Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Division of Adelaide
The Division of Adelaide is an Australian electoral division in South Australia and is named for the city of Adelaide, South Australia's capital. At the 2016 federal election, the electorate covered 76 km², is centred on the Adelaide city centre and spanning from Grand Junction Road in the north to Cross Road in the south and from Portrush Road in the east to South Road in the west, taking in suburbs including Ashford, Clarence Park, Goodwood, Kent Town, Kilburn, Northgate, Parkside, Rose Park, St Peters, Toorak Gardens and Walkerville; the division of Adelaide was one of seven single-member seats established when the seven-member statewide Division of South Australia was abolished following the inaugural 1901 election. For the first 40 years after Federation, it was one of the few Federation seats in the state that changed hands between the Australian Labor Party and the conservative parties. Despite the bellwether-like swinging tendency, unusually the only time Adelaide was obtained by an incoming government was in 1931.
However, Labor held it for all but six years from 1943 to 1993, including a 23-year Labor hold during the Robert Menzies era. For most of the time from 1943 to 1987, it was a safe Labor seat. Labor's hold on the seat loosened in the late 1980s due to pro-Liberal demographic change. Similar to the modern-day state-level electoral district of Adelaide the federal-level Division of Adelaide covered only the Adelaide city centre and a few nearby inner north suburbs up to Regency Road in Prospect for most of its first century. A pre-1993 boundary redistribution pushed the seat to the south, adding Liberal-friendly suburbs to the south of the Adelaide city centre for the first time while removing Labor suburbs in the north-east, resulting in Liberal Trish Worth holding the seat for eleven years, albeit on slender margins. Kate Ellis regained Adelaide for Labor in 2004 on a 1.3 percent margin from a two percent two-party swing. Ellis has held the seat since, with the margin increasing to 8.5 percent in 2007, before falling to 7.7 percent in 2010 and to 4.0 percent in 2013, before increasing to 4.7 percent in 2016.
In 2016, the major party vote was suppressed in all eleven state seats in the presence of Nick Xenophon Team candidates in all eleven South Australian seats. Though Labor picked up a two-party swing in all eleven, the NXT presence produced a result where Kingston ended up as the only South Australian seat to record an increase, however small, to the primary vote of a particular major party. Additionally, Adelaide was the only seat of the state's eleven where the Greens vote increased, while producing both the highest Green vote and the lowest NXT vote in the state; this is in contrast to 2007 where the Xenophon Senate ticket polled higher in Adelaide than in most other seats. Labor incumbent Kate Ellis announced in March 2017 that she would step down from the Labor shadow cabinet in the following months and would not re-contest her seat at the end of the parliamentary term; the 2018 South Australian federal redistribution saw the seat of Adelaide lose all of its inner-eastern suburbs and a couple of its southern suburbs, while gaining a long strip of western suburbs spanning the entire north-south length of the seat.
These changes saw the Labor margin increase from 4.7 percent to a notional 9.0 percent. In July 2018, neighbouring Labor incumbent Steve Georganas was preselected to contest the seat of Adelaide at the 2019 election. ABC profile for Adelaide: 2016 Poll Bludger profile for Adelaide: 2016 AEC profile for Adelaide: 2016 SA boundary map, 2001: AEC SA boundary map, 1984: Atlas SA
National Basketball League (Australia)
The National Basketball League is the pre-eminent professional men's basketball league in Australia and New Zealand. The league was founded in 1979 and is contested by nine teams. In August 1979, the inaugural season of the NBL commenced, playing in the winter season which it did so until the completion of the 1998 season, the league's twentieth season; the 1998–99 season, which began only months was the first to be played during the summer season. The shift, used by the league, was an attempt to avoid competing directly against Australia's various winter season football codes; the NBL experienced its "golden age" in the late 1980s and early 1990s, but its popularity, media attention and corporate support deteriorated and plateaued in the decade afterward. A second Melbourne club, the South Dragons, entered the league in the 2006–07 season, but was short lived, soon folding 3 years after the 2008–09 season in which they were premiers. In the 2006–07 season, the NBL became the first Australasian sporting league to field a team from Asia with the Singapore Slingers playing.
