Free and open-source software
Free and open-source software is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software. That is, anyone is licensed to use, copy and change the software in any way, the source code is shared so that people are encouraged to voluntarily improve the design of the software; this is in contrast to proprietary software, where the software is under restrictive copyright licensing and the source code is hidden from the users. FOSS maintains the software user's civil liberty rights. Other benefits of using FOSS can include decreased software costs, increased security and stability, protecting privacy and giving users more control over their own hardware. Free and open-source operating systems such as Linux and descendants of BSD are utilized today, powering millions of servers, desktops and other devices. Free-software licenses and open-source licenses are used by many software packages; the free-software movement and the open-source software movement are online social movements behind widespread production and adoption of FOSS.
"Free and open-source software" is an umbrella term for software, considered both Free software and open-source software. FOSS allows the user to inspect the source code and provides a high level of control of the software's functions compared to proprietary software; the term "free software" does not refer to the monetary cost of the software at all, but rather whether the license maintains the software user's civil liberties. There are a number of related terms and abbreviations for free and open-source software, or free/libre and open-source software. Although there is a complete overlap between free-software licenses and open-source-software licenses, there is a strong philosophical disagreement between the advocates of these two positions; the terminology of FOSS or "Free and Open-source software" was created to be a neutral on these philosophical disagreements between the FSF and OSI and have a single unified term that could refer to both concepts. As the Free Software Foundation explains the philosophical difference between free software and open-source software: "The two terms describe the same category of software, but they stand for views based on fundamentally different values.
Open-source is a development methodology. For the free-software movement, free software is an ethical imperative, essential respect for the users' freedom. By contrast, the philosophy of open-source considers issues in terms of how to make software “better”—in a practical sense only." In parallel to this the Open Source Initiative considers many free-software licenses to be open source. These include the latest versions of the FSF's three main licenses: the GPL, the Lesser General Public License, the GNU Affero General Public License. Richard Stallman's Free Software Definition, adopted by the Free Software Foundation, defines free software as a matter of liberty not price, it upholds the Four Essential Freedoms; the earliest-known publication of the definition of his free-software idea was in the February 1986 edition of the FSF's now-discontinued GNU's Bulletin publication. The canonical source for the document is in the philosophy section of the GNU Project website; as of August 2017, it is published there in 40 languages.
To meet the definition of "free software", the FSF requires the software's licensing rights what the FSF respect the civil liberties / human rights of what the FSF calls the software user's "Four Essential Freedoms". The freedom to run the program as you wish, for any purpose; the freedom to study how the program works, change it so it does your computing as you wish. Access to the source code is a precondition for this; the freedom to redistribute copies. The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others. By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this; the open-source-software definition is used by the Open Source Initiative to determine whether a software license qualifies for the organization's insignia for Open-source software. The definition was based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines and adapted by Bruce Perens. Perens did not base his writing on the Four Essential Freedoms of free software from the Free Software Foundation, which were only available on the web.
Perens subsequently stated that he felt Eric Raymond's promotion of Open-source unfairly overshadowed the Free Software Foundation's efforts and reaffirmed his support for Free software. In the following 2000s, he spoke about open source again. In the 1950s through the 1980s, it was common for computer users to have the source code for all programs they used, the permission and ability to modify it for their own use. Software, including source code, was shared by individuals who used computers as public domain software. Most companies had a business model based on hardware sales, provided or bundled software with hardware, free of charge. By the late 1960s, the prevailing business model around software was changing. A growing and evolving software industry was competing with the hardware manufacturer's bundled software products. Leased machines required software support while providing n
GitHub is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git. It is used for computer code, it offers all of the distributed version control and source code management functionality of Git as well as adding its own features. It provides access control and several collaboration features such as bug tracking, feature requests, task management, wikis for every project. GitHub offers plans for enterprise, team and free accounts which are used to host open-source software projects; as of January 2019, GitHub offers unlimited private repositories to all plans, including free accounts. As of June 2018, GitHub reports having over 28 million users and 57 million repositories, making it the largest host of source code in the world. GitHub was developed by Chris Wanstrath, P. J. Hyett, Tom Preston-Werner and Scott Chacon using Ruby on Rails, started in February 2008; the company, GitHub, Inc. is located in San Francisco. On February 24, 2009, GitHub team members announced, in a talk at Yahoo! headquarters, that within the first year of being online, GitHub had accumulated over 46,000 public repositories, 17,000 of which were formed in the previous month alone.
