Une semaine de bonté
Une semaine de bonté is a comic and artist's book by Max Ernst, first published in 1934. It comprises 182 images created by cutting up and re-organizing illustrations from Victorian encyclopedias and novels; the earliest comic by Ernst, Répétitions and Les malheurs des immortels, date from 1922, the year the artist moved to Paris. They were created in collaboration with poet Paul Eluard. Ernst went on to produce numerous comic-based paintings, more comic books; the largest and most important before Une semaine de bonté were La femme 100 têtes and Rêve d'une petite fille qui voulut entrer au carmel. Une semaine de bonté was completed in 1933 during a visit to Italy. A few of Ernst's sources were identified: these include illustrations from an 1883 novel by Jules Mary, Les damnées de Paris, a volume of works by Gustave Doré Ernst purchased in Milan; the completed novel was first published in Paris in 1934 as a series of five pamphlets in a limited edition of 816 copies each. It became more available when reprinted in 1976 as a combined single volume of 208 pages plus English preface, by Dover Publications in the US.
Until 2008, the original collages of Une semaine de bonté, which Max Ernst kept throughout his life, had only been exhibited once in their entirety: in March 1936 at the Museo Nacional de Arte Moderno in Madrid. Modern exhibitions: 2008 Brühl, Max Ernst Museum 2008 Hamburg, Kunsthalle 2009 Madrid, Fundación cultural MAPFRE 2009 Paris, Musée d'Orsay The work appeared in five volumes, but is divided into seven sections named after the days of the week, beginning with Sunday. "Ernst had intended to publish it in seven volumes associating each book with a day of the week... The first four publication deliveries did not, achieve the success, anticipated; the three remaining'days' were therefore put together into a fifth and final book." The first four published volumes covered a day each, whereas the last volume covered three: Thursday and Saturday. Each of the seven sections is associated with an element, is provided with an example of the element, an epigraph; the overall structure of the novel is as follows: Furthermore, Thursday is subdivided into two subsections, based on two examples provided for "blackness", Friday is subdivided into "trois poèmes visibles".
Une semaine de bonté comprises 182 images created by cutting up and re-organizing illustrations from Victorian novels and other books. Ernst arranged the images to present a surreal world. Most of the seven sections have a distinct theme. In Sunday the element is mud, Ernst's example for this element is the Lion of Belfort; the element of the next section, Monday, is water, all of the images show water, either in a natural setting, or flowing inside bedrooms, dining rooms, etc. Some of the characters are able to walk on water; the element associated with Tuesday is fire, so most of the images in this section feature dragons or fantastic lizards. The last of the large sections, contains numerous images of bird-men; the element of Thursday, "blackness", has two examples instead of one. The first example, "a rooster's laughter", is illustrated with more images of bird-men; the second example, Easter island, is illustrated with images portraying characters with Moai heads. Friday, the most abstract part of the entire book, contains various images that resist categorization.
They include collages of human bones and plants, one of, used for the cardboard slipcase, meant to house all five volumes of Une semaine de bonté. The final section of the book, contains 10 images; the element given is "the key to songs". The section, with it the book, ends with several images of falling women. No full interpretation of Une semaine de bonté has been published; the book, like its predecessors, has been described as projecting "recurrent themes of sexuality, anti-clericalism and violence, by dislocating the visual significance of the source material to suggest what has been repressed." An analysis of Sunday was published by psychologist Dieter Wyss, who subjected the work to post-Freudian psychoanalysis in his book Der Surrealismus
The Hat Makes the Man
The Hat Makes the Man is a collage by the German dadaist/surrealist Max Ernst. It is composed of cut out images of hats from catalogues linked by gouache and pencil outlines to create abstract anthropomorphic figures. There are inscriptions in ink that read "seed-covered stacked-up man seedless waterformer well fitting nervous system tightly fitting nerves!." The idea for this work began. Ernst was an important figure in the Dada movement, which criticized the tastes of mainstream culture and depicted modern man as a conformist automaton.. The Museum of Modern Art
Pietà or Revolution by Night
Pietà or Revolution by Night is a painting by German surrealist and Dadaist Max Ernst. Since 1981 it has been part of the collection of the Tate Gallery in London; the painting is interpreted as symbolic of the turbulent relationship between the artist and his father, as an amateur painter and staunch Catholic. In the painting, Ernst replaces the classic image of the Virgin Mary holding the crucified body of Jesus with his father as Mary and the artist himself as Jesus; the expressions on both faces are blank as though in a state of sleepwalking. In the background drawn on a wall is a man with a bandaged head ascending a flight of stairs. A profile on the work in the British newspaper The Guardian indicates the figure could represent either Sigmund Freud or the French poet Guillaume Apollinaire, who suffered a head wound during World War I. Pietà or Revolution by Night is an example of the early period of the surrealist movement, its title reflects the revolutionary sentiments of the movement, in particular of its founder, André Breton.