The Gold Coast Blaze joined the competition in the 2007–08 season. In 2007, Australian NBA player Andrew Bogut suggested the NBL try to adopt a model similar to the Australian Football League whereby there are the same 10 or 15 teams over a 10-year period. A turbulent period during 2008 and 2009 saw the league lose teams from Sydney, Melbourne and Singapore; the 2009–10 season earmarked as the season in which the NBL would begin its revamping, much like the old National Soccer League which became the eight team A-League. The NBL returned to free-to-air television in Australia for the first time in three years with One broadcasting 2–3 games a week; the 2010–11 season saw the return of the Sydney Kings after the club was purchased for A$20,000 on 31 July 2008. In 2013, the NBL had a de-merger from Basketball Australia. Crowds improved for the 2013–14 NBL season, recording the highest cumulative crowd attendance figures for the past five years. After numerous teams folding and a plummeting public profile property developer Larry Kestelman purchased a 51% portion of the league.
Since game attendance, TV viewership, website visitors and app downloads have been on the increase. In April 2016 the Townsville Crocodiles folded as they had become too financially unsustainable to continue; however the Cairns Taipans may play some games out of the Townsville Entertainment Centre in the future. Larry Kestelman has stated on the Aussie Hoopla podcast that no NBL club will fold again as long as he is in control of the league. Allowing for clubs to recruit the best Australian players not in the NBA became easier with the marquee rule which saw the return from Europe and the US of players such as Brad Newley, David Andersen and Andrew Bogut. In addition the Asian/Oceania born player rule, introduced for the 2016–17 season, allows for clubs to recruit players born in countries such as India and Japan who would not count as imports under NBL rules; the growth of Basketball in Asia over recent years and the overall strength and standard of Australian Basketball should ensure the sustainability of the league for many years provided Asian players continue to strive to compete in the NBL and Asian basketball fans are able to follow the league.
Current trends should see the NBL as the third highest attended basketball league in the world, after the NBA and EuroLeague. From 2016 to 2018, saw a renewed interest in the sport, with it being described as being the national basketball league's greatest period. 2016/17 set a new attendance record for the league, with the figure being matched the following year, as well as the grand final series for the 2017/18 season, being the highest attended. Since the 2009–10 NBL season, each team has played 28 games during the regular season, 14 home and 14 away; the regular season ends in late March. The top four teams at the end of the regular season advances to the Finals; the team finishing in the first and second position at the completion of the regular season receives home advantages in their best-of-three first round matchup against the team finishing in fourth and third position. The winner of each of the three matches advances to the Grand Final; the winner of Series 1 plays the winner of Series 2 in the best-of-five Grand Final series, with home advantage being awarded to the highest remaining seed.
The winner of this series is crowned as NBL champion. The National Basketball League was founded in 1979 with nine teams. Due to club expansions and relocations, many of the teams either changed or ceased to exist. There are eight teams; the teams are located in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Wollongong. The Illawarra Hawks are the oldest club in the competition, having participated in every season since 1979; the salary cap for each team is $AU1.1 million as a'soft cap' with marquee players able to be paid amounts that will exceed that amount for the team. Whilst NBL salaries are not disclosed by clubs, it is understood some players will earn in excess of $AU500,000.00 per season including endorsement deals. There has been significant support for the NBL to expand into Asia by many NBL players as well as from ex-Australian Boomers head coach Brian Goorjian, be it differently to how it was done with the now-defunct Singapore Slingers which had 14-hour round-trip flights to the Australian East Coast.
Locating a team in the city of Darwin would make an Asian-based road-trip less drawn-out, although Darwin does not have the support for a national domestic
Black Forest, South Australia
Black Forest is an inner southern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Unley, bounded by the Glenelg Tramline, the Seaford railway line, South Road and East Avenue. "A dense area of bush known as the Black Forest once covered the Unley region of the Adelaide Plains. The woodland forest was a mix of grey-box, blue gum, red gum, native pines and sheoak trees, with grass trees, native grasses and orchids; these plants had deep roots that held the soil together and the plant debris that fell on the earth decomposed releasing nutrients into the soil."In the early years of colonial settlement, the Black Forest was "frequented by bush rangers and cattle thieves". There have been three Post Offices named Black Forest: the first opened on 1 September 1899 and was renamed Glandore in 1915, the second opened on 10 November 1947 and was renamed Clarence Park West in 1966, the third, located on South Road between Byron and Cowper Roads, opened on 8 January 1996; the 2006 Census by the Australian Bureau of Statistics counted 1,846 persons in Black Forest on census night.