At that time, about 6,200 repositories had been forked at least. On July 5, 2009, GitHub announced. On July 27, 2009, in another talk delivered at Yahoo!, Preston-Werner announced that GitHub had grown to host 90,000 unique public repositories, 12,000 having been forked at least once, for a total of 135,000 repositories. On July 25, 2010, GitHub announced. On April 20, 2011, GitHub announced. On June 2, 2011, ReadWriteWeb reported that GitHub had surpassed SourceForge and Google Code in total number of commits for the period of January to May 2011. On July 9, 2012, Peter Levine, general partner at GitHub investor Andreessen Horowitz, stated that GitHub had been growing revenue at 300% annually since 2008 "profitably nearly the entire way". On January 16, 2013, GitHub announced it had passed the 3 million users mark and was hosting more than 5 million repositories. On December 23, 2013, GitHub announced. In June 2015, GitHub opened an office in Japan, its first office outside of the U. S. On July 29, 2015, GitHub announced it had raised $250 million in funding in a round led by Sequoia Capital.
The round valued the company at $2 billion. In 2016, GitHub was ranked No. 14 on the Forbes Cloud 100 list. On February 28, 2018, GitHub fell victim to the second largest distributed denial-of-service attack in history, with incoming traffic reaching a peak of about 1.35 terabits per second. On June 4, 2018, Microsoft announced it had reached an agreement to acquire GitHub for US$7.5 billion. The purchase closed on October 26, 2018. On June 19, 2018, GitHub expanded its GitHub Education by offering free education bundles to all schools. On June 4, 2018, Microsoft announced its intent to acquire GitHub for US$7.5 billion, the deal closed on Oct. 26, 2018. GitHub will continue to operate independently as a community and business. Under Microsoft, the service will be led by Xamarin's Nat Friedman, reporting to Scott Guthrie, executive vice president of Microsoft Cloud and AI. Current CEO Chris Wanstrath will be retained as a "technical fellow" reporting to Guthrie. Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, Visual Studio Code, has backed other open source projects such as Linux, developed Git Virtual File System—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories.
GitHub, Inc. was a flat organization with no middle managers. Employees can choose to work on projects. However, salaries are set by the chief executive. In 2014, GitHub, Inc. introduced a layer of middle management. GitHub.com was a start-up business, which in its first years provided enough revenue to be funded by its three founders and start taking on employees. In July 2012, four years after the company was founded, Andreessen Horowitz invested $100 million in venture capital. In July 2015 GitHub raised another $250 million of venture capital in a series B round. Investors were Andreessen Horowitz, Thrive Capital and other venture capital funds; as of August 2016, GitHub was making $140 million in Annual Recurring Revenue. GitHub's m
Copyright is a legal right, existing in many countries, that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine whether, under what conditions, this original work may be used by others. This is only for a limited time. Copyright is one of two types of intellectual property rights, the other is industrial property rights; the exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright on ideas is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, not the underlying ideas themselves. Copyright is applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require "fixing" copyrighted works in a tangible form, it is shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, who are referred to as rights holders. These rights include reproduction, control over derivative works, public performance, moral rights such as attribution. Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered "territorial rights".
This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state, do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Copyright is enforced as a civil matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions. Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing "fair" exceptions to the creator's exclusivity of copyright and giving users certain rights; the development of digital media and computer network technologies have prompted reinterpretation of these exceptions, introduced new difficulties in enforcing copyright, inspired additional challenges to the philosophical basis of copyright law. Businesses with great economic dependence upon copyright, such as those in the music business, have advocated the extension and expansion of copyright and sought additional legal and technological enforcement.
Copyright licenses can be granted by those deputized by the original claimant, private companies may request this as a condition of doing business with them. Services of internet platform providers like YouTube, GitHub, DropBox, WhatsApp or Twitter only can be used when users grant the platform provider beforehand the right to co-use all uploaded content, including all material exchanged per email, chat or cloud-storage; these copyrights only apply for the firm that operates such a platform, no matter in what jurisdiction the platform-services are being offered. Private companies in general do not recognize exceptions or give users more rights than the right to use the platform according certain rules. Copyright came about with wider literacy; as a legal concept, its origins in Britain were from a reaction to printers' monopolies at the beginning of the 18th century. The English Parliament was concerned about the unregulated copying of books and passed the Licensing of the Press Act 1662, which established a register of licensed books and required a copy to be deposited with the Stationers' Company continuing the licensing of material that had long been in effect.
Copyright laws allow products of creative human activities, such as literary and artistic production, to be preferentially exploited and thus incentivized. Different cultural attitudes, social organizations, economic models and legal frameworks are seen to account for why copyright emerged in Europe and not, for example, in Asia. In the Middle Ages in Europe, there was a lack of any concept of literary property due to the general relations of production, the specific organization of literary production and the role of culture in society; the latter refers to the tendency of oral societies, such as that of Europe in the medieval period, to view knowledge as the product and expression of the collective, rather than to see it as individual property. However, with copyright laws, intellectual production comes to be seen as a product of an individual, with attendant rights; the most significant point is that patent and copyright laws support the expansion of the range of creative human activities that can be commodified.
This parallels the ways in which capitalism led to the commodification of many aspects of social life that earlier had no monetary or economic value per se. Copyright has grown from a legal concept regulating copying rights in the publishing of books and maps to one with a significant effect on nearly every modern industry, covering such items as sound recordings, photographs and architectural works. Seen as the first real copyright law, the 1709 British Statute of Anne gave the publishers rights for a fixed period, after which the copyright expired; the act alluded to individual rights of the artist. It began, "Whereas Printers and other Persons, have of late taken the Liberty of Printing... Books, other Writings, without the Consent of the Authors... to their great Detriment, too to the Ruin of them and their Families:". A right to benefit financially from the work is articulated, court rulings and legislation have recognized a right to control the work, such as ensuring that the integrity of it is preserved.
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose Unix-to-Unix Copy dial-up network architecture. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979, it was established in 1980. Users post messages to one or more categories, known as newsgroups. Usenet resembles a bulletin board system in many respects and is the precursor to Internet forums that are used today. Discussions are threaded, as with web forums and BBSs, though posts are stored on the server sequentially; the name comes from the term "users network". A major difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator. Usenet is distributed among a large changing conglomeration of servers that store and forward messages to one another in so-called news feeds. Individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server operated by a commercial usenet provider, their Internet service provider, employer, or their own server.
Usenet is culturally significant in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many recognized concepts and terms such as "FAQ", "flame", "spam". Usenet was conceived in 1979 and publicly established in 1980, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, over a decade before the World Wide Web went online and the general public received access to the Internet, making it one of the oldest computer network communications systems still in widespread use, it was built on the "poor man's ARPANET", employing UUCP as its transport protocol to offer mail and file transfers, as well as announcements through the newly developed news software such as A News. The name Usenet emphasized its creators' hope that the USENIX organization would take an active role in its operation; the articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories known as newsgroups, which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects. For instance, sci.math and sci.physics are within the sci.* hierarchy, for science.
Or, talk.origins and talk.atheism are in the talk.* hierarchy. When a user subscribes to a newsgroup, the news client software keeps track of which articles that user has read. In most newsgroups, the majority of the articles are responses to some other article; the set of articles that can be traced to one single non-reply article is called a thread. Most modern newsreaders display the articles arranged into subthreads; when a user posts an article, it is only available on that user's news server. Each news server talks to one or more other exchanges articles with them. In this fashion, the article is copied from server to server and should reach every server in the network; the peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle, but for Usenet it is the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers. Usenet was designed under conditions when networks were not always available. Many sites on the original Usenet network would connect only once or twice a day to batch-transfer messages in and out.
This is because the POTS network was used for transfers, phone charges were lower at night. The format and transmission of Usenet articles is similar to that of Internet e-mail messages; the difference between the two is that Usenet articles can be read by any user whose news server carries the group to which the message was posted, as opposed to email messages, which have one or more specific recipients. Today, Usenet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums, mailing lists and social media. Usenet differs from such media in several ways: Usenet requires no personal registration with the group concerned; the groups in alt.binaries are still used for data transfer. Many Internet service providers, many other Internet sites, operate news servers for their users to access. ISPs that do not operate their own servers directly will offer their users an account from another provider that operates newsfeeds. In early news implementations, the server and newsreader were a single program suite, running on the same system.
Today, one uses separate newsreader client software, a program that resembles an email client but accesses Usenet servers instead. Some clients such as Mozilla Thunderbird and Outlook Express provide both abilities. Not all ISPs run news servers. A news server is one of the most difficult Internet services to administer because of the large amount of data involved, small customer base, a disproportionately high volume of customer support incidents; some ISPs outsource news operation to specialist sites, which will appear to a user as though the ISP ran the server itself. Many sites carry a restricted newsfeed, with a limited number of newsgroups. Omitted from such a newsfeed are foreign-language newsgroups and the alt.binaries hierarchy which carries software, music and images, accounts for over 99 percent of article data. There are Usenet providers that specialize in offering service to users whose ISPs do not carry news, or that carry a restricted feed. See news server operation for an overview of how news systems are implemented.
Newsgroups are accessed with newsreaders: applications that allow users to read and reply to postings in newsgro
A command-line interface or command language interpreter known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface, is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text. A program which handles the interface is called shell; the CLI was the primary means of interaction with most computer systems on computer terminals in the mid-1960s, continued to be used throughout the 1970s and 1980s on OpenVMS, Unix systems and personal computer systems including MS-DOS, CP/M and Apple DOS. The interface is implemented with a command line shell, a program that accepts commands as text input and converts commands into appropriate operating system functions. Today, many end users if use command-line interfaces and instead rely upon graphical user interfaces and menu-driven interactions. However, many software developers, system administrators and advanced users still rely on command-line interfaces to perform tasks more efficiently, configure their machine, or access programs and program features that are not available through a graphical interface.
Alternatives to the command line include, but are not limited to text user interface menus, keyboard shortcuts, various other desktop metaphors centered on the pointer. Examples of this include the Windows versions 1, 2, 3, 3.1, 3.11, DosShell, Mouse Systems PowerPanel. Programs with command-line interfaces are easier to automate via scripting. Command-line interfaces for software other than operating systems include a number of programming languages such as Tcl/Tk, PHP, others, as well as utilities such as the compression utility WinZip, some FTP and SSH/Telnet clients. Compared with a graphical user interface, a command line requires fewer system resources to implement. Since options to commands are given in a few characters in each command line, an experienced user finds the options easier to access. Automation of repetitive tasks is simplified - most operating systems using a command line interface support some mechanism for storing used sequences in a disk file, for re-use. A command-line history can be kept, allowing repetition of commands.
A command-line system may require paper or online manuals for the user's reference, although a "help" option provides a concise review of the options of a command. The command-line environment may not provide the graphical enhancements such as different fonts or extended edit windows found in a GUI, it may be difficult for a new user to become familiar with all the commands and options available, compared with the drop-down menus of a graphical user interface, without repeated reference to manuals. Operating system command line interfaces are distinct programs supplied with the operating system. A program that implements such a text interface is called a command-line interpreter, command processor or shell. Examples of command-line interpreters include DEC's DIGITAL Command Language in OpenVMS and RSX-11, the various Unix shells, CP/M's CCP, DOS's COMMAND. COM, as well as the OS/2 and the Windows CMD. EXE programs, the latter groups being based on DEC's RSX-11 and RSTS CLIs. Under most operating systems, it is possible to replace the default shell program with alternatives.
Although the term'shell' is used to describe a command-line interpreter speaking a'shell' can be any program that constitutes the user-interface, including graphically oriented ones. For example, the default Windows GUI is a shell program named EXPLORER. EXE, as defined in the SHELL=EXPLORER. EXE line in the WIN. INI configuration file; these programs are shells, but not CLIs. Application programs may have command line interfaces. An application program may support none, any, or all of these three major types of command line interface mechanisms: Parameters: Most operating systems support a means to pass additional information to a program when it is launched; when a program is launched from an OS command line shell, additional text provided along with the program name is passed to the launched program. Interactive command line sessions: After launch, a program may provide an operator with an independent means to enter commands in the form of text. OS inter-process communication: Most operating systems support means of inter-process communication.
Command lines from client processes may be redirected to a CLI program by one of these methods. Some applications support only a CLI, presenting a CLI prompt to the user and acting upon command lines as they are entered. Other programs support both a CLI and a GUI. In some cases, a GUI is a wrapper around a separate CLI executable file. In other cases, a program may provide a CLI as an optional alternative to its GUI. CLIs and GUIs support different functionality. For example, all features of MATLAB, a numerical analysis computer program, are available via the CLI, whereas the MATLAB GUI exposes only a subset of features; the early Sierra games, such as the first three King's Quest games, used commands from an internal command line to move the character around in the graphic window. The command-line interface evolved from a form of dialog once conducted by humans over teleprinter machines, in which human operators remotely exchanged inf
Berkeley Software Distribution
The Berkeley Software Distribution was an operating system based on Research Unix and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group at the University of California, Berkeley. Today, "BSD" refers to its descendants, such as FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, or DragonFly BSD. BSD was called Berkeley Unix because it was based on the source code of the original Unix developed at Bell Labs. In the 1980s, BSD was adopted by workstation vendors in the form of proprietary Unix variants such as DEC Ultrix and Sun Microsystems SunOS due to its permissive licensing and familiarity to many technology company founders and engineers. Although these proprietary BSD derivatives were superseded in the 1990s by UNIX SVR4 and OSF/1 releases provided the basis for several open-source operating systems including FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, DragonFly BSD, TrueOS. These, in turn, have been used by proprietary operating systems, including Apple's macOS and iOS, which derived from them, Microsoft Windows, which used a part of its TCP/IP code.