This image is notable for its combination of textured surfaces and sharp, hand-drawn outlines. The Guardian The Tate Gallery
In art, frottage is a surrealist and "automatic" method of creative production developed by Max Ernst. In frottage, the artist places a piece of paper over an uneven surface marks the paper with a drawing tool: thus creating a rubbing; the drawing can be used as the basis for further refinement. While superficially similar to brass rubbing and other forms of rubbing intended to reproduce an existing subject, in fact sometimes being used as an alternative term for it, frottage differs in being aleatoric and random in nature, it was developed by Ernst in 1925. Ernst was inspired by an ancient wooden floor where the grain of the planks had been accentuated by many years of scrubbing; the patterns of the graining suggested strange images to him. He captured these by laying sheets of paper on the floor and rubbing over them with a soft pencil. Surrealist techniques Rubbing West, Shearer; the Bullfinch Guide to Art. UK: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. ISBN 0-8212-2137-X
Murdering Airplane is a collage by the German dadaist Max Ernst. It depicts a monstrous aircraft with human arms flying over an open field. In the lower right-hand corner two soldiers are carrying a third wounded soldier; the Dada movement was created as a critical response to World War I. This had a special significance to Ernst; this work was a statement on the advent of aerial warfare that occurred in that war
Dorothea Margaret Tanning was an American painter, sculptor and poet. Her early work was influenced by Surrealism. Dorothea Tanning was raised in Galesburg, Illinois. In 1926 Tanning attended Galesburg public schools; when she was attending high school Tanning "skipped" two grades, which led to a lifelong weakness in arithmetic. After attending Knox College for two years, she moved to Chicago in 1930 and to New York in 1935. There she supported herself as a commercial artist while pursuing her own painting, discovered Surrealism at the Museum of Modern Art’s seminal 1936 exhibition, Fantastic Art and Surrealism. After an eight-year relationship, she was married to the writer Homer Shannon in 1941. Impressed by her creativity and talent in illustrating fashion advertisements, the art director at Macy’s department store introduced her to the gallery owner Julien Levy, who offered to show her work. Levy gave Tanning two solo exhibitions, introduced her to the circle of émigré Surrealists whose work he was showing in his New York gallery, including the German painter Max Ernst.
Surrealist artist, Julien Levy's wife, Muriel Streeter had a friendship with Dorothea Tanning and they exchanged letters in the 1940's. Tanning first met Ernst at a party in 1942, he dropped by her studio to consider her work for an exhibition of work by women artists at The Art of This Century gallery, owned by Peggy Guggenheim, Ernst's wife at the time. As Tanning recounts in her memoirs, he was enchanted by her iconic self-portrait Birthday; the two played chess, fell in love, embarked on a life together that took them to Sedona in Arizona, to France. They lived in New York for several years before moving to Sedona, where they built a house and hosted visits from many friends crossing the country, including Henri Cartier-Bresson, Lee Miller, Roland Penrose, Yves Tanguy, Kay Sage, Pavel Tchelitchew, George Balanchine, Dylan Thomas. Tanning and Ernst were married in 1946 in a double wedding with Man Ray and Juliet Browner in Hollywood and they were married for 30 years. In 1949, Tanning and Ernst relocated to France, where they divided their time between Paris and Touraine, returning to Sedona for intervals through the early and mid 1950s.
They lived in Paris and Provence until Ernst's death in 1976, after which Tanning returned to New York. She continued to create studio art in the 1980s turned her attention to her writing and poetry in the 1990s and 2000s, working and publishing until the end of her life. Tanning died on January 31, 2012, at her Manhattan home at age 101. Apart from three weeks she spent at the Chicago Academy of Fine Art in 1930, Tanning was a self-taught artist; the surreal imagery of her paintings from the 1940s and her close friendships with artists and writers of the Surrealist Movement have led many to regard Tanning as a Surrealist painter, yet she developed her own individual style over the course of an artistic career that spanned six decades. Tanning’s early works – paintings such as Birthday and Eine kleine Nachtmusik – were precise figurative renderings of dream-like situations. Like other Surrealist painters, she was meticulous in her attention to details and in building up surfaces with muted brushstrokes.
In 1943, Tanning and her friend Muriel Streeter was included in Peggy Guggenheim's show Exhibition by 31 Women at the Art of This Century gallery in New York. Through the late 1940s, she continued to paint depictions of unreal scenes, some of which combined erotic subjects with enigmatic symbols and desolate space. During this period she formed enduring friendships with, among others, Marcel Duchamp, Joseph Cornell, John Cage. During Tanning's time in New York Muriel Streeter caught her attention and she commented that at the time she was "The most beautiful girl in New York... breathtaking, with pale camellia skin, wonderful about oriental eyes." Over the next decade, Tanning's painting evolved, becoming more suggestive. Now working in Paris and Huismes, she began to move away from Surrealism and develop her own style. During the mid-1950s, her work radically changed and her images became fragmented and prismatic, exemplified in works such as Insomnias; as she explains, "Around 1955 my canvases splintered...