Of these, 47.2% were male and 52.8% were female. The majority of residents are of Australian birth, with other common census responses being England and Greece. Black Forest Primary School opened in 1919, it is located off School Avenue, between Forest Avenue and Addison Road. The east end of the school grounds are adjacent to the "Forest Avenue Reserve"; the Forest Avenue Reserve is located on Forest Avenue near the centre of the suburb. There is the Princess Margaret Playground, at the east end of Byron Road; the Uniting Church History Centre is based in the former Church of Christ building on East Avenue. The Clarence Park Community Centre is located in the Institute Building and surrounding buildings on the corner of East Avenue and Canterbury Terrace; the centre includes a childcare facility and a men's shed. Black Forest is serviced by South Road, to a lesser degree by East Avenue. Black Forest is serviced by three tram stops, two train stations and buses on East Avenue and South Road. All services are run by the Adelaide Metro.
List of Adelaide suburbs "City of Unley". Official website. City of Unley. Retrieved 14 April 2011
Ashford, South Australia
Ashford is an inner southwestern suburb of Adelaide, in the City of West Torrens. It is triangular in shape and bordered by Anzac Highway and Everard Avenue. Two of the main features of the suburb are Ashford Special School. Brownhill Creek flows through Ashford in a cement channel behind the school; the name commemorates the property and residence of Dr. Charles George Everard, who settled in the area in 1838, named it for Ashford in Kent
Division of Boothby
The Division of Boothby is an Australian electoral division in South Australia. The division was one of the seven established when the former Division of South Australia was redistributed on 2 October 1903 and is named after William Boothby, the Returning Officer for the first federal election. At the 2016 federal election, the seat covered 130 km², extending from Clarence Gardens and Urrbrae in the north to Marino and part of Happy Valley in the south, including the suburbs of Aberfoyle Park, Blackwood, Daw Park, Eden Hills, Flagstaff Hill, Mitcham, Seacliff, St Marys and Panorama. Before 1949 and the creation of the Division of Sturt, Boothby covered most of the southern and eastern suburbs of Adelaide, changed hands several times between the Liberal Party of Australia and the Australian Labor Party; the 1949 expansion of parliament saw parts of the southern portion transferred to the newly created Division of Kingston and parts of the eastern portion transferred to the newly created Sturt.
This saw Boothby change from a marginal Labor seat on a 1.8 percent two-party margin to a marginal Liberal seat on a two percent two-party margin. However, as part of the massive Liberal victory in the 1949 election, the Liberals picked up a 9.3 percent two-party swing, turning it into a safe Liberal seat in one stroke. The Liberals have held the seat since, for most of that time it has been safe to safe for that party. There was only one substantial redistribution in the past few decades, when Boothby absorbed parts of the abolished Division of Hawker prior to the 1993 election; this cut the Liberal margin by more than half, from a safe 10.7 two-party margin to a marginal notional 4.5 percent two-party margin. However, the Liberals won the seat on a safe 7.8 percent two-party margin. Today Boothby extends from Belair in the east to Brighton and Seacliff in the west. Boothby's most prominent members were Sir John McLeay, Speaker 1956-66, his son John, Jr. a minister in the Fraser government, former state premier Steele Hall.
Hall retired before at the 1996 election and the seat was held from 1996-2016 by Andrew Southcott. At the 2004 election, despite a solid national two-party swing and vote to the Liberals, Boothby became a marginal Liberal seat for the first time in over half a century, with Labor's Chloë Fox reducing the Liberal margin to 5.4 percent as incumbent Andrew Southcott narrowly won enough primary votes to retain the seat without the need for preferences. Labor's Nicole Cornes reduced Southcott's margin further to 2.9 percent at the 2007 election. At the 2010 election Labor's Annabel Digance came within 638 votes of ending the long Liberal run in the seat. At 0.75 percent Boothby was the most marginal seat in South Australia. However, Boothby became a safe Liberal seat again at the 2013 election. In 2015, Southcott announced his retirement from parliament to take effect at the 2016 federal election; the Liberals preselected newspaper columnist Nicolle Flint. Labor preselected 2015 Davenport state by-election candidate Mark Ward.
The Nick Xenophon Team announced Mitcham councillor Karen Hockley as their candidate. ABC psephologist Antony Green's 2016 federal election guide for South Australia stated NXT had a "strong chance of winning lower house seats and three or four Senate seats". Flint won the contest. Australian federal election, 2016 Results of the Australian federal election, 2016 ABC profile for Boothby: 2016 Poll Bludger profile for Boothby: 2016 AEC profile for Boothby: 2016 SA boundary map, 2001: AEC SA boundary map, 1984: Atlas SA
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories