in 1949 in the case of an alleged murder by Evans. Evans was tried and hanged for the crime. Yet, when Svartvik studied the statements given by Evans, he found that there were different stylistic markers involved, Evans did not give the statements to the police officers as had been stated at the trial.
Sparked by this case, early forensic linguistics in the UK were focused on questioning the validity of police interrogations. As seen in numerous famous cases, many of the major concerns were of the statements police officers used. Numerous times, the topic of police register came up – this meaning the type of stylist language and vocabulary used by officers of the law when transcribing witness statements. Moving to the US and the beginnings of the field of forensic linguistics, the field began with the 1963 case of Ernesto Miranda, his case led to the creation of Miranda Rights and pushed focus of forensic linguistics on witness questioning rather than police statements. Various cases came about that challenged whether or not suspects understood what their rights meant – leading to a distinction of coercive versus voluntary interrogations. During the early days of forensic linguistics in the United Kingdom, the legal defense for many criminal cases questioned the authenticity of police statements.
At the time, customary police procedure for taking suspects' statements dictated that it be in a specific format, rather than in the suspect's own words. Statements by witnesses are seldom made in a coherent or orderly fashion, with speculation and backtracking done out loud; the delivery is too fast-paced, causing important details to be left out. Forensic linguistics can be traced back as early as a 1927 to a ransom note in New York; as the Associated Press reported in "Think Corning Girl Wrote Ransom Note" "Duncan McLure, of Johnson City uncle of the girl, is the only member of the family to spell his name'McLure' instead of'McClure.' The letter he received from the kidnappers, was addressed to him by the proper name, indicating that the writer was familiar with the difference in spelling." Other work of forensic linguistics in the United States concerned the rights of individuals with regard to understanding their Miranda rights during the interrogation process. An early application of forensic linguistics in the United States was related to the status of trademarks as words or phrases in the language.
One of the bigger cases involved fast food giant McDonald's claiming that it had originated the process of attaching unprotected words to the'Mc' prefix and was unhappy with Quality Inns International's intention of opening a chain of economy hotels to be called'McSleep'. In the 1980s, Australian linguists discussed the application of linguistics and sociolinguistics to legal issues, they discovered. Aboriginal people have their own understanding and use of'English', something, not always appreciated by speakers of the dominant version of English, i.e.'white English'. The Aboriginal people bring their own culturally-based interactional styles to the interview; the 2000s saw a considerable shift in the field of forensic linguistics, described as a coming-of-age of the discipline. Not only does the field have professional associations such as the International Association of Forensic Linguistics founded in 1993, the Austrian Association for Legal Linguistics founded in 2017, it can now provide the scientific community with a range of textbooks such as Coulthard and Johnson and Olsson.
The range of topics within forensic linguistics is diverse, but research occurs in the following areas: The study of the language of legal texts encompasses a wide range of forensic texts. That includes the study of text forms of analysis. Any text or item of spoken language can be a forensic text when it is used in a legal or criminal context; this includes analysing the linguistics of documents as diverse as Acts of Parliament, private wills, court judgements and summonses and the statutes of other bodies, such as States and government departments. One important area is that of the transformative effect of Norman French and Ecclesiastic Latin on the development of the English common law, the evolution of the legal specifics associated with it, it can refer to the ongoing attempts at making legal language more comprehensible to laypeople. A forensic linguistics understanding of the relationship between language and law has been voiced by Leisser who states that "It is indeed hard to deny that the rule of law is in fact the rule of language.
It seems that there cannot be law witho