I broke the mirror, you might say.” By the late 1960s, Tanning’s paintings were completely abstract, yet always suggestive of the female form. From 1969 to 1973, Tanning concentrated on a body of three-dimensional work, fabric sculptures, five of which comprise the installation Hôtel du Pavot, Chambre 202, now in the permanent collection of the Musée National d'Art Moderne at the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. During her time in France in the 1950s-70s, Tanning became an active printmaker, working in ateliers of Georges Visat and Pierre Chave and collaborating on a number of limited edition artists’ books with such poets as Alain Bosquet, Rene Crevel, Lena Leclerq, André Pieyre de Mandiargues. After her husband's death in 1976, Tanning remained in France for several years with a renewed concentration on her painting; these years included, for an intense five - year adventure in soft sculpture. By 1980 she had relocated her home and studio to New York and embarked on an energetic creative period in which she produced painting
Tate is an institution that houses, in a network of four art museums, the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, international modern and contemporary art. It is not a government institution, but its main sponsor is the UK Department for Digital, Culture and Sport; the name "Tate" is used as the operating name for the corporate body, established by the Museums and Galleries Act 1992 as "The Board of Trustees of the Tate Gallery". The gallery was founded as the National Gallery of British Art; when its role was changed to include the national collection of modern art as well as the national collection of British art, in 1932, it was renamed the Tate Gallery after sugar magnate Henry Tate of Tate & Lyle, who had laid the foundations for the collection. The Tate Gallery was housed in the current building occupied by Tate Britain, situated in Millbank, London. In 2000, the Tate Gallery transformed itself into the current-day Tate, which consists of a network of four museums: Tate Britain, which displays the collection of British art from 1500 to the present day.
All four museums share the Tate Collection. One of the Tate's most publicised art events is the awarding of the annual Turner Prize, which takes place at Tate Britain; the original Tate was called the National Gallery of British Art, situated on Millbank, London at the site of the former Millbank Prison. The idea of a National Gallery of British Art was first proposed in the 1820s by Sir John Leicester, Baron de Tabley, it took a step nearer when Robert Vernon gave his collection to the National Gallery in 1847. A decade John Sheepshanks gave his collection to the South Kensington Museum, known for years as the National Gallery of Art. Forty years Sir Henry Tate, a sugar magnate and a major collector of Victorian art, offered to fund the building of the gallery to house British Art on the condition that the State pay for the site and revenue costs. Henry Tate donated his own collection to the gallery, it was a collection of modern British art, concentrating on the works of modern—that is Victorian era—painters.
It was controlled by the National Gallery until 1954. In 1915, Sir Hugh Lane bequeathed his collection of European modern art to Dublin, but controversially this went to the Tate, which expanded its collection to include foreign art and continued to acquire contemporary art. In 1926 and 1937, the art dealer and patron Joseph Duveen paid for two major expansions of the gallery building, his father had earlier paid for an extension to house the major part of the Turner Bequest, which in 1987 was transferred to a wing paid for by Sir Charles Clore. Henry Courtauld endowed Tate with a purchase fund. By the mid 20th century, it was fulfilling a dual function of showing the history of British art as well as international modern art. In 1954, the Tate Gallery was separated from the National Gallery. During the 1950s and 1960s, the visual arts department of the Arts Council of Great Britain funded and organised temporary exhibitions at the Tate Gallery including, in 1966, a retrospective of Marcel Duchamp.
The Tate began organising its own temporary exhibition programme. In 1979 with funding from a Japanese bank a large modern extension was opened that would house larger income generating exhibitions. In 1987, the Clore Wing opened to house the major part of the Turner bequest and provided a 200-seat auditorium. In 1988, an outpost in north west England opened as Tate Liverpool; this shows various works of modern art from the Tate collection as well as mounting its own temporary exhibitions. In 2007, Tate Liverpool hosted the first time this has been held outside London; this was an overture to Liverpool's being the European Capital of Culture 2008. In 1993, another offshoot opened, Tate St Ives, it exhibits work by modern British artists those of the St Ives School. Additionally the Tate manages the Barbara Hepworth Museum and Sculpture Garden, which opened in 1980. Neither of these two new Tates had a significant effect on the functioning of the original London Tate Gallery, whose size was proving a constraint as the collection grew.
It was a logical step to separate the "British" and "Modern" aspects of the collection, they are now housed in separate buildings in London. The original gallery is now called Tate Britain and is the national gallery for British art from 1500 to the present day, as well as some modern British art. Tate Modern, in Bankside Power Station on the south side of the Thames, opened in 2000 and now exhibits the national collection of modern art from 1900 to the present day, including some modern British art. In its first year, the Tate Modern was the most popular museum in the world, with 5,250,000 visitors. In the late 2000s, the Tate announced a new development project to the south of the existing building. According to the museum this new development would "transform Tate Modern. An iconic new building will be added at the south of the existing gallery, it will create more spaces for displaying the collection and installation art and learning, all allowing visitors to engage more with art, as well as creating more social spaces for visitors to unwind and