Computing platform means in general sense, where any piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the system, even a web browser or other application. The term computing platform can refer to different abstraction levels, including a hardware architecture, an operating system. In total it can be said to be the stage on which programs can run. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware, platforms may include, Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS, this is referred to as running on bare metal, a browser in the case of web-based software. The browser itself runs on a platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser. An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in a scripting language. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform, software frameworks that provide ready-made functionality.
Cloud computing and Platform as a Service, the social networking sites Twitter and facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine, applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, which is executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a system, including virtualized hardware, OS, software. These allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on what is physically a Mac, some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it. In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer immediately beneath it, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS
Wargame (video games)
Wargames are a subgenre of strategy video games that emphasize strategic or tactical warfare on a map, as well as historical accuracy. The genre of video games is derived from earlier forms of wargames. The games thematically represent the hobby, although they tend to be less realistic in order to increase accessibility for more casual players. The amount of realism varies between games as game designers balance an accurate simulation with playability, the computer gaming industry generally evolved with minimal reference to board games, so the term wargame is not traditionally used in the context of computer games. In February 1980 Strategic Simulations, Inc. was the first to sell a serious, professionally packaged computer wargame and it and Strategic Studies Group were computer game companies that continued the genre by specializing in games that borrowed from board and miniature wargames. The companies enjoyed a certain popularity throughout much of the 1980s, talonSoft started in 1995 with a similar focus, until purchased and closed down by Take-Two Interactive in 2002.
The popular direction of the current market is towards real-time strategy games exemplified by StarCraft and these games are strategic in the gaming sense, but tactical in the military sense. These are generally high-action games that include a number of conveniences that enhance gameplay, the primary gameplay mode in a wargame is usually tactical, fighting battles. Wargames sometimes have a mode where players may plan their battle or choose an area to conquer. Because it is difficult to provide an intelligent way to delegate tasks to a subordinate, units are usually scaled to be disproportionately large compared to the landscape, in order to promote effective gameplay. These games usually use a faster time line than reality. Many contemporary computer strategy games can be considered wargames, in the sense that they are a simulation of warfare on some level, the mechanics and language have little in common with board and miniature games, but the general subject matter is popular and provides a thematic link.
Tabletop wargames are usually categorized according to the scale of the confrontation, the qualifiers real-time and turn-based are not taken into account as all tabletop wargames are, by necessity, turn-based. However, sometimes video wargames are described according to the scale of conflict, while it has been argued that computer wargame video games lack the realism of traditional games, they may include features that are impractical for tangible games. One such approach is using fog of war, whereby players are unable to see the landscape beyond the simulating viewing distance of their units. This is made practical in digital games by the difference of competing against artificial intelligence or remote competitors with their own view of the playing field. Computer Bismarck - - generally credited as the first serious computer war-game, eastern Front - Called the first war game that competed with pencil-and-paper games and one of the best selling programs on the Atari 8-bit family. Introduced scrolling maps, pondering AI, supply considerations, panzer General - - recognizably a traditional wargame next to Close Combat
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery.
Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer.
He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands
Microsoft Windows is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed and sold by Microsoft. It consists of families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible architecture. Active Windows families include Windows NT, Windows Embedded and Windows Phone, defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows 10 Mobile is an active product, unrelated to the defunct family Windows Mobile. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20,1985, Microsoft Windows came to dominate the worlds personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system, however, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold and this comparison however may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. As of September 2016, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, smartphones, the most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2016. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One game console, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released almost at the time and share the same kernel. Windows, The operating system for personal computers, tablets. The latest version is Windows 10, the main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple Inc. for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server, The operating system for server computers, the latest version is Windows Server 2016.
Unlike its clients sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme, the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE, A lightweight version of its Windows sibling meant to operate as an operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers. The latest version is Windows PE10.0.10586.0, Windows Embedded, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device that was too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. The following Windows families are no longer being developed, Windows 9x, Microsoft now caters to the consumers market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile, The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile operating system
Matrix Games is a publisher of computer games, specifically strategy games and wargames. They are based out of Epsom, Surrey with subsidiary offices in Arlington, Milan and Edmonton, Matrix Games/Slitherine own and financially support the online game reviewing publication The Wargamer. Their focus is primarily but not exclusively on war games and turn-based strategy, the product line-up includes space sims, sports management sims, and real-time strategy titles. Matrix Games publishes games from a variety of developers, including SSG, 2by3 Games, Panther Games, Koios Works, Destroyer Studios, Western-Civilization, Matrix Games was founded by David Heath in 1999 in Staten Island, New York. As of January 2010, Matrix Games has published over 75+ titles, Matrix has in-house artists and producers which all take active roles in projects of smaller wargame developers who lack the resources to hire full-time staff otherwise. In May 2010 Matrix Games and Slitherine announced a merger of the two companies making it the largest wargaming specialist publisher, Matrix Games pioneered the move into digital delivery, minimising costs to customers and providing them with an interactive environment.
We’re gamers first and we take our love of games, the result has been a tremendous success. Walkers Lock n Load, Heroes of Stalingrad Official site Matrix Games at MobyGames
A turn-based strategy game is a strategy game where players take turns when playing. This is distinguished from real time strategy where all players play simultaneously, many board games are turn based. For example, chess is one of the oldest and most competitive games of its kind, but many other games such as Reversi, Hare games and Go are turn based. Tactical role-playing games are a part of this genre, examples include Fire Emblem, The Battle for Wesnoth, Silent Storm, Steel Panthers, World at War. Kings Bounty, Great Big War Game, Nintendo Wars, UniWar, XCOM2, after a period of converting board and historic TBS games to computer games, companies began basing computer turn-based strategy games on completely original properties or concepts. The presence of a computer to calculate and arbitrate allows game complexity which is not feasible in a board game. Some well known turn-based strategy games are Sid Meiers Civilization series, Heroes of Might and Magic series, Panzer General series, a further market trend is the rise of Indie TBS games.
These games often extend or refine already existing TBS strategy games, examples include Freeciv or Golden Age of Civilizations. Since turn-based strategy games do not typically require vast amounts of art or modeling, directories like Freecode provide large lists of open-source, turn-based strategy projects. Because they do not require users to install files and are often free, all that they require is any device with a web browser and Internet connection. Many will work just as well on a smartphone as they do on a desktop computer, chronology of turn-based strategy video games Time-keeping systems in games