The earliest distributions of Unix from Bell Labs in the 1970s included the source code to the operating system, allowing researchers at universities to modify and extend Unix. The operating system arrived at Berkeley in 1974, at the request of computer science professor Bob Fabry, on the program committee for the Symposium on Operating Systems Principles where Unix was first presented. A PDP-11/45 was bought to run the system, but for budgetary reasons, this machine was shared with the mathematics and statistics groups at Berkeley, who used RSTS, so that Unix only ran on the machine eight hours per day. A larger PDP-11/70 was installed at Berkeley the following year, using money from the Ingres database project. In 1975, Ken Thompson came to Berkeley as a visiting professor, he started working on a Pascal implementation for the system. Graduate students Chuck Haley and Bill Joy improved Thompson's Pascal and implemented an improved text editor, ex. Other universities became interested in the software at Berkeley, so in 1977 Joy started compiling the first Berkeley Software Distribution, released on March 9, 1978.
1BSD was an add-on to Version 6 Unix rather than a complete operating system in its own right. Some thirty copies were sent out; the second Berkeley Software Distribution, released in May 1979, included updated versions of the 1BSD software as well as two new programs by Joy that persist on Unix systems to this day: the vi text editor and the C shell. Some 75 copies of 2BSD were sent out by Bill Joy. A VAX computer was installed at Berkeley in 1978, but the port of Unix to the VAX architecture, UNIX/32V, did not take advantage of the VAX's virtual memory capabilities; the kernel of 32V was rewritten by Berkeley students to include a virtual memory implementation, a complete operating system including the new kernel, ports of the 2BSD utilities to the VAX, the utilities from 32V was released as 3BSD at the end of 1979. 3BSD was alternatively called Virtual VAX/UNIX or VMUNIX, BSD kernel images were called /vmunix until 4.4BSD. After 4.3BSD was released in June 1986, it was determined that BSD would move away from the aging VAX platform.
The Power 6/32 platform developed by Computer Consoles Inc. seemed promising at the time, but was abandoned by its developers shortly thereafter. Nonetheless, the 4.3BSD-Tahoe port proved valuable, as it led to a separation of machine-dependent and machine-independent code in BSD which would improve the system's future portability. In addition to portability, the CSRG worked on an implementation of the OSI network protocol stack, improvements to the kernel virtual memory system and new TCP/IP algorithms to accommodate the growth of the Internet; until all versions of BSD used proprietary AT&T Unix code, were therefore subject to an AT&T software license. Source code licenses had become expensive and several outside parties had expressed interest in a separate release of the networking code, developed outside AT&T and would not be subject to the licensing requirement; this led to Networking Release 1, made available to non-licensees of AT&T code and was redistributable under the terms of the BSD license.
It was released in June 1989. After Net/1, BSD developer Keith Bostic proposed that more non-AT&T sections of the BSD system be released under the same license as Net/1. To this end, he started a project to reimplement most of the standard Unix utilities without using the AT&T code. Within eighteen months, all of the AT&T utilities had been replaced, it was determined that only a few AT&T files remained in the kernel; these files were removed, the result was the June 1991 release of Networking Release 2, a nearly complete operating system, distributable. Net/2 was the basis for two separate ports of BSD to the Intel 80386 architecture: the free 386BSD by William Jolitz and the proprietary BSD/386 by Berkeley Software Design. 386BSD itself was short-lived, but became the initial code base of the NetBSD and FreeBSD projects that were started shortly thereafter. BSDi soon found itself in legal trouble with AT&T's Unix System Laboratories subsidiary the owners of the System V copyright and the Unix trademark.
The USL v. BSDi lawsuit was filed in 1992 and led to an injunction on the distribution of Net/2 until the validity of USL's copyright claims on the source could be determined; the lawsuit slowed development of the free-